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Paul8Sunday 24th of October 2004 10:03:40 PM
Farsi Lessons - سلام دوستها(hello friends)
first pronunciation
a is cAt
aa is fAther
b is Boy
p is Pay
t is Toy (one of two T's)
s is Sad (one of three S's)
j is Jim
c is CHeese
H is Hello(but more like a sigh(use more air)one of two h's)
x is loCH(not like the ch in CHeese bot more like German ch)
d is Dumb (one of two D's)
z is Zebra (one of four z's)
r is rain (trilled or rolled like spanish r)
z is Zebra (second of four Z's)
zh is pleaSure
s is Sad (second of three S's)
sh is SHow (will show seperation with ! ex: sh!asavan)
s is Sad (three of three S's)
z is Zebra (three of four Z's)
t is Toy (second of two T's)
z is Zebra (fourth of four Z's)
' is apple (it is a glottal stop hard to describe)
gh is 'gh' (is similar to soft parisian french r)
f is Fun
q is 'q' (similar to gh and ' mixed)
k is mocK
g is Good
l is Lame
m is Man
n is None
v is Very
w is Wow
u is mOOn
h is Hello (second of two H's)
y is Yellow
i is chEEse
-- vowels(usually not written)
a like dAd
e like mEn
o like pOst office

I'll begin by introducing the Farsi alphabet
(written with arabic script from right to left each charcter has a different position for wher it is in the word
initial character medial charcter fianl character or independent charcter. some charcters only have independent and final:alef dal zal ra za zh!eh vaav)
alef اـا
beببب ب
peپپپ پ
teتتت ت
seثثث ث
jimججج ج
ceچچچ چ
Heححح ح
xeخخخ خ
dalدـد
zalذـذ
reرـر
zeزـز
zh!eژـژ
sinسسس س
sh!inششش ش
sadصصص ص
zadضضض ض
taططط ط
zaظظظ ظ
'einععع ع
gh!einغغغ غ
feففف ف
qaafققق ق
kaafككك ك
gaafگگگ گ
laamللل ل
mimممم م
nunننن ن
vaavوـو
heههه ه
yeييي ي

Peter fra LAMonday 25th of October 2004 01:04:27 AM
Thank you - Thank you for taking the time to teach Farsi(Parsi) to everyone. We need more people like you to make this the place we all want it to be!


persianTuesday 26th of October 2004 11:03:09 AM
Farsi - Hello, I am a new member, I speak Farsi and English. Currently living in US, IL, I'll be happy to answer questions regarding Farsi. However, since I am really bz it may take a while before I can reply.

Tnx,
Paul8Sunday 07th of November 2004 08:10:20 AM
Just some words to b - I'm just gonna make a list of some words that you should now when speaking Farsi. (there will be no words in farsi script until the next post because m keyboard is currently working correctly)

I man (mim-(a is in cAt)- nun)
you to (te-vav)
he/she u (alef-vav(when there is an alef-vav or an alef-ye as the fisrt wo charcaters of a word tey are pronounced u and i, respectively))
(there is no distinction between male and female in any words excpt those directly related to people, such as aunt and uncle(there are two aunts and two uncles; one for each parent. Ex: your fathers sister is one word and your motherssister is another word(I dont't remember them at the moment but I will post them later)))
we ma (mim-alef)
you(plural or singular-polite)sh-omaa (shin-'o as in pOpe'- mim-alef)
they anha (alef madda - nun - he - alef)

those are just some basic pronouns
I won't get into verbs until later because even though all forms are regular and easy to remember the present stems of verbs are completely irregular and must be rembered and tend to get confusing because they are versy similar.
I'll give you some adjectives

big bozorg (be - 'o as in pOpe' - zaa - 'o as in pOpe' - raa - gaaf)
small kuch-ek (kaaf- vav - che - 'e as in mEts' - kaaf)
pretty zibaa (zaa - ye - be - alef)
ugly zesh-t (zaa - 'e as in mEts'- shin - te)

and the third person of 'to be' is ast so here's a simple sentence:

u zibaa ast.

she is pretty.

u zesh-t ast.

he is ugly
(don't forget u is bot he and she)

now I'll show you one in the fisrt person

man bozorg-am.
man bozorg mi baash-am.
man bozorg hast-am.

the confusing part of the above three sentences is that they all mean the exact same thing. they all say "I am big"
man = I or me
bozorg = big
-am, my baash-am, and hastam = am

there are three verions of "to be" this is because it is a cmmonly used verb and in some casses keeps you from sounding repetitive or stupid for only knowing how to say one version of "to be"
example(this will be explane MUCH later)
aan mard-i ke dust-e pedar-am ast bozorg ast.
notice ^ ^

this can be said so that it sounds better ex:
aan mard-i ke dust-e pedar-am ast bozorg mi baash-ad.

notie the difference
this sentence means "that man, who is my dad's friend, is big"

this isn't very much so I will expand this in the next post and write everyhing thats in persian in this post in the next one
Paul8Tuesday 16th of November 2004 05:10:58 AM
Previous lesson with farsi script - sorry about the lateness but here's the previous lesson with the farsi script

I'm just gonna make a list of some words that you should now when speaking Farsi.

I man مَن(mim-(a is in cAt)- nun)
you to تو(te-vav)
he/she u او(alef-vav(when there is an alef-vav or an alef-ye as the fisrt wo charcaters of a word tey are pronounced u and i, respectively))
(there is no distinction between male and female in any words excpt those directly related to people, such as aunt and uncle(there are two aunts and two uncles; one for each parent. Ex: your fathers sister is one word and your mothers sister is another word(I dont't remember them at the moment but I will post them later)))
we ma ما(mim-alef)
you(plural or singular-polite)sh-omaa شُما(shin-'o as in pOpe'- mim-alef)
they anha آنها(alef madda - nun - he - alef)

those are just some basic pronouns
I won't get into verbs until later because even though all forms are regular and easy to remember the present stems of verbs are completely irregular and must be rembered and tend to get confusing because they are versy similar.
I'll give you some adjectives

big bozorg بُزُرگ(be - 'o as in pOpe' - zaa - 'o as in pOpe' - raa - gaaf)
small kuch-ek كوچِك(kaaf- vav - che - 'e as in mEts' - kaaf)
pretty zibaa ريبا(zaa - ye - be - alef)
ugly zesh-t زِشت(zaa - 'e as in mEts'- shin - te)

and the third person of 'to be' is ast اَست so here's a simple sentence:

u zibaa ast. او زيبا اَست

she is pretty.

u zesh-t ast.او رِست اَست

he is ugly
(don't forget u is bot he and she)

now I'll show you one in the fisrt person

man bozorg-am.مَن بُزُرگَم
man bozorg mi baash-am.مَن بُزُرگ مى باشَم
man bozorg hastam.مَن بُزُرگ هَستَم

the confusing part of the above three sentences is that they all mean the exact same thing. they all say "I am big"
man = I or me
bozorg = big
-am, my baash-am, and hastam = am

there are three verions of "to be" this is because it is a cmmonly used verb and in some casses keeps you from sounding repetitive or stupid for only knowing how to say one version of "to be"
example(this will be explane MUCH later)
آن مَردى كِه دوستِ پِدَرَم اَست بُزُرگ اَست
aan mard-i ke dust-e pedar-am ast bozorg ast.
notice ........................^ ........^
...............................|.........|
this can be said so that it sounds better ex:
aan mard-i ke dust-e pedar-am ast bozorg mi baash-ad.
آن مَردى كِه دوستِ پِدَرَم اَست بُزُرگ مى باشَد

notie the difference
this sentence means "that man, who is my dad's friend, is big"

NOTE: In persian writing and print the vowels are never written except for learning purposes such as to learn the pronunciation or in a children's book.

Paul8Wednesday 17th of November 2004 07:31:19 AM
- this is just some vocabulary for now I will explain the ezaafe (basically like the english "of" but a little more complicated and takes a lot of explaning)

gol flower گًل
daraxt tree دَرَخت
ch-esh-m eye چِشم
gush ear گوش
ketaab book كِتاب
maash-in car ماشين
ch-eragh lamp چِراغ
ja place جا
in this اين
aan that آن
pesar boy; son پِسَر
doxtar girl; daughter دوختَر
pedar father پِدَر
maadar mother مادَر
telefon telephone تِلِفُن
miz table; desk ميز
dar door دَر
televiziyon television تِلِويزيون
hotel hotel هُتِل
baank bank بانك
sh-abnam Shabnam (girl's name) شَبنَم
reza Reza (boy's name) رِظا
salaam hello (person beginning a conversation) سِلام
salaam 'alaykom hello (the other person) سَلام عَلَيكُم
haal condition; health حال
sh-oma you (pl. or sing., polite) شُما
haal-e sh-oma your health حالِ شُما
ch-e-towr how (question word) چِطُور
ast is اَست
bad bad بَد
nist-am I am not نيستَم
motash-akker thankful مُتِشِكِّر
motash-akker-am thank you مُتَشَكِّرَم
man I مَن
ham also; too هَم
xub good خوب
xub-am I am fine (lit., I am good) خوبَم
mérsi thank you مِرسى
xodaa God خُدا
haafez protector حافِظ
xodaa haafez bye (said by the person leaving) خُدا حافِظ
be-salaamat goodbye (said by the person staying) بِسَلامَت

Paul8Saturday 11th of December 2004 07:16:40 AM
- sorry for taking so long to put another post but here's the next one.

This is just going to be some sentences. See if you can understand them. post the answers.

سلام دوستها ي من
هين گل زيبا است
اسم پدر من پابلو است

I know it's not a lot but i figured I couldn't just leave you guys for another week without anything.
Paul8Wednesday 22nd of December 2004 04:21:35 AM
SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE - (hint: if you can't see the farsi script too good try making the size of the fonts bigger[this is different on every browser consult the help file fro your browser for more information])

This lesson I'm going to teach you how to conjugate a verb in the simple present tense (it's exactly the same as the simple future tense so if you know one you know both).

First I'm going to give you a list of some infinitives (unbconjugated verbs not in any tense)
كَرْدَن to do
ديدَن to see
شُدَن to become
رَفْتَن to go
گُفْتَن to say
خورْدَن to eat
گِرِفْتَن to take
دادَن to give
خوانْدَن to read
دانِشْتَن to know (a thing; information)
فُروخْتَن to sell
خَريدَن to buy
شِناخْتَن to know (a person)
زَدَن to hit; to strike
داشْتَن to have; to possess
آمَدَن to come; to arrive

and the present stem of these verbs are (respectively)
كُن
بين
شَو
رَو
گو
خور
گير
دِه
خوان
دان
فُروش
خَر
شِناس
زِن
دار
آ
no, I didn't type them wrong. just so you know ALL present stems are IRREGULAR youi just have to find them out and memorize them.
to conjugate them add the habitual suffix مى in front and add the correct endings ـَم -ـى -ـَد -ـيم -ـيد -ـَند
these are similar to the possesives endings for "to be"
for stems ending in و or ا or آ you must add a ى between the stem and the ending. for stems ending in ى you need to add a hamza (ـئـ) between the stem and the ending
here are some examples:
مَن آيَم
تو بينى
try and figure out what they mean.
Paul8Sunday 26th of December 2004 03:13:43 AM
Nouns and Demonstrat - 1. Nouns
A. Objects
Farsi doesn’t have the word “the”. For example گل means both ‘flower’ and ‘the flower’ but it doesn’t mean ‘that flower’ or ‘this flower’. When the object is plural just add ها to the end of the word. Example چراغ – lamp چراغها – lamps (it can also be written as چراغها) . Note that there are also some plural markers that are borrowed from Arabic. One of them is ان it is attached ONLY to parts of the body that come in pairs and to animate nouns Ex: چشمان eyes, مادران mothers, etc. There are also some regular and broken plurals borrowed from Arabic, for example ات is a regular plural it is used in words like دَباتاتplants, باغات gardens, دِهات villages. When the word ends in an unspoken -ـه –e(h) you use جات instead. Ex: روزنامِهجات newspapers. Another regular plural is ين. It is used in words like مَأمورين officials and مُعَلِّمين teachers. The broken plurals have to be memorized. Here’s all the ones I know: كِتاب، كُتُب book, books; وِقْت، اوقات (vaqt, owqat) time, time(s); طَرَف، اَطْراف side, direction, sides directions; شَخْس، اَشْخاس person, persons; مُقَدَّمِه، مُقّدَّمات preliminary, preliminaries; علم، عُلوم science, sciences; وزير، وُزَراء minister, ministers (govt.); لغت، لُغات word, words; شاعر، شُعَرا poet, poets; عَرَب، اَعْراب arab, arabs (Note the Persian words are to be read as follows (word(plural), word(singular))
B. People
Gender is not distinguished ANYWHERE in Persian. Only the words themselves can tell you. Ex: the word او means BOTH ‘he’ and ‘she’ (there is no ‘it’ in Persian); you can only tell gender by the MEANING of the word Ex: پِسَر boy, دُخْتَر girl (that is the ONLY way to tell)
2. Demonstrative Adjectives
There are two of them. اين means ‘this’ (something close to you) and آن means ‘that’ (something far from you). To form a demonstrative phrase just add the correct adjective in front of the singular or plural version of the noun to be modified. Ex: اين كتاب this book, آن ماشين that car, اين ميزها these tables, آن چراغها those lamps. NOTE: there is NO plural form of these demonstrative adjectives, however, as pronouns they do have plural forms. This will be discussed in a later post.
Paul8Wednesday 29th of December 2004 01:36:04 AM
For faster learning - In case anyone wants to go ahead of what I am teaching youi can go to http://www.iles.umn.edu/faculty/bashiri/Lessons%20folder/PforBFP.html and download the pdf files that they have under the "table of contents" section. You might even be able to get ahead of me but you should know I have only covered chapter one in this discuss and the book has fifteen chapters. But it would be good for everyone to have it because it also teaches persian handwriting (which actually shows a person handwritting in a picture) and it is written in the nastaleeq (nastaliq) style, which is A LOT harder to learn than the one I have taught you. (the style used here is called nasx, usually written as naskh) I recommend learning it as soon as possible because it gets harder to learn the more you're used to writting in the naskh style. Also all the posts about farsi have been based on these pdf files and my next post (a dialog) is goinmg to be from this pdf.
Paul8Wednesday 29th of December 2004 01:36:55 AM
Farsi Dialog - Let’s see if you can understand the following dialog. I’ll post the translation and the transliteration (the pronunciation) in a few days.
شبنم: سلام رضا.
رضا: سلام عليكم شبنم.
شبنم: خالِ شما چطور است؟
رضا: بد نيستم. متشكّرم. خالِ شما چطور است؟
شبنم: من هم خوبم. مرسى.
رضا: خدا حافظ.
شبنم: بسلامت.

Here I’ll put it with the vowel marks.
شَبْنَم: سَلام رِضا.
رِضا: سَلام عَلَيكُم شَبْنَم.
شَبْنَم: حالِ شُما چِطور اَسْت؟
رِضا: بَد نيسْتـَم. مُتَشَكِّرَم. حالِ شُما چِطور اَسْت؟
شَبْنَم: مَن هَم خوبَم. مِرْسى.
رِضا: خُدا حافِظ.
شَبْنَم: بِسَلامَت.

Paul8Thursday 06th of January 2005 05:21:00 AM
Translation and more Vocab. - Shabnam: Salaam Rezaa. – Hello Reza.
Reza: Salaam Alaykom Sh!abnam. – Hello Shabnam.
Shabnam: H!aal-e sh!omaa ch!etowr ast? – How are you? (How is your health?)
Reza: Bad nist. Motash!akkeram. H!aal-e sh!omaa ch!etowr ast? – I’m not bad. Thank you. How are you.
Shabnam: Man ham xub-am. Mersi. – I’m also good. Thank you.
Reza: Xodaa H!aafez. – Good bye.
Shabnam: Be-salaam-at. – Good bye.

Farsi----------Transliteration---------English
جِلْد-------------jeld-----------------------volume (book)
نَفَر-------------nafar---------------------individual
مَرْد-------------mard--------------------man
کاغَز-----------kaagh!az-----------------paper
وَرَق------------varaq--------------------sheet (of paper)
قالِب------------qaaleb-------------------bar (of soap)
صابون---------saabun-------------------soap
ساسان----------saasaan------------------Sasan (Boy’s name)
بِبَخْشيد----------be/baxsh!id *-----------excuse me
آقا--------------aaqaa--------------------mister; gentleman
کى-------------ki-------------------------who (question word)
ژالِه------------zh!aale(h)---------------Zhaleh (girl’s name)
آموزْگار-------aamuzgaar---------------teacher
اِسْم------------esm-----------------------name
چى------------ch!i-----------------------what (question word)
چِه-------------ch!e(h)-------------------what (literary form (written but not spoken version))
آقاىِ جَوادى----aaqaa-ye javaadi/-------Mr. Javadi
ميدانيد؟--------mi-daan-id---------------Do you know?
ساعَت----------saa’at--------------------time; watch; clock; hour
دَقيقِه-----------daqiqe(h)----------------minute
بَلِه-------------ba/le(h)------------------yes
خِيلى-----------xe/yli--------------------very; a lot
خواهِش ميکُنَم---xaahesh! Mi-kon-am--you are welcome!
مينو------------minu---------------------Minu (Girl’s name)
مينا------------minaa---------------------Mina (Girl’s name)
حَسَن-----------h!asan--------------------Hasan (boy’s name)
مِهْرْداد---------mehrdaad----------------Mehrdad (boy’s name)
پَتو-------------patu----------------------blanket

*’/’ after a vowel means the vowel is to be stressed

Paul8Thursday 06th of January 2005 05:22:29 AM
Noun Objects, number - Noun objects (cont.)
There is no definite but there is an indefinite marker in Persian (the definite in English is “the” and the indefinite is “a”.) In Persian, an indefinite noun is marked by an UNSTRESSED –i ى -. Ex: go/l-i گلى a flower, maash!i/n-i ماشينى a car, patu/-‘i پتوئى a blanket (NOTE: whenever there is an i ى after a و representing the sound ‘u’ or an ا representing the sound ‘aa’ then you add a hamzaa (ء usually on a ‘bar’ [can’t remember the term right now] (ئـ) and is like a comma (you make a slight pause(VERY slight)).
When it is used with the plural form of the noun it is like “some”. Ex: mash!in-ha/-i ماشينهائى some cars.

Numbers
The numbers 0 – 10 in Persian are: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
They can also be written as 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Notice that 4, 5, and 6 are different.
Also notice that 10 is written as 10 this is because the numbers are written from left-to-right. Example the number 123,456,789 in Persian is 123456789.
Their names are: zero-sefr-صِفْر one-yek-يِک two-do-دو three-se(h)-سِه four-ch!ahaar-چَهار five-panj-پَنْج six-sh!esh!-شِش seven-haft-هَفْت eight-hash!t-هَشْت nine-noh-نُه ten-dah-دَه
So that’s: sefr yek do se(h) ch!ahaar panj sh!esh! haft hash!t noh dah
Zero one two three four five six seven eight nine ten
صفر يک دو سه چهار پنج شش هفت هشت نه ده
Numbers always appear before the SINGULAR form of the noun. So it’s one tree, two car Ex:يک درخت، دو ماشين
Also the indefinite particle i does NOT replace yek it introduces a degree of uncertainty i.e. yek miz = a table, one table; however, yek mi/z-i = a CERTAIN table.

Classifiers
Remember the words bar (of soap), volume (of books), and sheets (of paper) from the last vocabulary? They’re called classifiers and are used just like in English. For Example you would say two bars of soap not two soaps. It is the same in Persian. However sometimes you can replace the correct classifier with taa تا. This is also used with some of the nouns that don’t have classifiers. Ex: دو قالب صابون or دوا صابون they both mean the exact same thing. It makes it easier than remembering all of the different classifiers. NOTE: yek(one) is not used with taa. The word ch!and چَنْد can mean “several” or it can be used to mean “how many?” You would say it exactly as you would in ANY language (I have noticed this whenever I study the speaking of a question in ALL of the languages where I have studied that far) Example in English you would say “That’s John.”, but you could also say “That’s John?”. Think of the difference in how you would say this. When would you raise the volume of your voice and when would you lower it? It is exactly the same no matter what language you speak. Ex: you could say چند تا صابون است. Or you could ASK چند تا صابون است؟

Paul8Thursday 13th of January 2005 08:29:19 AM
Phrase Order and next Dialog - Phrases should be in the following order:

Demonstrative adjective; number; classifier; noun

NOTE: there will be more things like this one that will show you what order a phrase or sentence should be in. They will all be followed by several examples (for now we will use تا as the classifier)

NOTE: the only demonstrative adjectives in Persian are this and that (اين و آن)

Examples:اين پنج تا ماشين، آن دو تا درخت، اين سه تا دختر

Dialog:
ساسان: ببخشيد، آن آقا کى است؟
ژاله: آن آقا آموزگارِ من است.
ساسان: اسمِ آموزگارِ شما چى است؟
ژاله: اسمِ آموزگارِ من آقاىِ جوادى است.
ساسان: شما ميدانيد ساعتْ چند است؟
ژاله: بله، ساعتِ هفت است.
ساسان: خيلى متشکّرم.
ژاله: خواهش ميکنم.

Now with the diacritics: (the previous dialog has some diacritics for correct understanding)
ساسان: بِبَخْشيد، آن آقا کى اَسْت؟
ژالِه: آن آقا آموزْگارِ مَن اَسْت.
ساسان: اِسْمِ آموزْگارِ شُما چى اَسْت؟
ژالِه: اسمِ آموزْگارِ مَن آقاىِ جَوادى اَسْت.
ساسان: شُما ميدانيد ساعَتْ چَنْد اَسْت؟
ژالِه: بَلِه، ساعَتِ هَفْت اَسْت.
ساسان: خِيلى مُتَشَکِّرَم.
ژالِه: خواهِش ميکُنَم.

Paul8Thursday 27th of January 2005 06:29:45 AM
Translation and more vocab. - Translation:
Sasan: be/-baxsh!-id, aan aaqaa ki ast? – Excuse me,who’s that man?
Zhale: aan aaqaa aamuzgaar-e man ast. – That man’s my teacher.
Sasan: esm-e aamuzgaar-e sh!omaa chi ast? – What’s your teacher’s name?
Zhale: esm-e aamuzgaar-e man aaqaa-ye javaadi ast. – My teacher’s name is Mr. Javadi.
Sasan: sh!oma mi-daan-id saa’at cand ast? – Do you know what time it is?
Zhale: ba/le, saa’at-e haft ast. – Yes, It’s seven o’clock.
Sasan: xeyli motash!akker-am. – Thank you very much. (lit: I’m very thankful)
Zhale: xaahesh! Mi-kon-am. – You’re welcome.

Vocab.:
Keyvaan – Kayvan (guy’s first name) – کيوان
Qaali – carpet - قالى
Maal – property - مال
Maal-e – property of; belonging to – مالِ
va – and – وَ
xeyr – no – خِیر
bahaa – price; worth – بَها
az – from; than – اَز
tumaan – unit of money equal to ten ريال|ها – تومان
aayaa – marker for question sentences – آیا
kermaan – Kerman, city in South-East Iran – کِرمان
kermaan-i/ – from Kerman; made in Kerman – کِرمانی
kaash!aan – Kashan, a city in central Iran – کاشان
kaash!aan-i/ – from Kashan; made in Kashan – کاشانی
ne-mi-daan-am – I don't know – نِمیدانَم
va/li – but – وَلی
tabriz – Tabriz, a city in North-West Iran – تَبریز
tabriz-i/ – from Tabriz; made in Tabriz – تَبریزی
parcam – flag – پَرچَم
parcam-e iraan – Iranian Flag – پَرچَمِ ایران

Names of some countries
emrikaa – America – اِمریکا
russiye – Russia – روسیِّه
itaalyaa – Italy – ایتالیا
afgh!aanestaan – Afghanistan – اَفغانِستان
hend – India – هِند
kaanaadaa – Canada – کانادا
iraan – Iran – ایران
kore – Korea – کُرِه

Paul8Thursday 27th of January 2005 06:30:24 AM
The 'i' suffux and - 'I' SUFFIX
you add 'i' (stressed [remember (vowel)/ means stressed]) after the name of a place or country to mean that something comes from that place or it's made in there.
Example:
آن قالی قالیِ کرمانی ایت.

if the word ends in a vowel the ending should be ''i' (hamzaa and ye)
Example:
کانادائی
Note: if the word ends in an unspoken heh (ه) then you still add the hamzaa (normally written hamza but here I'm writing it phonetically) and it isn't connected to the heh

Comparison Degrees
I've explained adjectives before such as beh or xub (good) and bad (bad). Now I'll explain how to add a comparison degree, i.e. better,best, worse, and worst.

For the Comparative Degree just add the suffix -tar (-تر) to the adjective [comparative is for COMPARING (better worst)]
For the superlative degree just add the suffix -tarin (-ترین) to the adjective [superlative is for the highest degree (best worst)]

Examples:
good خوب - به
better خوبتر - بهتر
best خوبترین - بهترین
bad بد
worse بدتر
worst بدترین

Note: these can be written connected to or not connected to the word. the exception is an unspoken heh which NEVER connects to anything added.
Example:
خوش قیافه تر

Paul8Friday 28th of January 2005 06:19:22 AM
- if anyone has any questions just e-mail me at LDGT88@aol.com
Paul8Sunday 30th of January 2005 08:54:03 PM
Colors and Abstract nouns and adjectives - Colors

Color – rang - رنگ
pretty color – xosh!-rang - خ.ش رنگ
ugly color – bad-rang – بد رنگ
white – sefid - سفید
gray – xaakestar-i/ - خاکستری
black – siyaah - سیاه
pink – surat-i/ - صورتی
red – sorx - سرخ
red (rose color) – gol-i/ - گلی
red – qermez - قرمز
orange – naaranj-i/ - نارنجی
yellow – zard - زرد
green - sabz - سبز
blue – aab-i/ - آبی
purple -banafsh! - بنفش
Brown – qahve-‘i/ - قهوه ای

Note: when an ‘i/’ is added after some nouns it can make them colors Ex: ash + i/ = gray; flower + i/ = red; orange(bitter) + i/ = orange; orange (sweet){پرتقال}[portaqaal] + i/ = orange; water + i/ = blue; coffee + i/ = brown; (this is related to the next part of this lesson)


Abstract nouns and adjectives

To make a noun or adjaective abstract just add i/ to the end of it (add {ای}if the word ends in a vowel (aa u i e))
Ex: manhood – mard-i/ - گزدی
Goodness – xub-i/ - خوبی
Greatness (goodness) – bozorg-i/ - بزرگی
Blackness – siyaah-i/ - سیاهی

Paul8Sunday 30th of January 2005 08:55:55 PM
Combining phrases and Dialog - Combining phrases

To combine a phrase you need to use an ezaafe
First you write (or speak) the first phrase, then you write the ezaafe (if you’re writing the diacitics, else just continue) then you write the second phrase.
Example: These five books ezaafe those several men = These five books of those several men. == این پنج تا کتاب ِ|آن چند تا مرد = این پنج تا کتابِ آن چند تا مرد.

Dialog
W/o diacritics
مینو: آن قالیِ قشنگ مالِ کی است؟
کیوان: آن قالی مالِ آن مرد ایت.
مینو: بهایِ آن قالی چند است؟
کیوان: بهایِ آن هزار تومان است.
مینو: آیا آن قالی منلِ کرمان است؟
خیر. آن قالی منلِ کاشان است.
مینو: قالیِ کرمانی از قالیِ کاشانی بهتر است؟
کیوان: نمیدانم. ولی بهترین قالی قالیِ تبریزی است.

W/ diacritics

مینو: آن قالیِ قَشَنگ مالِ کی اَست؟
کِیوان: آن قالی مالِ آن مَرد اَیت.
مینو: بَهایِ آن قالی چَند اَست؟
کِیوان: بَهایِ آن هِزار تومان اَست.
مینو: آیا آن قالی مالِ کِرمان اَست؟
کِیوان: خِیر. آن قالی مالِ کاشان اَست.
مینو: قالیِ کِرمانی اَز قالیِ کاشانی بِهتَر اَست؟
کِیوان: نِمیدانَم. وَلی بِهتَرین قالی قالیِ تَبریزی اَست.
Paul8Sunday 06th of February 2005 01:36:42 AM
Transliteration, Translation, and more Vocab - Transliteration
Minu: aan qaali-ye qash!ang maal-e ki ast.
Keyvaan: aan qaali maal-e aan mard ast.
Minu: bahaa-ye aan qaali ch!and ast.
Keyvaan: bahaa-ye aan hezar tumaan ast.
Minu: aayaa aan qaali maal-e kermaan ast.
Keyvaan: xeyr. Aan qaali maal-e kaash!aan ast.
Minu: qaali-ye kermaan-i/ az qaali-ye khas!aan-i/ beh-tar ast.
Keyvaan: ne-mi-daan-am. Va/li beh-tarin qaali qaali-ye tabriz-i/ ast.

Translation
Minu: To whom does that beautiful carpet belong?
Keyvan: That carpet belongs to that man.
Minu: How much is that carpet?
Keyvan: It’s one hundred tuman.
Minu: Is that carpet from Kerman?
Keyvan: No, it’s from Kashan.
Minu: Is a carpet from Kerman better than a carpet from Kashan?
Keyvan: I don’t know, but the best carpets come from Tabriz.

Vocab

aaqaa – man; gentleman – اقا
mard – man; gentleman – مرد
zan – woman; lady; wife –زن
bach!ch!e (pronounced badch!e) – child – بچّه
xaanom – lady – خانم
dust – friend – دوست
xaane – house – خانه
mu – hair – مو
gisu – hair (poetic) – گیسو
paa – foot – پا
kojaa – where (question word) – کجا
nazdik – near – نزدیک
resturaan – restaurant – رستوران
ruberu – opposite – روبرو
ruberu-ye – opposite from – روبروی
sinemaa – movie theater – سینما
sib – apple – سیب
holu – peach – هلو
hendavaane – watermelon – هندوانه
naan – bread – نان
gh!azaa – food – غذا
sandali – chair – صندلی
goftogu – dialog; conversation – گفتگو
na – no – نه

baraadar – brother – برادر
xaahar – sister – خاهر
pedar-bozorg – grandfather – پدربزرگ
maadar-bozorg – grandmother – مادربزرگ
zan; xaanom – wife – زن؛ خانم
sh!owhar – husband – شوهر
hamsar – spouse – همسر
‘amu – uncle (on father’s side) – عمو
‘ame – aunt (on father’s side) – عمه
da’i – uncle (on mother’s side) – دائی
xaale – aunt (on mother’s side) – خاله

mo’allem – teacher – معلّم
doktor – doctor – دکتر
ners – nurse – نرس
parastaar – nurse – پرستار
postch!i – postman – پستچی
ostaad – university professor – استاد
re’is - director; boss; manager; head – رئیس
monsh!i – secretary – منشی
sh!ufer – driver – شوفر
raanande – driver – راننده
sh!agerd – student; apprentice; conductor (bus) – شاگرد

aaqaa – mister; sir – اقا
xaan – Khan (used after first name) – خان
xaanom – (fem. of Khan) Mrs.; Ms. – خانم
doktor – doctor (title) – دکتر
mohandes – engineer – مهندس

‘ali – Ali (boy’s name [bn]) – علی
pervaane – Parvaneh (girl’s name [gn]) – پروانه
hush!ang – Hushang (bn) – هوشنگ
manizh!e – Manizheh (gn) – منیژه
manuch!ehr – Manuchehr (bn) – منوچهر
farhaad – Farhad (bn) – فرهاد
bizh!an – Bizhan (bn) – بیژن
farxonde – Farkhondeh (gn) – فرخنده
loqmaan – Loghman (bn) – لقمان
parvin – Parvin (gn) – پروین
maryam – Mariam (gn) – مریم

Paul8Wednesday 09th of February 2005 04:15:34 AM
Possession using possessive suffixes ands the ezafe - Possessive Endings
-am – my – -ـم
-at – your (singular) – -ـت
-ash! – his/her – -ـش
-emaan – our – -ـمان
-etaan – your(plural) – -ـتان
-esh!aan – their – -ـشان

These are added to any noun to indicate possession of it.
Example: ماشینم – my car; ماشینت your car; ماشینش – his car

If the noun ends in ‘e’ or ‘i’ you MUST add an alef before the suffix
If the noun ends in ‘u’ or ‘a’ you MUST add a ye before the suffix
Note: this rule is for nouns whose endings are PRONOUNCED as vowels (خانه is considered to end in a vowel because you don’t pronounce the ‘h’)
Examples: خانه‌ام my house; صندلی‌ام my chair; پتویم my blanket; پایم my foot

Possession with the ezafe (it is written this way but pronounced ezaafe)
Simply add a kasra (pronounced kaasraa) in between the possession and the possessor.
Example: کتابِ من my book; ماشینِ پروین Parvin’s car
Note: this is one of the many uses for the ezafe. More uses will be covered in the next post.
Note: if there is a plural marker ‘ها’ it comes in between the possessive ending and the noun

Paul8Wednesday 09th of February 2005 04:16:34 AM
Other uses of the Ezafe - Relationship of qualification
In this formation the adjective follows the noun it modifies and the noun carries a kasra. This is similar to the Japanese particle ‘no’. Example: ماشینِ سرخ red car; کتابِ خوب good book

Relation of Titles and Names
It is also used to relate the first name of an Iranian to his/her last name.
Example: حسنِ دهقان Hassan Dehqan
Ro relate the NONPROFESSIONAL title to the last name of an Iranian.
Example: آقایِ دهقان Mr. Dehqan; خانمِدهقان Mrs. Dehqan

Relating possessive and qualitative particles in a chain
You can “link” words together to form an ezafe chain
Example: ماشینِ سرخِ برادرِ من my brother’s red car
Note: if the plural marker ‘ها’ is needed it must be added to the LAST word of the ezafe chain
Note: the ezafe, as with the other vowel marks, are usually not written, so it is important to read sentences carefully because in some cases it can have completely different cases. The ONLY time when it is impossible to tell is in very simple sentences.
Example: آن ماشین سرخ است. (this can mean) That is a red car. (or) That car is red. This is not much of a difference but in some cases it can. Usually you will not see such simple sentences in speech or in writing.

Paul8Wednesday 09th of February 2005 04:18:55 AM
Dialog - Note: from now on there will be no more vowel marks (this gets annoying writing it twice, and it will help you learn to recognize words without vowels [for now the ezafe will be shown for easier comprehension])
فرهاد: ببخشید، اسمِ شما چی است؟
مریم: اسمِ من مریم است.
فرهاد: مریم خانم. می دانید خانه‌یِ شبنم کجا است؟
مریم: بله. خانه‌یِ شبنم نزدیکِ رستوران است.
فرهاد: رستوران کجا است؟
مریم: رستوران روبرویِ سینما است.
فرهاد: غدایِ آن رستوران چطور است؟
مریم: غذایِ آن رستوران خوب و ارزان است.
فرهاد: خیلی متشکّرم.
مریم: خواهش می کنم.
فرهاد: خدا حافظ.
مریم: بسلامت.

Paul8Thursday 10th of February 2005 07:10:30 AM
Transliteration, Translation and more Reading Practice - Transliteration
Farhad: be/-baxsh!id, esm-e sh!omaa ci ast?
Mariam: esm-e man maryam ast.
Farhad: maryam xaanom. mi-daan-id xaane-ye sh!abnam kojaa ast?
Mariam: ba/le. xaane-ye sh!abnam nazdik-e resturaan ast.
Farhad: resturaan kojaa ast?
Mariam: resturaan ruberu-ye sinemaa ast.
Farhad: qazaa-ye aan resturaan ce-towr ast?
Mariam: qazaa-ye aan resturaan xub va arzaan ast.
Farhad: xe/yli motash!akker-am.
Mariam: xaahesh! mi-kon-am.
Farhad: xodaa haafez.
Mariam: be-salaam-a/t.

Translation
Farhad: Excuse me. What is your name?
Mariam: My name is Mariam.
Farhad: Mariam Khanom, Do you know where Shabnam lives
(lit., where Shabnam's house is)?
Mariam: Yes (I do). Shabnam's house is near the restaurant.
Farhad: Where is the restaurant?
Mariam: The restaurant is opposite from the movie theater.
Farhad: How is the food at that restaurant? 21
Mariam: The food of that restaurant is good and inexpensive.
Farhad: Thank you very much.
Mariam: You are welcome.
Farhad: Goodbye.
Mariam: Bye.

Reading Practice
این میز است. این تلفن است. آن صندلی است. این چراغ است. آن ماشین است. این کتاب است. این یک هتل است. آن یک درخت است. این چی است؟ آن چی است؟ این یک میز نیست. آن کتاب نیست. آن یک مرد است. آیا آن یک مرد است؟ بله، آن یک مرد است. نه، آن یک مرد نیست، آن یک زن است. آیا آن زن آموزگار است؟ نه، آن زن آموزگار نیست، آن زن مادر است. آیا این گل سرخ است؟ بله، آن گل سرخ است. این سیب خوب نیست. آیا این سیب خوب نیست؟ نه، آن سیب خوب نیست. آن سیب بد است. این یک هندوانه است. آن یک هلو است. آیا آن یک هلو است؟ بله، آن یک هلو است. آن تلفن است. آیا آن یک تلفن است؟ نه، آن یک تلفن نسیت، آن یک تلویزیون است.
این چی است؟ این یک چداغ است. آیا این یک چراغ است؟ بله، آن یک چراغ است. این نان خوب نیست. آن نان خوب است. آیا آن نان خوب است؟ بله، آن نان خوب است.

Paul8Thursday 10th of February 2005 07:11:07 AM
More Vocab. - ahl-e – native of – اهلِ
vaqt – time – وقت
ke – that – که
taqrib-an – about; approximately – تقریبن
saal – year – سال
'ajab – (surprise marker) is that so! – عجب
balad-id – you know – بلدید
kam – small; little; low – کم
ka/m-i – a little – کمی
rang-i/ – color (adj., as in color TV); in color – رنگی
xosh!-haal – happy – خوشخال
mehrabaan – kind (person) – مهربان
golaabi – pear – گلابی
baabaa – dad; father – بابا
faars-i/ – Persian – فارسی
engelis-i/ – English – انگلیسی
rus-i/ – Russian – روسی
itaaliyaa'-i/ – Italian – ایتالیائی
hend-i/ – Hindi – هندی
faraansav-i/ /faraanse/ – French – فرادسوی فرانسه
aalmaan-i/ – German – آلمانی
'arab-i/ – Arabic – عربی
tork-i/ – Turkish – ترکی

Paul8Saturday 12th of February 2005 08:27:55 AM
Explanation of the V - The verb “to be” is budan بودن and it is conjugated in two ways, the second of which will be covered in the next lesson. You can have it as suffixes or as separate words.
As a suffix it can be
(I) am… – (من)...ـَم
(You) are ... – (تو)...ـی
(He/She) is… – (او)... است
(We) are… – (ما)...ـیم
(You[plural or {singular polite}]) are… – (شما)...ـید
(They) are… – (آنها)...ـَند
Note: the words in parenthesis are optional, the endings of the verbs is all that anyone needs to understand what you are saying.

Note: the order of sentences ion Persian is SOV Subject Object Verb (English is SVO, Subject Verb Object)

A subject can be plural if it includes two or more nouns or if a plural version of a noun is used. Example: Tom and Larry ARE. THEY are.

You always conjugate the verb differently depending on whether the subject is animate or inanimate. When it is animate (a person) you must always have the noun and verb agree in the singular and plural sense. When the subject is inanimate you should (it is not required) conjugate it in the singular tense ONLY. If you make the verb plural you will probably personify (make the object seem alive) if you do. Aniamls can be treated as either inanimate or animate, it makes no difference.

Paul8Monday 14th of February 2005 05:35:47 AM
The other form of “To be” and Subject Equivalent - The independent version of “to be”
There is another version of the verb بودن which is used independently.(Note there is also a third form which will be taught later)
This form is conjugated as follows
I am – من هستم – man hastam
You are – تو هستی – to hasti
He/She is – او هست – u hast
We are – ما هستیم – maa hastim
You (plural or singular polite) are – شما هستید – shomaa hastid
They are – آنها هستند – aanhaa hastand

This is usually used to reinforce a previously stated statement. Example:
That’s a guy.
That’s not a guy.
That is a guy!
آن مردی است.
آن مردی نیست.
آن مردی هست.

The negative of this form and the previous form is just nist with the correct suffixes. Example: We aren’t teachers. – ما معلّم نیستیم.

The Subject Equivalent
This is an adjective that explains the qualities of a noun in a بودن sentence.
Example: ماشین سرخ است. A red car.
In this case red is the subject equivalent.
So the word order is:
| subject subject equivalent verb
The subject equivalent can also be an ezafe chain.
Example: آن قالی کرمانی سرخ خیلی گران است.
That red Kermani carpet is very expensive.

Paul8Monday 14th of February 2005 05:37:32 AM
The pronoun versions of این and آن, and بودن w - The pronoun versions of این and آن
As demonstrative adjectives they POINTED to the noun that they modified. As pronouns they ARE the nouns. As demonstrative adjectives, these words didn’t have a plural form. As pronouns they do. Their plural forms are اینها and آنها (the plural for آن is the same as they word ‘they’)[inhaa and aanhaa].
Examples:
Demonstrative Adjectives:
آن زن زیبا است.
این درخت کوتاه است.
That woman is pretty.
This tree is short.

Pronouns:
این ماشین اشت.
آن پسر نیست.
This is a car.
That isn’t a boy.

بودن with adjectives
Using the word از (az ‘than’), and adjectives, we can use بودن to create comparative sentences. Example: آن ماشین از این ماشین بزرگتر است. That car is bigger than this car.
Note: in the case of the superlative, the adjective comes BEFORE the noun.
Example: این بهترین ماشین است. This is the best car.

Paul8Monday 14th of February 2005 05:38:10 AM
Dialog - منیژه: ببخشید، شما اهل کجا هستید؟
راسل: من اهل امریکا هستم.
منیژه: چند وقت است (که) ایران هستید؟
راسل: تقریلناً یک سال است.
منیژه: عجب، شما خیلی خوب فارسی بلدید.
راسل: فترسی من خیلی خوب نیست، کمی بلدم.
منیژه: دوستتان هم فاسری بلد است؟
راسل: نه، دوستم کمی فرانسه بلد است.
منیژه: شما هم فرانسه می دانید؟
راسل: نه، من کمی آلمانی بلدم.

Paul8Monday 14th of February 2005 05:39:13 AM
Transliteration, Translation, and some Reading Practice - Transliteration
Manizh!eh: be/-baxsh!id. sh!omaa ahl-e kojaa hast-id?
Raasel: man ahl-e emrikaa hast-am.
Manizh!eh: cand vaqt ast (ke) iraan hast-id?
Raasel: taqrib-an yek saal ast.
Manizh!eh: ‘ajab. sh!omaa xe/li xub faarsi balad-id.
Raasel: faarsi-ye man xe/li xub nist, ka/m-i balad-am.
Manizh!eh: dust-etaan ham faarsi balad ast?
Raasel: na. dust-am ka/m-i faraanse balad ast.
Manizh!eh: sh!omaa ham faraanse mi-daan-id?
Raasel: na. man ka/m-i aalmaani balad-am.

Translation
Manizheh: Excuse me. Where are
you from?
Russell: I am from America.
Manizheh: How long is it (that)
you are in Iran?
Russell: It is about one year.
Manizheh: Is that so! You know
Persian very well.
Russell: My Persian is not very
good. I know a little.
Manizheh: Does your friend also
know Persian?
Russell: No. My friend knows a
little French.
Manizheh: Do you also know French?
Russell: No. I know a little German.

Reading Practice
این یک میز است. آن یک صندلی است. آن تلفنها سفید است. این درها سرخ است. آن چراغ سبز نیست، آبی است. این ماشین بد نیست. این یک تلویزیون نیست. این یک درخت است. آن زدها مادرند. این بچّه‌ها خوب نیستند، بدند. بابا خوب است. غذای این رستوران خوب نیست.
او دکتر نیست. او شاگرد است. من دکترم. تو معلّم نیستی. این چراغ بزرگ است. آن چراغ بزرگ نیست. آن چراغ کوچک است. آیا آن دکتر کوچک است؟ نه، آن دکتز کوچک نیست، آن پسر کوچک است. شما معلّمید. او معلّم نیست. آیا آن زن شاگرد است؟ آن زن آموزگار است. آنها برادر نیستند. ما خواهر نیستیم. ایشان خواهرند.
(note: ایشان ish!aan means he/she/they [it is sued interchangeably])

Paul8Monday 14th of February 2005 05:40:02 AM
More Vocab - Basic Words
market – baazaar – بازار
in; at – dar – در
pomegranate – anaar – انار
work – kaar – کار
Kargar, a surname; worker – kaargar – کارگر
Qazi, a surname; judge – qaazi – قاضی
Dehqan, a surname; farmer – dehqaan – دهقان
Shahsavan (lit., he who loves the king), here used as a surname –sh!aahsavan – شاهسون
Kurosh; Cyrus (boy's name) –kurosh! – کورش
Yasamin; Jasmine (girl's name) – yaasamin – یاسمین
sea – daryaa – دریا
Caspian Sea – daryaa-ye xazar – دریای خزر
Mercedes Benz – benz – بنز
far – dur – دور
in; inside – tu – تو
inside of –tu-ye – توی
on; on top – ru – رو
on; on top of – ru-ye – روی
Isfahan, city in central Iran – esfahaan – اسفهان
Shiraz, city in southwestern Iran – sh!iraaz – شیراز
Tehran, city in the north of Iran; the capital city of Iran – tehraan – تهران، طهران
Shahsavar, resort town on the Caspian – sh!ahsavaar – شهسوار
voice; sound; noise – sedaa – صدا
some (with noncountable nouns); somewhat; a little – qa/dr-i – قدری
tea – caay – چای
university – daanesh!-gaa – دانشگاه
university student – daanesh!-ju – دانشجو
mail – post – پست
post office – post-xaane – پستخانه
automobile; car – otumobil – اتومبیل
because – cun – چون
for – baraa-ye – برای
because – baraa-ye in-ke – برای اینکه
language; tongue – zabaan – زبان
to; in the direction of – be- – به
with – baa – با
tomorrow – fardaa – فردا
none; any; at all – hic – هیچ
of course – a/lbatte – البتّه

which? – kodaam – کدام
where? – kojaa – کجا
who? – ki – کی
when? – key – کی
why? – ceraa – چرا
why?; what for? – baraa-ye ce – برای چه
how? – ce-towr – چطور
several – cand – چند
how many? – cand taa – چند تا
how much? – ce-qadr – چقدر
what? – ce, ci – چه، چی

Paul8Thursday 17th of February 2005 05:47:33 AM
- I'd like to get some replies as to how good my lessons are. (are they good do they need Improvements) remember they are based off of the pdf file (I have the link in one of the other posts on this thread). Any feedback would be appreciated
Paul8Wednesday 09th of March 2005 05:40:15 AM
Verbs and Simple Pre - This is just a review of what I posted earlier and this is to follow along with the pdf file that I have. This is so that I won’t confuse anyone and in order to make more sense for me because I wasn’t sure where exactly to start off after this (I really didn’t want to head into the explanation of the uses of the question words right now because it’s A LOT of info)
[remember I recommend getting the pdf file at … in order to begin to learn how to write the letters (both in the naskh style and nastaleeq style)]

Simple Present Tense
Note: the simple present tense is the same as the simple future tense (I am; I will be) you just have to pay attention carefully to the details in order to find out.
Steps to conjugate the verb:
a) take the present stem(will be shown a little down on this post)
b) add the prefix می (mi/) [it can be connected or not it is up to you]
c) add َم-am(1s) ی-i(2s) َد-ad(3s) یم-im(1p) ید-id(2p) َند-and(3p) (always connected)
[the numbers stand for the person{first person, second person, etc.} and the letters s and p mean singular and plural, respectively]
To form negative add نِـ- (ne) before the prefix mi/ (always connected to the mi/)
Note: add نَـ- (na) to any form that doesn’t use mi/ [an example will be shown below]
Infinitive__present stem__meaning__present stem(Farsi)__Infinitive(Farsi)
sh!od-an__sh!av__to become__شو__شدن
raft-an__rav__to go__رو__رفتن
goft-an__gu__to say__گو__گفتن
did-an__bin__to see__بین__دیدن
kard-an__kon__to do__کن__کردن
xord-an__xor__to eat__خر__خردن
gereft-an__gir__to take__گیر__گرفتن
daad-an__deh__to give__ده__دادن
xaand-an__xaan__to read__خوان__خواندن
daanest-an__daan__to know (a thing) __دان__دانشتن
foruxt-an__forush!__to sell__فروش__فروختن
xarid-an__xar__to buy__خر__خریدن
sh!enaaxt-an__sh!enaas__to know ( a person) __شناس__شناختن
zad-an__zan__to hit; to strike__زن__زدن
dash!t-n__daar__to have; to possess__دار__داشتن
aamad-an__a__to come; to arrive__آ__آمدن

Examples:
I go – (من) میروم or (من) می روم I don’t go – (من) نمیروم or (من) نمی روم
I take – (من) میگیرم

Note: if stem ends in ا or و (this includes any forms that have a hamza) you place a ی in between the stem and the ending. Example: I arrive (من) می آیم It has no meaning it is only to keep the flow of pronunciation simple. Also: I take (من) می گویم
Note: words in parenthesis in example sentences are optional (In other words the sentence is just as clear if you would leave the من out of من می گویم in other words
می گویم = من می گویم
Note: in the case of the endings for second person singular and plural and for first person plural a hamza on a “seat” is used instead. This means you pause before continuing on to the next sound. Example: می آئی You arrive (mi/ aa’i)
The verd Daash!tan is an irregular verb in that it does not take the mi/ prefix at all. So in order to conjugate it just you the stem followed by the appropriate ending. To form the ending just CONNECT نَـ- (na NOT ne) to the stem.
Example: دارم I have – ندارم (nadaaram) I don’t have

Next lesson I will go over compound verbs

Paul8Wednesday 09th of March 2005 05:43:58 AM
Compound Verbs - Here is a list of some compound verbs to start off with
word__meaning__word(Farsi)
raah__road; way__راه
raah__raft-an to walk__راه رفتن
yaad__memory__یاد
yaad daad-an__to teach (informal instruction) __یاد دادن
yaad gereft-an__to learn__یاد گرفتن
gush! __ear__گوش
gush! daad-an__to listen__گوش دادن
dars__lesson__درس
dars daad-an__to teach (formal instruction) __درس دادن
dast__hand__دست
dast daad-an__to shake hands__دست دادن
zendegi__life__زندگی
zendegi kard-an__to live__زندگی کردن
telefon kard-an__to telephone__تلفن کردن
kaar kard-an__to work; to operate (car, TV) __کار کردن
sohbat__talk; speech; conversation__صحبت
sohbat kard-an__to speak; to talk__صحبت کردن
harf__word; letter (alphabet) __حرف
zad-an__to hit; to strike__زدن
harf zad-an__to speak__حرف زدن
caane__chin__چانه
caane zad-an__to bargain__چانه زدن
dars xaand-an__to study__درس خواندن
aavaaz__voice (singing) __آواز
aavaaz xaand-an__to sing__آواز خوادند
namaaz__prayer__مناز
namaaz xaand-an__to pray__مناز خواندن

Conjugating a compound verb is very simple. All you have to do is place the first part of it BEFORE the mi/ prefix (not connected) then the mi/ prefix then the stem then the appropriate ending. Example: زندگی می کنم I live. It’s that simple. All you do is add the extra noun before the conjugated verb.

To make it negative just add the proper negative particle (ne for verbs that use mi/ na for verbs that don’t)

For certain compound verbs you can replace the noun part of it in order to have a clearer meaning (This is not for all compound verbs only some, and they are kinda obvious). درس خوندن and غذا خوردن are two compound verbs that can do this. You replace درس with the subject you are learning and غذا (This compound verb means to eat) with a food or meal (Dinner, Lunch, Breakast).
Example: من فارسی می خوانم. I study Persian. – ما نان می خوریم. We eat bread.
Next post will be on question words.

Paul8Thursday 10th of March 2005 06:14:39 AM
Question Words - Kodaam کدام which (of two or more objects or people)
It works like an adjective but comes before the noun it affects
Example: این ماشین مال کدام مرد است؟ To which man does this car belong?
-If you want to say “which one” you say کدام یک and کدام یکی The second one is more selective.
Example: کدام یک برادرشان است؟ Which on is your brother? or
کدام یکی دوستشان است؟ Which one (of them) is your friend?
-If you want to say “which ones” you say کدام‌ها (plural of کدام)
Example: کدام‌ها مال آن مرد است؟ Which ones belong to that man?
-Responses:
Positive: بله ba/le (yes) البتّه a/lbatte (of course)
Negative:نه na (no) هیچ hic (at all)
Usual Positive: این یکی in yeki (this one) آن یکی aan yeki (that one)
Usual Negative: هیچ کدام hic kodaam (none / neither)

کجا kojaa what place / where (but not “the place where”)
usually it appears before the verb, but کجا is used according to the syntactic requirements of the sentence, i.e., it can serve as subject, object, etc.
Example: ماشین سرخم کجا است؟ Where is my red car?
-If you want to say “of what place” you say کجائی kojaa’i
Example: آن مرد کجائی است؟ Where is that man from?
-If you want to say “native of what place” you say اهلِ کجا ahl-e kojaa
Example: فامیلشان اهلِ کجا است؟ Where is your family from?
-Responses:
Usual Positive: این جا (اینجا) in jaa (this place) and آن جا (آنجا) aan jaa (that place)
Usual Negative: هیچ جا hic jaa (nowhere)

کی ki who (as in “who is that” but not “the man who”)
used according to the syntactic requirements of the sentence, i.e., as subject, object, etc.
Example: کی در آن رستوران است؟ Who’s in that restaurant? Or آن مرد در ماشین سرخ کی است؟ Who is that man in the red car?
-If you want to say “what people” or “who all” you say کی‌ها (plural of کی)
Example: کی‌ها دوست‌هایشان هستند؟ Who are all your friends?
-Responses:
Positive: (appropriate declarative sentence)
Negative: هیچ کس hic kas (no one)

کِی key when (“at what time,” but not “the time when”)
usually follows the subject of the sentence
Example: شما کِی به خانه می روید؟ When are you going home?
-Responses:
Positive: (declarative sentences with time clause)
Negative: هیچ وقت hic vaqt (never)

چه or چی che or chi what (“what is this” not “what happened was”)
used before the verb (چه and چی mean the EXACT same thing)
Example: دوستمان به آن مرد در آن ماشین سرخ چی می گوید؟ What is our firend saying to that man in the red car?
-Responses:
Positive: (declarative sentence)
Negative: هیچ چیز hic ciz (nothing)


چرا ceraa why (“Why did you” not “this was why”)
usually begins sentence
Example: چرا او را می زنی؟ Why did you hit him?
-Responses: چون cun زیرا ziraa برای این که baraa-ye in ke (thay all mean because)
(زیرا is the literary form (menas it’s used ijn writing is spoken very rarely))
-Other use: چرا can also be a form of approval similar to بله and it’s meaning would be “of course” or “but of course”(it would be used in the same position of the sentence as بله)

چطور ce-towr how (“how did this happen” not “this is how”)
usually comes before the main verb, but adverbs of time and place may follow it
Example: این رستوران چطور است؟ How (good) is this restaurant?
It is also a judgmental word
Example: غدای شما چطور است؟ How is your food? (“The food is good” could be an answer)
It can ALSO mean the way an action is done
Example: چطور به آن رستوران می روید؟ How do you go to that restaurant?
-Responses: (declarative sentence)

چند تا cand taa how many (as “how much did you get”)
To have this meaning چند تا must be used as a question word otherwise it would mean "several". Furthermore, چند تا functions like a number (it comes before the singular form of a countable noun)
Example: چند تا ماشین‌ها دارید؟ How many cars do you have?
-Responses: usually a number followed by تا (but it still depends on the question)

چقدر ce-qadr “how much”
it comes before a non-countable noun. The place in the sentence depends on the noun it comes before.
Example: شما چقدر وقف دارید؟ How much time do you have?
-Responses:
Positive: قدری qadri some خیلی xeyli a lot کمی kami a little
Negative: هیچ hic none

Paul8Thursday 10th of March 2005 06:18:01 AM
گفتگو (Goftogu – Dialog) - خانم جوادی: خانم اسمیت، شما چرا زبان فارسی یاد می گیرید؟
خانم اسمیت: برای اینکه شوهرم در ایران است.
خانم جوادی: شوهر شما در ایران چکار می کنم؟
خانم اسمیت: شوهرم مهندس است.
خانم جوادی: شما چند تا بچّه دارید؟
خانم اسمیت: ما دو تا بچّه داریم. یک پسر و یک دختر.
خانم جوادی: بچّه‌های شما هم فارسی بلدند؟
خانم اسمیت: بله، کمی. ما با آنها فارسی حرف می زنیم.
خانم جوادی: خدا حافظ.
خانم اسمیت: بسلامت.

Paul8Thursday 10th of March 2005 06:19:57 AM
Translation and Transliteration - Transliteration
Mrs. Javadi: xaanom esmit, sh!omaa ceraa zabaan faarsi/ yaad mi gir-id.
Mrs. Smith: baraa-ye inke sh!owhar-am dar iraan ast.
Mrs. Javadi: sh!owhar-e sh!omaa dar iraan ce-kaar m- kon-am.
Mrs. Smith: sh!owhar-am mohandes ast.
Mrs. Javadi: sh!omaa cand taa bachche daar-id.
Mrs. Smith: maa do taa bachche daar-im. Yek pesar o yek doxtar.
Mrs. Javadi: bachche-haa-ye sh!omaa ham faarsi/ balad-and.
Mrs. Smith: ba/le, kami. Maa baa aanhaa faarsi/ harf zan-im.
Mrs. Javadi: xodaa haafez.
Mrs. Smith: be-salaam-at.

Translation
Mrs. Javadi: Mrs. Smith, why are you learning the Persian language?
Mrs. Smith: Because my husband is in Iran.
Mrs. Javadi: What does your husband do in Iran?
Mrs. Smith: My husband is an engineer.
Mrs. Javadi: How many children do you have?
Mrs. Smith: We have two children: a boy and a girl.
Mrs. Javadi: Do your children speak Persian as well?
Mrs. Smith. Yes, some. We speak Persian to them.
Mrs. Javadi: Bye.
Mrs. Smith: Goodbye.

Paul8Sunday 27th of March 2005 09:43:46 AM
- Reading Practice
ماشین شما کجا است؟ ماشین من در خانه‌ی بیژن است. آن دختر کی است؟ آن دختر شبنم است. شبنم در بانک است. زن او خیلی زیبا است. دختر آقای قاضی زیبا نیست. آن پسر کی است؟ بانک سما کجا است؟ این جا جای او است. تهران کجا است؟ تهران در ایران است. این بازار در تهران است. آن دانشگاه در ایران نیست. آن خانه‌ی بزرگ مال دختر آقای قاضی نیست. اسم آموزگار سما چی است؟ آیا اسم آن خانم زیبا شبنم است؟ اسم کدام پسر رضا است؟ اسم این بانک چی است؟ آیا اسم این بانک بانک ایران است؟
این ماشین مال من است. این ماشین‌های بزرگ مال من نیست. این‌ها مال سما است. این پنج تا انار مال کدام مرد است؟ این سیب‌ها مال کی است؟ این‌‌ها مال برادرهایتان است. آن هتل خیلی بزرگ است. آن دختر خیلی کوچک است. آن دخترها خیلی کوچکند. این چهار تا انار مال پدر او نیست. این چند انار مال دوست سما است. این هندوانه‌ها مال دوستتان است. این‌ها مال دوست‌هایتان است. این سیب‌های سرخ مال کجا است؟ این‌ها چند تا سیب است؟ آن‌ها چند تا قالی است؟ این سه تا قالی خوب است. آن دو تا بد است.
اسم پدر پروین کورش است. اسم مادر پروین یاسمین است. آن خانه‌ی کوچک مال آقای کارگر است. خانه‌ی آقای کارگر نزدیک دریای خزر است. اسم آن مرد منوچهر است. آقای منوچهر دهقان شوهر خانم دهقان است. خانه‌ی خانم و آقای دهقان از خانه‌ی آقای کارگر دور نیست. جای کار آقای کارگر در بانک است. جای کار آقای دهقان هم در بانک است.
آن زن کی است؟ آن زن خانم شاهسون است. آن ماشین مال آقای کارگر نیست. آن ماشین مال آقای دهقان هم نیست. آن ماشین مال آقای شاهسون است. ماشین آقای شاهسون یک ماشین بنز است. خانه‌ی آقای شاهسون خیلی بزرگ است. بانک از خانه‌ی آقای شاهسون خیلی دور نیست. بانک از خانه‌ی کارگر کمی دور است. خانه‌ی آقای شاهسون به بانک شهسوار نزدیک است. خانه‌ی آقای دهقان از بانک هم کمی دور است.

Vocabulary
a/mmaa__but; however__امّا
melli__national__ملّی
'aash!eq__lover; one who loves__عاشق
'aash!eq__budan to be in love__عاشق بودن
ehtiyaaj__need__احتیاج
ehtiyaaj__daash!tan to need__ احتیاج داشتن
kelaas__classroom; grade__کلاس
baagh!__garden__باغ
madrese__school (elementary)__مدرسه
goldaan__vase (some words are made up of two, this one is flower “gol” and
daan “container”)__گلدان
monaaseb__suitable__مناسب
ma'mulan__usually__معمولاً
tamiz__clean__تمیز
kasif__dirty__کثیف
xiyaabaan__street__خیابان
bimaar__sick, ill__بیمار
bimaarestaan__hospital__بیمارستان
mariz__sick; ill__مریض
marizxaane__hospital__مریضخانه
posh!t__behind; back__پشت
jelo(w) __front__جلو
pahlu__side__پهلو
kenaar__side__کنار
dar kenaar-e__on the side of__در کنار
saahel__shore__ساحل
baalaa__above; over__بالا
zir__under__زیر
xaanevaade__family__خانواده
faamil__family__فامیل
hafte__week__هفته
bastani__ice cream__بستنی
-forush!__person who sells__فروش
bastani forush!__ice-cream vendor__بستنی فروش
gol forush!__florist__گل فروش
qaali forush!__carpet seller__قالی فروش
-forush!i__place for selling things__فروشی
bastani forush!i__ice-cream shop__بستنی فروشی
gol forush!i__flower shop__گل فروشی
qaali forush!i__carpet store__قالی فروشی
forudgaah__airport__فرودگاه
sh!olugh!__crowded__شلوغ
modern__modern__مدرن
jadid__new; recent__جدید
sh!ahr__city; town__شهر
emruz__today__امروز
bordan__to take (from one place to another)__بردن(بَر
xaastan__to want__خواستن(خواه
mixaahad__he/she wants__میخواهد
mixaahad ... bexarad__ he/she wants to buy__میخواهد ... بخرد
kafsh!__shoe__کفش
negaah__look__نگاه
negaah kardan__to look (at)__نگاه کردن(کُن
dust daash!tan__to like__دوست داشتن(دار
yaa__or__یا
diruz__yesterday__دیروز
forush!gaah__department store__فروشگاه
pul__money__پول
raa__def. direct obj. (will be discussed later)__را
kaffaash!__shoe salesman__کفّاش
kafsh! forush!__shoe salesman__کفش فروش
joft__pair__جفت
porsidan__to ask__پرسیدن(پُرس
qeymat__price; worth__قیمت
goftan__to say; to tell__گفتن(گو
goftogu__dialog; conversation__گفتگو
faqat__only; however__فقط
mehmaan__guest__مهمان
hamkaar__co-worker; colleague__همکار
dorost kardan__to fix; to prepare; to repair__درست کردن(کُن
darbaare-ye__about something__درباره‌ی
aash!paz__cook__آشپز
aash!pazxaane__kitchen__آشپزخانه
edaare__office (building)__اداره
harf zadan__to speak__حرف زدن(زَن
qabl az__before__قبل از
pish!__before; ago__پیش
pish! az__before; earlier than__پیش از
ba'd__after; later__بعد
ba'd az__after__بعد از
sh!aam__dinner__شام
xodaa haafezi kardan__to say goodbye__خدا حافظی کردن(کُن
xordan__to eat; to drink__خوردن(خور
qahvexaane__tea-house__قهوه‌خانه
bikaar__jobless; idle; unemployed__بیکار
rezaa'i__Rezaii, a family name__رضائی
baazi kardan__to play__بازی کردن(کُن
hame__all__همه
baaham__together; with one another__باهم
ruz__day__روز

Numbers 13-21

sizdah__thirteen__سیزده(13
cahaardah__fourteen__چهارده(14
paanzdah__fifteen__پانزده(15
sh!aanzdah__sixteen__شانزده(16
hivdah__seventeen(it is still pronounced with the v even though there is an f character)__هیفده(17
hijdah__eighteen__هیجده(18
nuzdah__nineteen__نوزده(19
bist__twenty__بیست(20
bist-o yek__twenty-one__بیست و یک(21
Paul8Sunday 27th of March 2005 09:45:47 AM
Relative Constructio - Relative Construction
The relative construction is the grouping of two simple clauses to form a single sentence.
Example: The man is here. – main clause
The man who is your friend. – relative clause
The man, who is your friend, is here. – relative construction

In Farsi this is done by connecting ی که or یکه (this is connected to the final word) to the subject of the main clause, inserting the body of the relative clause (the subject of the relative clause is replaced by ی که), then placing the rest of the main clause at the end.
Example: مرد این جا است.
مرد دوست شما است.
مردی که دوست شما است اینجا است.
Note: when placing the ی after و or ا you place a ئ before it so it becomes ئی که or ئیکه and after ه or ی you place ا before it so that it becomes ای که or ایکه

The Third Form of “To Be”
This form is to avoid the repetition of the verb بودن in relative constructions. This new form is باشیدن (baash!idan) and its present stem is باش (baash!) Therefore it is conjugated as follows: می باشم I am می باشی You are می باشد he/she is etc.
Consider the following two sentences:
آن مرد بزرگی که در بانک است است.
آن مرد بزرگی که در بانک می باشد است.
There is NO difference in the meaning, it is just used to not sound repetitive and it does seem very confusing to a beginner.
The previous sentence can be written in a different way in order to sound “better”
Example: آن مرد بزرگی که در بانک می باشد است.
آن مرد بزرگی می باشد که در بانک است.
Wouldn’t you say that the second one sounds better?

The Past Tense
The past tense is the easiest tense in Farsi. First you need the past stem. This is done by removing ‘-an’ from the infinitive form. That’s it! So the past stem of کردن is کرد it’s that simple. There is no prefix you just add the suffix. The endings are -am – م -i – ی (there is no ending in the third person singular) – -im – یم -id – ید and -and – ند
To negate it just add ‘na’ to the beginning of the word (connected)
Paul8Sunday 27th of March 2005 09:51:15 AM
گفتگو - لقمان: ببخشید، اسم من لقمان است. اسم شما چی است؟
فرخنده: اسم من فرخنده است.
لقمان: فرخنده خانم. شما کجا زندگی میکمیم؟
فرخنده: من در خیابان ژاله زندگی می کنم.
لقمان: شما کجا کار می کنید؟
فرخنده: من در بانک ملّی کار می کنم.
لقمان: شما چند تا برادر و خواهر دارید؟
فرخنده: من یک برادر و یک خواهر دارم.
لقمان: خواهر و برادر شما کجا کار می کنند؟
فرخنده: خواهرم توی بیمارستان پرستار است. برادرم کار نمی کند. او بیکار است.
لقمان: خدا حافظ.
فرخنده: بسلامت.
Paul8Sunday 27th of March 2005 09:55:53 AM
Transcription and Translation - Transcription
Loqman: bebaxsh!id, esm-e man loqmaan ast. esm-e sh!omaa ci ast?
Farkhondeh: esm-e man farxonde ast.
Loqman: farxonde xaanom. Sh!omaa kojaa zendegi mikonid?
Farkhondeh: man dar xiyaabaan-e zh!aale zendegi mikonam.
Loqman: sh!omaa kojaa kaar mikonid?
Farkhondeh: man dar baank-e melli kaar mikonam.
Loqman: sh!omaa cand taa baraadar va xaahar daarid?
Farkhondeh: man yek baraadar va yek xaahar daaram.
Loqman: xaahar va baraadar-e sh!omaa kojaa kaar mikonand?
Farkhondeh: xaaharam tu-ye bimaarestaan parastaar ast. Baraadaram kaar nemikonad. u bikaar ast.
Loqman: xodaa haafez.
Farkhondeh: besalaamat.

Translation
Loghman: Excuse me. My name is Loghman. What is your name?
Farkhondeh: My name is Farkhondeh.
Loghman: Farkhondeh khanom. Where do you live?
Farkhondeh: I live on Zhaleh street.
Loghman: Where do you work?
Farkhondeh: I work in the National Bank.
Loghman: How many brothers and sisters do you have?
Farkhondeh: I have one brother and one sister.
Loghman: Where do your brother and sister work?
Farkhondeh: My sister is a nurse at the hospital.
My brother does not work. He is jobless.
Loghman: Bye.
Farkhondeh: Goodbye.
Paul8Sunday 27th of March 2005 09:57:58 AM
Three more Readings - گفتگو یک(1)
پروین و خنواده‌اش در شهسوار رندگی می کنند. شهسوار شهر کوچکی در کنار دریای خزر می باشد. پدر پروین در بانک کار می کند. اسم پدر پروین کورش است. آقای کورش کارگر اهل امریکا نیست. او اهل ایران می باشد. مادر پروین به بازار می رود. بازار از خانه‌‌ی آنها خیلی دور منی باشد. بازار شهسوار خیلی بزرگ نیست. پروین روزهای هفته به مدرسه می رود. مدرسه‌ی او به بانک نزدیک است.

گفتگو دو(2)
خانواده‌ی کارگر پسر ندارند. آنها فقط یک دختر دارند. اسم دختر آنها پروین می باشد. امروز مادر پروین او را به بازار می برد. او می خواهد برایش کفش بخرد. در بازار آنها به کفشها نگاه می کنند. پروین کفش قهوه‌ای دوست ندارد. او کفش سرخ دوست دارد. کفّاشیک جفت کفش سیاه به آنها می دهد. مادر پروین از کفّاش می پرسید:
- قیمت این کفشها چند است؟
کفّاش به او می گوید:
- ده تومان.

گفتگو سه(3)
دیروز پدر و مادر پروین مهمان داشتند. آقای دهقان، دوست پدر پروین، به خانه‌ی آنها آمد. مادر پروین برای مهمانشان چای درست کرد. آقای دهقان و پدر پروین درباره‌ی کارشان در اداره حرف زدند. پروین و مادرش در آشپزخانه بودند. آقای دهقان قبل از شام خدا حافظی کرد و رفت.
Paul8Sunday 27th of March 2005 10:02:39 AM
A Lot More Vocab. - poxtan__to cook__پختن (پَز
bastan__to close; to tie__بستن(بَند
baaz__open__باز
baaz__kardan to open; to untie__باز کردن
xaridan__to buy__خریدن (خَر
didan__to see__دیدن (بین
sh!enaaxtan__to know (a person)__شناختن(شِناس
xaandan__to read; to sing__خواندن(خوان
daadan__to give__دادن (دِه
baagh!ce__small garden (of a house)__باغچه
deh__village__ده
masjed__mosque__مسجد
kaar daash!tan__to bother; have business with__کار داشتن
sh!ab__night; evening__شب
dish!ab__last night__دیشب
paarsaal__last year__پارسال
emsaal__this year__امسال
emsh!ab__tonight; this evening__امشب
barf__snow__برف
barf aamadan__to snow__فرب آمدن
baaraan__rain__باران
baaraan aamadan__to rain__باران آمدن
har__every__هر
har ruz__everyday__هر روز
sh!omaal__north__شمال
panir__cheese__پنیر
savaar sh!odan__to ride__شوار شدن
taaksi__taxi__تاکسی
nesh!astan__to sit__نشستن(نِشین
xandidan__to laugh__خندیدن (خَند
mosaaferat__travel; journey; trip__مسافرت
mosaaferat kardan__to travel__مسافرت کردن
javaan__young; a family name__جوان
haalaa__now; at the present__حالا
ketaabxaane__library__کتبخانه
film__movie; film (photography)__فیلم
baazi__game; play__بازی
baazi kardan__to play; to act__بازی کردن
mozaahem sh!odan__to bother; to annoy__مزاحم شدن
lotfan__please__لطفاً
bish!tar__more__بیشتر
mardom__people__مردم
bish!tar-e mardom__most of the people__بیشتر مردم
hamdigar__each other__همدیگر
bexosus__especially__بخصوص
yeki az...ha__one of... (yeki az is always followed by a noun in the plural (the ha)__یکی از...ها
puldaar__rich__پولدار
mash!hur__famous__مشهور
markaz__center__مرکز
daamane__slope; side of a hill or mountain__دامنه
kuh__mountain__کوه
kuh-e alborz__the Alborz mountain range__کوه البرز
ba'zi__some__بعضی
ba'zi vaqtha__sometimes__بعضی وقتها
tamaam sh!odan__to be finished__تمام شدن
digar__other__دیگر
yeki digar__the other (one)__یکی دیگر
xorram aabaad__Khorram Abad, name of city in Iran__خرّم آباد
qadim__ancient times__قدیم
qadimi__old; ancient__قدیمی
naame__letter (mail)__نامه
az didan-e__upon seeing__از دیدنِ
besiyaar__very; much__بسیار
xosh!haal sh!odan__to become happy__خوشحال شدن
xosh!haal kardan__to make happy__خوشحال کردن
jomleh__sentence (grammar) __جمله
ensh!aa'allaah__God willing__امشاءالله
xaahim aamad__will come__خواهیم آمد
xaabidan__to sleep__خوابیدن (خواب
havaa__weather; air__هوا
garm__hot__گرم
har do__both__هر دو
maah__moon__ماه
nane jaan__dear grandma!__ننه جان
raast__right; truth__راست
rafte-and__they have gone; they have traveled__رفته‌اند
'aziz__dear__عزیز
harf__what is said__حرف
in harfhaa__these words; these talks__این حرفها
hame__all__همه
dorugh!__a lie__دروغ
'aks__picture__عکس
ruznaame__newspaper__روزنامه
kavir__desert__کویر
gerefte-and__they have taken__گرفته‌اند
dobaare__again__دوباره
pas__then__پس
maars__Mars__مارس
fekr__thought__فکر
fekr kardan__to think__فکر کردن
xaste__tired__خسته
sh!ab bexeyr__good night!__شب بخیر
ciz__thing__چیز
taa__until; up to__تا
nime__half; middle__نیمه
nime-ye sh!ab__middle of the night__نیمه‌ی شب
jaaleb__interesting__جالب
naqsh!e__map; plan__نقشه
paark kardan__to park__پارک کردن
aadres__address__آدرس
aavardan__to bring__آوردن (آوَر
nevesh!tan__to write__نوشتن (نِویس
telefoni__by telephone__تلفنی
vaqti__when; the time when__وقتی
xod__self__خود
aash!ena sh!odan__to become acquainted__آشنا شدن
peydaa kardan__to find__پیدا کردن
panjere__window__پنجره
dabestaan__school (elementary) __دبستان
hamadaan__Hamadan; city in western Iran__همدان
bidaar__awake__بیدار

Numbers 30-101
si__thirty__سی (30
cehel__forty__چهل (40
panjaah__fifty__پنجاه (50
sh!ast__sixty__شصت (60
haftaad__seventy__هفتاد (70
hash!taad__eighty__هشتاد (80
navad__ninety__نود (90
sad__one hundred__صد (100
sado yek__one hundred and one__صد و یک (101
Paul8Sunday 27th of March 2005 10:04:53 AM
Definite and Indefinite Direct Object - Definite Direct Object
The definite direct object is marked by the word را (raa) it comes after the definite direct object. It is used to mark the transfer of action form the subject to the direct object. Remember it ONLY marks the DEFITNITE direct object. Example:
آنها در را می بندند. They open the door.

The following sentence structures are always definite:

-Proper nouns used as definite direct object:
آیا تو فرخنده را توی فروش دیدی؟ Did you see Farkhondeh in the shop?
-Nouns and phrases preceded by این and آن when such phrases are used as definite direct object. این and آن are, of course, used as adjectives:
شما آن کتاب را می خرید؟ Will you buy that car?
-Independent personal pronouns used as definite direct object:
من تو را میشناسم. I know you.
-ezafe constructions used as definite direct object:
من کتابِ شما را می بینم. I saw your book.
-Nouns augmented with possessive endings used as definite direct object:
دوستم کتابتان را می بیند. My friend sees your book.
-Parts of speech preceded by question words used as definite direct object:
شما کدام کتاب را می خوانی؟ Which book are you reading?
-Anaphoric references, i.e., references to information already made available in previous sentence or sentences:
من یک ماشین می خرم. بعد آن ماشین را به دوستی می دهم. برادرم آن دوست را می بیند. آن دوست برادرم را به بازار می برد. I buy a car. Then I give that car to a friend. My brother sees that friend. That friend takes my brother to the market.

Indefinite Direct Object
Basically if the direct object is not definite then it is indefinite. This is the only rule. Therefore “that car” becomes “cars” and “this food” becomes “food” in general.
Example: من کتاب می خرم. I buy books.
Paul8Tuesday 19th of April 2005 05:45:16 AM
No Posts for a While - Sorry guys but I'm going to be too busy for the next month and I won't be able to continue placing any more of the lessons on the discuss during that time. After that I'll probably post them like crazy.
Paul8Saturday 23rd of April 2005 05:42:25 AM
The mi – Past and Ongoing Action - The mi – Past
It is used for habitual actions that happened it the past. The past form that you should already know is for action that happened once in the past. To form this tense just add می to the regular past tense of the verb. This makes the action performed habitual.
Example:
I went [من] رفتم
I used to go [من] می رفتم

To negate it just add ne- نـِ to می
The same principles apply to compound verbs as always.

Ongoing Action in the Present
A tense that means an action that is happening in the present (present tense) and it will keep occurring for some time in the future. To conjugate a verb as an ongoing action in the present you need to use داشتن as an auxiliary verb. You need to form a compound of داشتن and the verb, داشتن coming before the main verb. You conjugate them both in the present tense, with the same “person”.
Examples: I go [من] می روم.
I am going [من] دارم می روم.
Note: داشتن is not connected to the main verb.
Note: There is no negative. This idea does not exist for an ongoing action in Persian.

Ongoing Action in the Past
The past tense of داشتن is conjugated before the conjugated form of the می-past of the main verb. It is used just as the ongoing present but in the past tense.
Examples: I used to go. [من] می رفتم.
I was going. [من] داشتم می رفتم.
Note: داشتن is not connected to the main verb.
Note: There is no negative. This idea does not exist for an ongoing action in Persian.

Note: I will not post any more lessons for 3 weeks.
Paul8Saturday 23rd of April 2005 07:51:37 PM
گفتگو - I know I said I wasn't posting for 3 weeks but I had a little extra time.
هوشنگ: سلام آقای جواد.
آقای جواد: سلام هوشنگ خان، حال شما چطور است؟
هوشنگ: بد نیست، مرسی، حال شما چطور است؟
آقای جواد: خوبم، مرسی، شما دارید به کجا می روید؟
هوشنگ: من داشتم به سینما می رفتم.
آقای جواد: به کجا سینما می رفتید؟
هوشنگ: به سینما ایران.
آقای جواد: فیلم سینما ایران خوب است؟
هوشنگ: نمی دانم. دوستم می گفت خیلی خوب است.
آقای جواد: اسم آن فیلم چی است؟
هوشنگ: اسم آن فیلم ____ است.
آقای جواد: ده! کی توی آن فیلم بازی می کند؟
هوشنگ: فکر می کند ____ توی آن فیلم بازی می کند.
آقای جواد: پس من مزاحم شما نمی شوم، خدا جافظ.
هوشنگ: خدا حافظ.
Paul8Wednesday 18th of May 2005 04:40:25 AM
- ok I think I have a problem because I posted some info a few days ago and t is not in thr discuss anymore so I need to rewrite it because I decided to delete it so I wont post anymore info for about three days. sorry for the delay
Paul8Monday 06th of June 2005 12:53:40 AM
Going to leave this alone for a while - Sorry for anyone who read this regularly but I am going to have to stop posting for a while (not forever, I will be back) as I have decided to put Farsi on pause and relearn my native language, Spanish, This won't take me very long. At most I will be gone for a month. I recommend going to http://www.iles.umn.edu/faculty/bashiri/Lessons%20folder/PfBindex.html and getting anyhting you feel you need. I also recommend getting the book "Teach Yourself Modern Persian Complete Audio CD Program" It might be uder a slightly different name if you search for it on Amazon, possibly "Teach Yourself Modern Persian Complete Course (book and CD pack)" or something similar to that. You dont have to get it with the CD I just recommend it because it helps with pronunciation. I have bought this book myself that is the only reason I am suggesting it.
Paul8Friday 01st of July 2005 10:44:35 AM
- سلام دوستهایم
I'm done with most of my busy work so I have lots of free time. I'm going to be reviewing all of the lessons so I know I have everything learned so far before I begin going on again. I'll answer any questions you guys have and once I'm done reviewing I'll begin posting the lessons again.