Return to the HEBREW ArchiveForward to the Current HEBREW discuss

gymboy689Monday 11th of April 2005 04:44:24 AM
Verb Conjugation - can someone explain to me how to conjugate verbs in the present tense. I'm learning hebrew from a book and it shows the conjugations for a few verbs (but doesn't explain) and I can't seem to find the patterns. Each verb seems to be different. can someone help me?

תודה!
zhigulionthevolgaMonday 11th of April 2005 11:29:37 AM
- the basic forms are
- [zero ending] masculine singular
-et -ת feminine singular
-im -ים masculine plural
-ot -ות feminine plural
for strong verbs like lisgor לסגור (to close) the conjugation goes:
soger, sogeret, sogrim, sogrot
סוגר, סוגרת, סוגרים, סוגרות
weak verbs are a bit different:
if the last letter in the root is a ה -
lirtzot לרצות (to want) root ר.צ.ה
rotze, rotza, rotzim, rotzot
רוצה, רוצה, רוצים, רוצות
if the last letter is ע or ח -
lishloach לשלוח (to send) root ש.ל.ח
sholeach, sholaclassroomxx, sholchim, sholchot
שולח, שולחת, שולחים, שולחות
if the last letter is א -
lisno לשנוא (to hate) root ש.נ.א
sone, sonet, sonim, sonot
שונא, שונאת, שונאים, שונאות
and then you have two-letter verbs where the middle root letter ו or י disappears in the present
לקום lakum (to get up, rise) root ק.ו.ם
kam, kama, kamim, kamot
קם, קמה, קמים, קמות

zhigulionthevolgaMonday 11th of April 2005 11:35:03 AM
- and then you have verbs where the middle root letter is a guttural [א ה ח ע] -
le'ehov לאהוב (to love) א.ה.ב
ohev, ohevet, ohavim, ohavot
אוהב, אוהבת, אוהבים, אוהבות

if i remember any others i'll post them here, but those are the most important ones.
gymboy689Tuesday 12th of April 2005 04:41:53 AM
- thanks...i think i'm gonna have to study this for a long time before I can remember it...so many different verb types!
Adina OstrovskyMonday 18th of April 2005 05:00:36 PM
Verbs: infinitive & others - Zhigulionthevolga,
this was very useful, thank you.

I have some questions... if anyone can help...

1.
One thing confuses me : by my book, the infinitive of the verb is the same as the masculin present tense singular. While you add here a "le", "li", "la" particle and the verb itself is different than the masculing present singular.

For example, "rotzeh"
You write the infinitive (to eat) as לרצות
While my book teaches me this is infinitive: רוצה

I guess my book is wrong (or maybe it keeps things simple at this stage). Who can please clarify?

2.
Strong and weak verbs? What is that?

3.
My Hebrew learning book teaches me the verb has only three moods (infinitive, indicative, imperative) and three tenses: present, past and future, making sense for only the indicative mood.
Is it true or things will get complicated soon?
(Cause I was so happy when I learnt it is SO simple...)

4. Lots of times I heard about the "root" thing. My book does not touch this subject, though I understood from discussions here it is very Hebrew specific: all words have a root and if you master the rules that affect the root in declinations of nouns and conjugation of verbs, it is all you need to know in order to use them properly in phrases. While in what I learn from, I get the various declinations/conjugations as such, without identifying/emphasising the root. Can someone clarify the subject?

5. Ugah or Ugat? In my lesson, this word is written like "ugah" in Hebrew, while next to it the pronounciation as writen in Latin is "ugat". Now, I could think it is a print mistake, but this "mistake" appears to be uspiciously frequent. It confuses the hell out of me. Isn't "ה" always "h"? Sometimes you pronounce "ה" as "t"?

Thanks to anyone who bothers answering,
Adina


Monday 18th of April 2005 07:21:05 PM
- Hi Adina
I have some answers..

1. the infinitive is לרצות (to want and not to eat) and it is always different from the masculin present singular.

3. the moods and tenses are correct but you should know that there are 7 conjugations (or verbal stems - in hebrew they're called בניינים binyanim) and each binyan has its own infinitive, imperative and indicative (with past present and future). the בניינים are pa'al פעל , nif'al נפעל , huf'al הופעל , hif'il הפעיל , pi'el פיעל , pu'alפועל and hitpa'el התפעל.

4. each verb has a root of 3 letters (sometimes 4) and once you know all the conjugations of all the בניינים you can take the root and conjugate it according to the pattern.

for example in pa'al present the conjugations are פועל, פועלת, פועלים, פועלות
noe, if you take the root ש.מ.ר and place it instead of פ.ע.ל you'll get שומר, שומרת, שומרים, שומרות
(btw - shomer = save or guard)
this way you only have to learn the pattern once, and the different meanings of the different roots.

some roots have ו or י as the middle letter, some have ה, א or י as the last letter, some has נ or י as the first letter and this can change the pattern in some cases (as happens in לרצות that comes from ר.צ.ה) . I think those are the cases that are called weak verbs (but I'm not sure - correct me if I'm wrong)

this root declination is also correct for some nouns.

5. when ugah עוגה ends with ה it is always pronounced ugah.
in constuct state like in "chocolate cake" it changes to עוגת שוקולד but then you pronounce it ugat shokolad.

I hope that helps
avia8Monday 18th of April 2005 07:31:25 PM
- Hi Adina
I have some answers..

1. the infinitive is לרצות (to want and not to eat) and it is always different from the masculin present singular.

3. the moods and tenses are correct but you should know that there are 7 conjugations (or verbal stems - in hebrew they're called בניינים binyanim) and each binyan has its own infinitive, imperative and indicative (with past present and future). the בניינים are pa'al פעל , nif'al נפעל , huf'al הופעל , hif'il הפעיל , pi'el פיעל , pu'alפועל and hitpa'el התפעל.

4. each verb has a root of 3 letters (sometimes 4) and once you know all the conjugations of all the בניינים you can take the root and conjugate it according to the pattern.

for example in pa'al present the conjugations are פועל, פועלת, פועלים, פועלות
now, if you take the root ש.מ.ר and place it instead of פ.ע.ל you'll get שומר, שומרת, שומרים, שומרות
(btw - shomer = save or guard)
this way you only have to learn the pattern once, and the different meanings of the different roots.

some roots have ו or י as the middle letter, some have ה, א or י as the last letter, some have נ, ו or י as the first letter and this can change the pattern in some cases (as happens in לרצות that comes from ר.צ.ה ) . I think those are the cases that are called weak verbs (but I'm not sure - correct me if I'm wrong)

this root declination is also correct for some nouns.

5. when ugah עוגה ends with ה it is always pronounced ugah.
in construct state like in "chocolate cake" it changes to עוגת שוקולד but then you pronounce it ugat shokolad.

I hope that helps
Adina OstrovskyMonday 18th of April 2005 08:08:22 PM
- It certainly did.

Todah,

Adina
zhigulionthevolgaMonday 18th of April 2005 10:32:00 PM
- Just some comments:
1. The dictionary form of verbs is the *past* third person singular masculine form. You'd look for רצה ratza not לרצות.
2. Roots are classified into different גזרות gizrot, either שלמים shlemim "perfect" where all the root letters remain for the entire conjugation, and weak roots, where one letter causes vowel changes or disappears. The "weak" letters are א ע ח ה ר י נ [and maybe ל] . A good verb dictionary will tell you what gizra it is [ ע"ו ע"י ל"ה etc ].
3. There's one compound tense that books don't normally tell you about (I learned this one from watching a lot of movies) the "would" tense, which is basically the past tense of "to be" + the present form of the verb.
הייתי רוצה hayiti rotze i would like/i would've liked
מה היית עושה ma hayita ose what would you do/have done