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bennylinFriday 14th of January 2005 07:40:23 PM
Gender Neutrality - today in my English class, we had a class discussion and at the middle of the discussion we talked about gender issue, and then i said something about gender neutrality in Indonesian Language.

as you might know, when people use he/him or something masculine, they exclude 50 percent of the earth's population. one way to avoid using masculin pronouns in English is by using more general form such as person/people. My English teacher also said, that people tend to 'cheat' it by using plural (even though it makes the sentence grammatically incorrect).

in Indonesian language, there is no gender noun or gender pronoun, except something general like father, mother, grandmother, uncle. but there is no special word for son, daughter, nephew, niece, he, she, etc.

so i'm thinking that i'll make a list of gender neutrality in Indonesian and the equivalency in English language.

anak ----------- child
anak-anak ------ children (plural form)
anak laki-laki - son
anak perempuan - daughter
cucu ----------- grandchild
cucu laki-laki - grandson
cucu perempuan - granddaughter
keponakan ------ nephew / niece
keponakan laki-laki - nephew
keponakan perempuan - niece
kakak = older brother / sister
kakak laki-laki = older brother
kakak perempuan = older sister
adik = younger brother / sister
adik laki-laki = younger brother
adik perempuan = younger sister
('brother' can means either 'kakak laki-laki' or 'adik laki-laki', so can 'sister')

ia, dia ----- he / she / him / her
-nya -------- his / her

the rest basically:
-[everything] + perempuan = [everything]tress
e.g.: pelayan perempuan = waitress
-almost every job name by default assumed to be male, put 'perempuan' and it become a female. but it's a separate word, the job name itself doesn't imply it.

in conclusion, being a gender neutral speaker as my native language, it make me concious everytime i use a gender-related sentences in English, and often i rephrase them before i said them or use another


*some exceptions: because Indonesian Language borrows many words from many languages, one of the borrowed language (Sanskrit) use a special way to differ male and female by using postfix -a for male, -i for female. e.g.

siswa = student
siswi = female student
siswa-siswi = students (the plural form use both gender, still, male is in front of female)
mahasiswa = university student
mahasiswi = university female student
dewa = god
dewi = goddes
dewa-dewi = gods
*putra = son
*putri = daughter
*putra-putri = childs
*(by originality, 'putra', 'putri' are borrowed words, but people usually use 'putra' and 'putri' more often than the long Indonesian form. I guess people just want easy words)
pemuda = young man
pemudi = young woman
muda-mudi = youth ('muda' means young, mudi doesn't have any meaning)
*saudara = brother
*saudari = sister
*saudara-saudari = brothers and sisters

geez, the exception is more than i thought...
hang_tuahMonday 17th of January 2005 01:05:36 PM
- [quote]Originally posted by bennylin

anak ----------- child
anak-anak ------ children (plural form)
anak laki-laki - son
anak perempuan - daughter
cucu ----------- grandchild
cucu laki-laki - grandson
cucu perempuan - granddaughter
keponakan ------ nephew / niece
keponakan laki-laki - nephew
keponakan perempuan - niece
kakak = older brother / sister
kakak laki-laki = older brother
kakak perempuan = older sister
adik = younger brother / sister
adik laki-laki = younger brother
adik perempuan = younger sister
('brother' can means either 'kakak laki-laki' or 'adik laki-laki', so can 'sister')

ia, dia ----- he / she / him / her
-nya -------- his / her

the rest basically:
-[everything] + perempuan = [everything]tress
e.g.: pelayan perempuan = waitress
-almost every job name by default assumed to be male, put 'perempuan' and it become a female. but it's a separate word, the job name itself doesn't imply it.

in conclusion, being a gender neutral speaker as my native language, it make me concious everytime i use a gender-related sentences in English, and often i rephrase them before i said them or use another


*some exceptions: because Indonesian Language borrows many words from many languages, one of the borrowed language (Sanskrit) use a special way to differ male and female by using postfix -a for male, -i for female. e.g.

siswa = student
siswi = female student
siswa-siswi = students (the plural form use both gender, still, male is in front of female)
mahasiswa = university student
mahasiswi = university female student
dewa = god
dewi = goddes
dewa-dewi = gods
*putra = son
*putri = daughter
*putra-putri = childs
*(by originality, 'putra', 'putri' are borrowed words, but people usually use 'putra' and 'putri' more often than the long Indonesian form. I guess people just want easy words)
pemuda = young man
pemudi = young woman
muda-mudi = youth ('muda' means young, mudi doesn't have any meaning)
*saudara = brother
*saudari = sister
*saudara-saudari = brothers and sisters

geez, the exception is more than i thought...[/quote]


hai bennylin...

kalau di Malaysia , Singapura ,& Brunei

abang = older brother

kakak = older sister

adik = younger brother or younger sister

adik perempuan = younger sister

adik lelaki = younger brother

sepupu = cousin

dua pupu = (second level of) cousin

datuk = grandfather

nenek = grandmother

saudara = sibling; brother or sister; relative;
relation; comrade .

bapa/ayah/abah = father/daddy/dad

ibu/emak/mak = mother

anak = child

cucu = grandchild

cicit = great grandchild

piut = great great grandchild



n;comrade