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carla1604Friday 11th of March 2005 10:26:11 PM
Italian game #6 - forming plurals - Hello everyone, :)
Here’s a new game, I hope you enjoy it.
Please forgive my long explanation :D (you can skip it if you already know how to form plurals).

[quote][size=2]
Nouns in Italian can be either masculine or feminine; there is no neuter, as in English, so even inanimate objects, concepts, animals are either masculine or feminine, usually for no apparent reason.

Articles and adjectives have masculine and feminine forms too, and they must agree to the gender and number of the noun they are related to.

As a general rule:

1) nouns and adjectives ending in O are masculine and form the plural with I

Nouns:
IL TAVOL[COLOR=RED]O[/COLOR] – I TAVOL[COLOR=RED]I[/COLOR] (the table – the tables)
L’ALBER[COLOR=RED]O[/COLOR] – GLI ALBER[COLOR=RED]I[/COLOR] (the tree – the trees)
Adjectives:
PICCOL[COLOR=RED]O[/COLOR] – PICCOL[COLOR=RED]I[/COLOR] (small)
ALT[COLOR=RED]O[/COLOR] - ALT[COLOR=RED]I[/COLOR] (tall)

2) nouns and adjectives that end in A are feminine and form the plural with E

Nouns:
LA CAS[COLOR=RED]A[/COLOR] – LE CAS[COLOR=RED]E[/COLOR] (the house – the houses)
LA FARFALL[COLOR=RED]A[/COLOR] – LE FARFALL[COLOR=RED]E[/COLOR] (the butterfly – the butterflies)
Adjectives:
PICCOL[COLOR=RED]A[/COLOR] – PICCOL[COLOR=RED]E[/COLOR] (small)
ALT[COLOR=RED]A[/COLOR] - ALT[COLOR=RED]E[/COLOR] (tall)

3) nouns that end in E can be either masculine or feminine; their plural always ends with I, regardless of gender

Feminine nouns:
LA NAV[COLOR=RED]E[/COLOR] – LE NAV[COLOR=RED]I[/COLOR] (the ship – the ships)
LA LUC[COLOR=RED]E[/COLOR] – LE LUC[COLOR=RED]I[/COLOR] (the light – the lights)
Masculine nouns:
IL CAN[COLOR=RED]E[/COLOR] – I CAN[COLOR=RED]I[/COLOR] (the dog – the dogs)
IL FIUM[COLOR=RED]E[/COLOR] – I FIUM[COLOR=RED]I[/COLOR] (the river – the rivers)
Adjectives (both masculine and feminine):
GRAND[COLOR=RED]E[/COLOR] – GRAND[COLOR=RED]I[/COLOR] (large, big)
VELOC[COLOR=RED]E[/COLOR] – VELOC[COLOR=RED]I[/COLOR] (fast)
[/size]
[/quote]

[quote][size=2]
The above rule has several [color=blue]exceptions[/color].
Here are some:

* Masculine nouns ending in A (usually greek-derived nouns). They form their plural in I.
IL PROBLEM[COLOR=RED]A[/COLOR] – I PROBLEM[COLOR=RED]I[/COLOR] (the problem – the problems)
IL SISTEM[COLOR=RED]A[/COLOR] – I SISTEM[COLOR=RED]I[/COLOR] (the system- the systems)

* Some nouns of Greek origin ending in A have both masculine and feminine forms; they form their plural in I for masculine, E for feminine. They usually indicate human activities.
L’ARTIST[COLOR=RED]A[/COLOR] – GLI ARTIST[COLOR=RED]I[/COLOR] (the male artist – the male artists)
L’ARTIST[COLOR=RED]A[/COLOR] – LE ARTIST[COLOR=RED]E[/COLOR] (the female artist – the female artists)
L’ATLET[COLOR=RED]A[/COLOR] – GLI ATLET[COLOR=RED]I[/COLOR] (the male athlete – the male athletes)
L’ATLET[COLOR=RED]A[/COLOR] – LE ATLET[COLOR=RED]E[/COLOR] (the female athlete – the female athletes)

* An important exception: a feminine noun ending in O. The plural ends in I
LA MAN[COLOR=RED]O[/COLOR] – LE MAN[COLOR=RED]I[/COLOR] (the hand – the hands)

* Another important exception: the noun UOMO (=man, masculine)
L'UOM[color=red]O[/color] - GLI UOM[color=red]INI[/color]
* Some masculine nouns have two plural forms with different gender: one masculine and one feminine (the last one comes from Latin neuter). Their meaning is sometimes radically different.
In general, the plural masculine form ending in -A is used figuratively, while the form in -I is used in a more concrete sense. Sometimes, both forms can be used interchangeably.

Il bràccio (arm) – i bracci (wings, branches, arms) - le bràccia (arms of human body)
Il cìglio (eyelash, curb) – i cigli (edges, curbs) – le cìglia (eyelashes)
Il dito (finger) – i diti (fingers, considered individually) - le dita (fingers, collectively)
Il labbro (lip, edge) – i labbri (edges) – le labbra (lips)
ginòcchio (il) (knee) ginòcchi (i) (knees) ginòcchia (le) (knees, used collectively)
l’ osso (bone) – gli ossi (animal bones) le ossa (human bones)
il sopracciglio (eyebrow) – i sopraccigli (eyebrows) – le sopraccìglia (eyebrows, collectively)
il membro (limb, member) – i membri (members) - le membra (limbs)
il fondamento (foundation, basic notion) – i fondamenti (basic notions) – le fondamenta (foundations)
il gesto (gesture) – i gesti (gestures) – le gesta (deeds, feats)
il lenzuolo (sheet) i lenzuòli (sheets) – le lenzuòla (sheets, used collectively)
il muro (wall) – i muri (walls) – le mura (city walls)
l’urlo (shout) – gli urli (shouts) – le urla (shouts)
l’uovo (egg) – le uova (eggs) (this noun has no plural in –i)

* Some nouns are invariable, that is they have one form for both singular and plural. They include:
monosillabic nouns, nouns ending with a consonant, nouns ending with an accented vowel, nouns ending in –i, abbreviated nouns.
Il re – I re (the king – the kings)
Il tè – i tè (the tea – the teas)
Il bar – i bar (the bar – the bars)
L’autobus – gli autobus (the bus – the buses)
La città – le città (the city – the cities)
Il caffè – i caffè (the coffee – the coffees)
La crisi – le crisi (the crisis – the crises)
L’alibi – gli alibi (the alibi – the alibis)
L’auto (automobile) – le auto (the car – the cars)
La moto (motocicletta) – le moto (the motorbike – the motorbikes)
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[/quote]

How to play:
You have to turn in plural a short phrase (article + noun + adjective), then give another phrase for the next player.

Start:
LA CASA GRANDE (the large house)
Plural => LE CASE GRANDI (the large houses)
Next: IL CANE NERO (the black dog)
Plural => ???

Carla ;)

latina23Saturday 12th of March 2005 01:17:09 AM
- il cane nero (the black dog)
plural => i cani neri (the black dogs)
next => la sedia verde (the green chair)
ZackSaturday 12th of March 2005 07:06:20 AM
- le sedie verdi
accanto>>>>> il gatto violetto

hehe
carla1604Tuesday 15th of March 2005 05:44:53 PM
game - i gatti violetti
next: l'uovo rotto (the broken egg)
laimuckaThursday 17th of March 2005 06:45:22 PM
- le uova rotti

next: il osso duro (a nut to crack)
carla1604Thursday 17th of March 2005 07:56:02 PM
- [quote]Originally posted by laimucka


le uova rotti

next: il osso duro (a nut to crack)[/quote]

le uova rotte - anche l'aggettivo deve essere al femminile plurale

l'osso duro - gli articoli lo e la diventano l' davanti a nomi che iniziano con una vocale (elisione)
ZackSaturday 19th of March 2005 07:55:42 AM
- i ossi duri
la maestra brillante (feminine, the brilliant teacher) <<<<
carla1604Saturday 19th of March 2005 09:16:12 AM
- [quote]Originally posted by Zack


gli ossi duri (o le ossa dure)
la maestra brillante (feminine, the brilliant teacher) <<<<

latina23Saturday 19th of March 2005 09:48:52 AM
- le maestre brillanti

l'occhiali rotto (masculine, the broken glasses)
ZackSunday 20th of March 2005 06:52:08 AM
- gli occhiali rotti (the broken glasses-plural)(I got it right this time)
il frutta stupido (the stupid boy)
ZackSunday 20th of March 2005 06:53:58 AM
- CORREZIONE: il frutta stupido (the stupid fruit)
Mi dispiace.
carla1604Monday 21st of March 2005 06:04:23 AM
- [quote]Originally posted by Zack


CORREZIONE: il frutta stupido (the stupid fruit)
Mi dispiace.[/quote]

Il frutto stupido (frutto è maschile) ;)
ZackMonday 21st of March 2005 08:32:40 AM
- Oh. Grazie, Carla. I should have seen that.
latina23Tuesday 22nd of March 2005 10:24:34 AM
- i frutti stupide
===>>>la donna bella
carla1604Tuesday 22nd of March 2005 04:27:45 PM
- [quote]Originally posted by latina23


i frutti stupide
===>>>la donna bella[/quote]

i frutti stupidi (frutto è maschile - il plurale deve terminare con -i)

le donne belle
=====>>> il tè bollente

laimuckaTuesday 22nd of March 2005 10:17:18 PM
- i tè bollenti

=====>>> la luce accesa
ZackThursday 24th of March 2005 09:53:08 AM
- le luci accese (corretta?)

la stanza da bagno lunga (the long bathroom)
katichkaThursday 24th of March 2005 03:13:30 PM
- le stanze da bagno lunghe (the long bathrooms)

l`asciugamano bianco
ZackFriday 25th of March 2005 09:38:36 AM
- i asciugamani bianci

il treno divino (the divine train)


carla1604Friday 25th of March 2005 04:33:10 PM
- [quote]Originally posted by Zack


i asciugamani bianci

il treno divino (the divine train)

[/quote]

gli asciugamani bianchi :)
katichkaFriday 25th of March 2005 04:40:51 PM
- i treni divini

la strega vecchia (the old witch)
ZackWednesday 06th of April 2005 08:09:09 AM
- le stregge vechie (the old witches)

Lo specchio grande


ZackWednesday 06th of April 2005 08:11:47 AM
- le strege vecchie (the old witches)

sorry, I totally messed up on that one (not to mention all those others). haha

carla1604Wednesday 06th of April 2005 03:08:12 PM
- [quote]Originally posted by Zack


le strege vecchie (the old witches)

sorry, I totally messed up on that one (not to mention all those others). haha
[/quote]

le streghe vecchie

Hi Zack,
I forgot to explain this rule:
Nouns and adjectives ending in -ga, -go, -ca, -co when forming plural usually take the h after the g and c (-ghe, -ghi, -che, -chi.
strega => streghe
mago (wizard) => maghi
amica (female friend) => amiche
ricco (rich) => ricchi

As well as many other Italian grammar rules, there are several exceptions :D
E.g.
amico (male friend) => amici
greco (greek) => greci

Carla :)



ZackThursday 07th of April 2005 08:23:19 AM
- Grazie. That is super neato. Parlo con tu domani. Ciao.

katichkaThursday 07th of April 2005 05:12:16 PM
- gli specchi grandi

l`esame pesante
Efaith22Friday 08th of April 2005 01:35:14 AM
- gli esami pesanti

la casa viola
ZackFriday 08th of April 2005 04:42:49 AM
- le case viole

il parco silenzioso (the silent park)
bea11188Sunday 10th of April 2005 08:29:58 PM
- i parchi silenziosi

la ragazza difettosa


carla1604Sunday 10th of April 2005 09:55:05 PM
- [quote]Originally posted by Zack


le case viole

il parco silenzioso (the silent park)[/quote]

Hi Zack,
I forgot to explain that the adjectives rosa, viola, blu don't change in plural form, so the plural of "la casa viola" is "le case viola". :D
Carla
ZackMonday 11th of April 2005 08:15:39 AM
- Grazie, Carla.

la ragazza difettosa (the faulty girl)>>>>le ragazze difettose

il ragazzo ridicolo(the ridiculous boy)



bea11188Monday 11th of April 2005 12:24:30 PM
- i ragazzi ridiculous

la signora gridante
katichkaMonday 11th of April 2005 04:38:18 PM
- le signore gridanti

il poeta ingenioso
carla1604Tuesday 12th of April 2005 03:13:00 AM
- [quote]Originally posted by bea11188

i ragazzi ridiculous

la signora gridante[/quote]

i ragazzi ridicoli

:) Carla

Tuesday 12th of April 2005 04:01:32 AM
- i poeti ingeniosi

la camicia blu
bea11188Tuesday 12th of April 2005 04:14:36 PM
- oops my bad.. :)

le camicie blu

il signore imprevedibile



katichkaTuesday 12th of April 2005 05:10:07 PM
- i signori imprevedibili

lo zio ricco
ZackWednesday 13th of April 2005 07:13:54 AM
- lo zio ricco>>>gli zi ricci. is that right?

lo stivalo lungo (the long boots)


carla1604Wednesday 13th of April 2005 07:22:15 AM
- [quote]Originally posted by Zack


lo zio ricco>>>gli zi ricci. is that right?

lo stivalo lungo (the long boots)

[/quote]

lo zio ricco>>>gli zii ricchi

lo stivale lungo (the long boots)

I'll post something about the plural of nouns ending in io...

:) Carla

ma_jaWednesday 13th of April 2005 03:06:25 PM
- gli stivali lunghi?
ma_jaWednesday 13th of April 2005 03:13:41 PM
- Mi dispiace. Dovrei continuare...

venerdi` libero
katichkaWednesday 13th of April 2005 10:33:10 PM
- i venerdi` liberi

il maschio sconosciuto
ZackThursday 14th of April 2005 05:20:29 AM
- il maschio sconosciuto>>>> i maschi sconosciuti-is that right? what does it mean?


la minestra calda (the hot soup)

katichkaThursday 14th of April 2005 05:59:00 PM
- le minestre calde

il giorno noioso
ZackSaturday 16th of April 2005 09:25:01 AM
- il giorno noioso--i giorni noiosi

l'autobus zoppo (the wobbly/rickety bus)

katichkaWednesday 20th of April 2005 01:58:56 AM
- gli autobus zoppi

la camicia verde
ZackSunday 24th of April 2005 07:56:22 AM
- la camicia verde<<<<<
l'alberto divertente (the fun hotel) haha

katichkaThursday 28th of April 2005 02:42:46 PM
- gli alberghi divertenti

il film lungo
latharaMonday 16th of May 2005 05:59:14 PM
- i film lunghi.

la capra puzzolente (the smelly nanny-goat)
katichkaSunday 05th of June 2005 11:46:03 PM
- le capre puzzolenti

la pioggia blu
fiamma_gtSunday 26th of June 2005 10:32:24 AM
-
il piogge blu


la grande canzone