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nikiiWednesday 28th of July 2004 01:30:51 AM
Looking for help - I used to study alot and be able to read Hiragana/Katakana/Kanji, and be able to understand and speak alot. But this year, school got in the way big time, and now i've forgotten alot. So if anyone knows at least basic Japanese that can help, please help me!
~~~Nikii
zarkannWednesday 28th of July 2004 01:14:40 PM
Wow !/ - You loosed all that ! :( thats bad.. i hope to not loose my japanese like that :S

well it depend of what you need to help you, i would like to help but i'm only at my 12th lessons.. enough to phrase, talk, listen and read but i still can't read Kanji, Katakana and hirangana :(

i know all the basic grammar and verbs maybe it can help.
nikiiThursday 29th of July 2004 06:48:11 PM
yep - yeah...If you go all year without studying or speaking it can really affect you alot...I can only remember a few kanji characters, but only know how to spell my name in katakana...I only remember a few phrases but otherwise everything is dead to me :(
Well...If you can help me with basic grammar and verbs that would help me out alot :)
zarkannFriday 30th of July 2004 05:39:54 AM
Word Order - Sure i can help you. i'll do a fast revision, and if you have any questions, don't hesitate ! :)


-----------------------------
The Japanese Sentence
-----------------------------
Japanese is a Subject-Object-Verb language

Exemple :
Oksan ga pan o kaimashita
(mother bread bought)

In question, the word order remain the same, but you add the particle 'ka' at the end (ka is a question mark)(i'll come back on particle later)

Exemple:
Okasan ga pan o kaimashita ka
(mother bread bought ?) (did mother buy bread ?)

-----------------------------
Subject and Predicate
-----------------------------
Japanese sentence May have a subject or a topic, but they MUST have a predicate. (the subject is followed by the particule ga and the topic by the particule wa).

The predicate is the core of the japanese sentence. It come at the end, and must be a verb or a verbal form. In japanese, a verb form may be a noun plus a copula (like in english 'is' or 'are') or a verbal Adjective.

Exemples:

Jon san wa (subject/topic) Nihongo o hanashimasu (verb/predicate)
Tanaka san wa nihonjin desu (noun+copula)
Kudamono wa takai desu (verbal adjective)

A particle MUST imediately follow the word or words it marks.

other than this, word order is not rigid. The subject or topic usually come first, although an adverb of time may precede it or follow it. Expressions of time usually precede expressions of place. Most modifiers precede the words they modify.

Exemples:

Kare wa mainichi uchi de shinbun o takusan yomimasu.
(he (topic marker) every day home at newspapers (object marker) many reads)

Kono kodomotachi wa Nihonjin desu.
(These children (topic marker) Japanese are)

Shinbun ga tburu no ue ni arimasu.
(newspaper (subject marker) table 's top on (there) is)

With a question, the word order is the same. As you now know, the particle 'Ka' at the end is make a statement into a question.

Exemple:

Kanojo wa Honya de hon o kaimashita ka.
(did she buy a book at the bookstore ?)

If a question use a question word (when, who, what...) it normally come after the subject or topic, but this is not rigid.

Exemple:

Kanojo wa itsu honya de hon o kaimashita ka.
(when did she buy a book at the bookstore ?)

-----------------------------
Incomplete sentence
-----------------------------

In most languages, words that can be understood or implied from the context of the situation can be left out of a sentence. In japanese, it is the subject or topic that is omitted, not the predicate. If the situation is clear without the subject or topic, Japanese tend to leave it out.

Exemples:

Kore wa nan desu ka.
(what is this)

Kore wa Hon desu.
(this is a book)
or
hon desu.
(this is a book)

In english, this question could be answered with just the noun : A book.
In Japanese, the copula, or verb 'to be' is needed too. Remember, a Japanese sentence MUST have a predicate, or a verb form. Look at the exemple...

Exemple:

Anata wa nani o kaimashita ka
(what did you buy ?)

Altough this sentence is gramatically corre3ct, the Japanese prefer to Omit the 'you' wich would be obvious from the context.

Exemples:

Nani o kaimashita ka.
(what did you buy?)

Hon o kaimashita.
('i' bought a book.)

For the Japanese, this sentence is complete !


zarkannFriday 30th of July 2004 10:36:49 AM
Nouns - -----------------------------
What are nouns
-----------------------------

A noun is a word that names or refers to a person, a place, or a thing. A thing may be a quality or a Concept.
There are two main type of nouns:

A proper noun names a particuliar person, place, or thing. In english, all proper nouns are capitalized. The Japanese concept of proper nouns is more limited. In Romanji, names of person or place, for exemple, are capitalized, but days of week and months of the year are not. The words for others languages are capitalized, but NOT the word for English: 'eigo'

Exemples:

Jon san wa, Tky ni ikimasu
(John is going to Tokyo.

Jon san wa, getsuybi ni Tky ni ikimasu.
(John is going to Tokyo on Monday)

kaybi (Tuesday)
kinybi (Friday)
Furansugo (French language)
Chgokugo (Chinese language)
eigo (English language)

A common noun doest not name a particuliar person, place, or thing

exemples:
hon (book) otokonoko (boy) onnanoko (girl)


-----------------------------
Gender
-----------------------------

Japanese nouns do not have gender. There are no special endings to show masculine, feminine, or neuter forms.

-----------------------------
Articles
-----------------------------

Japanese does not use article before nouns. There are no word to correspond to English 'a', 'an' or 'the'

-----------------------------
Number
-----------------------------

Number means that a word ca be singuliar of plurial. With most Japanese nouns, number is not an issue. The same word is used for one or more than one.

Exemples:
hon (book, books)
Shinbun (newspaper, newspapers)
kuruma (car, cars)

Hon o motte imasu
(i have a book)
Hon o motte imasu
(i have some books)

For nouns referring to people, the plurial suffix -tachi may be used, although it isn't required.

Exemples:

kodomo (child, children) kodomotachi (children)
otokonoko (boy, boys) otokonokotachi (boys)
sensei (teacher, teachers) senseitachi (teachers)

When -tachi is used with someone's name, it usually refers to the person and his or her family or group.

exemple:

tanaka san tachi
(Mr.Tanaka and his family/group)

-----------------------------
Names
-----------------------------
Japanese use familly name first, and first names last.

exemple:

Yamaguchi Eiko
(family name / first name)

When japanese introduce themselves to each other, they say the family name first. However, they know that English speakers do it the opposite way.

With children, it's different. Japanese use young children's first names followed by the title -chan, older children's first names is followed by -san.

-----------------------------
Titles
-----------------------------
The Japanese word that correspond to Mr, Mrs, Miss, Ms is 'san'. Japanese always use San with proper name. NEVER use SAN to refer to yourself !!!

-----------------------------
Politeness
-----------------------------
The prefix o- before certain nouns express politeness (This can also be used with verbs and adjectives).

Exemples:

namae / onamae (name)
sake / osake (rice wine)
tegami / otegami (letter)


A variation of this form is go-, wich is used with words of Chinese origin.

hon, gohon (book)
kekkon, gokekkon (marriage)

Note the following about prefixes o- and go-;

Altoough both men and women may use the above forms, in some case, these prefixes would be used only by women, as in the 'o' forms in exemples below.

Exemples:
niku, oniku (meat)
yasai, oyasai (vegetable)

Some words are always used with the polite prefix. The o- and go- are now a part of the words:

Exemples:
ocha (Japanese tea)
gohan (cooked rice, meal)

These prefixes cannot be used with all nouns. it's best to use them only when you are certain they are correct, as with the exemples above.


__________________________________________________________
to be continued... ;)
nikiiSunday 01st of August 2004 03:50:43 PM
- Hey thanks! This definately helps! This is bringing back alot to my memory!
zarkannTuesday 03rd of August 2004 05:15:47 AM
More to come - i'll add a post later today..

i'll talk about

Coumpound nouns
Noun suffixes
and Pronouns
zarkannTuesday 03rd of August 2004 07:02:45 AM
Nouns and Pronouns - -----------------------------
Compound nouns
-----------------------------

When two nouns are used together to make a coumpound noun, they are usually joined by the particle 'no'

Examples:

rekishi no kurasu / history class
eigo no sensei / English teacher
apto no biru / apartement building

Some compound nouns may be formed without the 'no', however.

Examples:

Kh jawan / coffe cup
kank basu / tour bus
boki gaisha / trading compagny

-----------------------------
Noun suffixes
-----------------------------

The suffix -ya, when added to a noun, means the place or shop where that thing is sold, or the person or shopkeeper who sells it.

examples :
niku / meat -----> nikuya / butcher shop, butcher
hon / book ------> honya / bookstore, clerk, owner

When referring to the clerk or shopkeeper, the title san is used :

example:

nikuya san / butcher

The suffix -ka, when added to a noun, means a person with expertise or special knowledge on that subject.

Examples:

seiji / politics -----> seijika / politician
geijutsu / art -----> geijutsuka / artist


zarkannTuesday 03rd of August 2004 09:34:38 AM
Pronouns - -----------------------------
Whats a pronouns
-----------------------------

A pronoun is a word that take the place os a noun. Here are some common English pronouns : I, you, he, she, it, we, they... These are personal pronouns used as subjects. Other common English pronouns are me, him, her, us, them. These are personal pronouns used as object. You and it, of course, may be subject or object. In addition to these, there are other kinds of pronouns, such as possesive (mine, yours, his..etc), demonstrative (this, that), and interrogative (who, where, what..etc.)

Japanese pronouns usage is quite differents from that of English, as you will see from the following discussion.

-----------------------------
Personal pronouns
-----------------------------

Personal pronouns in Japanese refer to people, not thins or ideas. Japanese has no equivalent to the English 'it' in this category.

When the meaning can be understood from the context, the Japanese prefer not to use personal pronouns. Use these with care, and be sure to read the information that follows.

Singuliar:

watakushi / I, me
anata / you
kare / he, him
kanojo / she, her

Plurial:

watakushitachi / we, us
anatatachi / you
anatagata / you (polite)
karera / they, them (all male or male and female)
kanojotachi / they, them
kanojora / they, them (female)

informal usage :

watashi / i, me
atashi / i, me (female)

-----------------------------
Special Usage
-----------------------------

anata / you

Avoid using this whenever possile. When speaking to someone directly, try to use the person's name and san instead.

Example:

sumisu san, nani o kaimashita ka.
(Mr. Smith, what did you buy ?)

When speaking to a teacher, a doctor, a dentist, or a member of the Diet (Japanese legislature), use the word sensei, either alone, or after the person's last name. Sensei, wich literally means 'teacher', may also be used with others not listed above. A teacher can be one who achieved success or earned respec in his or her field. You can use sensei, for example, to adress an artist, writer, architect, musician, or other talented person.

Example:

Sensei, ogenki desu ka ?
(sir (teacher), how have you been ?)

If you are speaking to a group, you can use the following expressions for 'you' (plurial):

Example:

mina san / everyone (you all)
mina sama / everyone (you all) (more formal and very polite)

Mina san, ohay gozaimasu. / Good morning, everyone.

kare / he kanojo / she

Whenever possible, when referring to a third person, use the person's name.

Example :

Sumisu san wa Nyyku kara kimashita ka.
(is Mrs. Smith from new york ?)

There is some others terms that you can use instead of the pronouns kare, kanojo and their plurial forms.

Singuliar :

ano hito / that person
ano kata / that person (polite)

plurial :

ano hitotachi / those persons
ano katagata / those persons (polite)

Example:

Kin ano hito ni aimashita ka.
(did you see him (that person) yesterday ?)

-----------------------------
Case
-----------------------------

Case refers to the form of a pronoun wich shows it's relationship to other words in a sentence.

In english, the personal pronouns have three cases: the nominative (used for the subject of a sentence or clause), the objective (used for the object os a sentence, indirect object or object of a preposition), and the possesive (showing ownership). English has a different set of personal pronouns for each of these cases.

Examples:

He lives here.
He = nominative case (subject of the sentence)

I see him.
Him = Objective case (object of the verb)

His car is here
His = possesive case (shows ownership)

In japanese, thepersonal pronouns function with all three cases, but the words stay the same. The case is shown by a particle, or postposition, that come after the pronoun, watakushi, is used for different grammatical functions, the topic marker 'wa' rather than the subject marker 'ga' is preferred. this will be discussed in more detail when we will talk about 'particles'

Examples :
Watakushi wa ima tsukimashita
(i just arrived)
Watakushi = [topic]
wa = [topic marker]

Mer san wa, watakushi o shitte imasu.
(Mary knows me.)
watakushi = [object]
o = object [marker]


zarkannWednesday 04th of August 2004 08:20:34 AM
Pronouns - -----------------------------
Interrogative pronouns
-----------------------------

Although some are pronouns and some are other parts of speech in Japanese, these are all interrogative words.

dare / who
doo / how
doko / where (place)
donna / what kind of
dochira / where, wich (direction, preference)
dore / wich (persons, things)
dotchi / which (of two choices)
donata / which person, who (polite)
dooshite / why
nan, nani / what
nannin / How many people
ikura / how much
ikutsu / How many
itsu / when

-----------------------------
indefinite pronouns
-----------------------------

dareka / someone
donataka / Someone (polite)
doreka / something
dokoka / somewhere
nanika / something
ikuraka / some, a little
nandemo / anything
daremo / no one
donatamo / no one (polite
doremo / nothing
dokomo / nowhere
nanimo / nothing
ikuramo / not much
nannimo / nothing

note that the expression listed on the end of the preceding chart take negative verbs in order to have a negative meaning.

Examples:

Dareka kimashita.
(someone came)

Daremo kimasen deshita.
(no one came)

-----------------------------
Demonstrative pronouns
-----------------------------

The demonstrative words (some are pronouns and some are adjectives or adverbs) form a pattern of prefixes:

ko- / Here (close to the speaker)
so- / there (away from speaker)
a- / Over there (some distance from the speaker)
do- / question

Pronoun:

kore / this
Sore / that
are / that (over there)

Adjective:

kono / this
sono / that
ano / that (over there)

Adjective :

konna / this kind of
sonna / that kind of
anna / that kind of (over there)

Adverb :

koo / in this manner
soo / in that manner
aa / in that manner

Adverb, Pronoun :

koko / here
soko / there
asoko / over there

Adverb, Pronoun (this form os politer than the one above):

Kochira / here, this
sochira / there, that
achira / there, that (over there)

-----------------------------
Relative pronouns
-----------------------------

the relative pronouns in English are who, whom, whose, wich, where, and that. Because relative clauses in Japanese precede, rather than follow, the words they modify, Japanese does not have words that correspond to these pronouns.

Example:

Ky tsuita hito wa yamada san desu.
(the man who arrived today is Mr. Yamada)

Notice that the Japanese sentence has no word to correspond to the relative pronoun 'who' in the english sentences.

This will be explained further in the verbs section.

-----------------------------
Reflexive pronouns
-----------------------------

The reflexive pronouns in English are words such as myself, yourself, himself, yourselfs, and sorth. Japanese has only one word to correspond to these pronouns. You might call it an all-purpose reflexive pronouns. It's meaning is both singular and plural, masculine and feminine. It can be used for humans and for warm-blooded animals. It cannot be used for fish, reptiles, insects or inanimate objects.

jibun / one's self

this is commonly followed by particles such as 'de' or 'no'

Examples:

Jibun de ikimasu
(i'm going myself)

Jibun de shinasai
(Do it yourself)

Jibun no koto wa jibun de shinasai
(Do your own work by yourself)

mer san wa, jibun de benky shite imasu.
(mary is studying by herself)

___________________________________________________________

To be continued...

in our next lessons, we begin to learn about Particles.
zarkannWednesday 04th of August 2004 11:03:48 AM
Particles - -----------------------------
What are Particles ?
-----------------------------

A particle is a word that shows the relationship of a word, a phrase, or a clause to the rest of the sentence. Some particles show grammatical function ---subject, object, indirect object. Some have meaning themselves, like English prepositions. But since they always follow the word or words they mark, they are post positions.

The list that follow include some of the more common particles, and some of their uses.

-----------------------------
Particles Used with words or phrases
-----------------------------

wa
de
made ni
ga
e
mo
o
hodo
shika
no
ka
to
ni
kara
ya
dake
made
yori

-----------------------------
Wa - Topic marker
-----------------------------

How do you decide if an expression is a topic, marked with 'wa', or a subject, marked with 'ga' ? Both look like the subject of an English sentence !

Think of the topic as a comment on something that has already been introduced into the conversation, or that is a part of general or shared knowledge. As such, Wa can mean

"speaking of (the)..." or "As for (the)."

Examples:

Kimura san wa, gakusei desu.
(Mr. Kimura is a student.)
(Speaking of Mr.Kimura, he's a student)

Nihonjin wa, hashi o tsukaimasu.
(The Japanese use chopsticks.)
(As for the Japanese, they use chopsticks.)

Note that 'wa' as a topic marker can also follow what in English may look like an object, a phrase, or a clause.

Examples:

Asagohan wa hachiji ni tabemashita.
(i ate breakfast at 8'oclock.)
(Speaking of breakfast, i hate at 8 o'clock.)

Hachiji ni wa asagohan o tabemashita.
(i ate breakfast at 8 o'clock.)
(speaking of 8 o'clock, i ate breakfast then.)

___________________________________________________________

Next lessons

Contrast
Subject marker
Object marker
and more....

zarkannThursday 05th of August 2004 01:43:16 PM
Particle - -----------------------------
Wa - Contrast
-----------------------------

Wa can follow a noun to show contrast. The thing being contrasted may or may not be started, but with this usage, the contrast is implied.

Examples:

Sakana wa tabemasu ga, niku wa tabemasen.
(i eat fish, but i don't eat meat.)

Terebi wa mimasen.
(i don't watch television.)

-----------------------------
Ga - Subject Marker
-----------------------------

Ga marks what the Japanese call the grammatical subject of a sentence. Think of the subject in the following two ways:

first, in neutral descriptions of observable actions or situations.

Examples:

tegami ga kimashita.
(The mail came.)

Ame ga hutte imasu.
(It's raining.) [The rain is falling]

Note that in the negative counterparts of these sentences, Wa, not Ga, must be used.

Tegami wa kimasen deshita.
(the mail didn't come.)

Second, for special emphasis, to distinguish a particuliar person or thing from all others.

Examples :

Watakushi ga shimashita.
(i did it) [i am the one who did it]

Tky ga kii desu.
(Tokyo is big.) [It is Tokyo that is big]

when an interrogative pronoun is used as the subject of a sentence, Ga must always be used too.

Example:
Dare ga, kore o shimashita ka.
(Who did this?) [Who is the one who did this ?]

-----------------------------
Ga - Object Marker
-----------------------------

O usually marks the object. But Ga marks the object of certain non-action verbs and certain verbal adjective and adjectival nouns.

Examples:

Yko san wa, eigo ga wakarimasu.
(Yoko understands English.)

Nihongo ga dekimasu ka.
(Can you speak Japanese ?)

Hon ga hoshii desu.
(i want a book.)

Mer san wa, tenisu ga jzu desu.
(Mary is good at tennis.)

-----------------------------
O - Direct Object Marker
-----------------------------

Examples :

Sensh sono hon o yomimashita.
(I read that book last week.)

Jon san wa eiga o mimashita.
(John saw a movie.)

-----------------------------
O - Through, along, in
-----------------------------

The particle O is used with verbs such as 'walk, run, drive, go, through, etc...' when speaking of continuous motion and a finite place or distance.

Examples :

Tanaka san wa, gobangai o arukimashita.
(Mr.Tanaka walked along fifth avenue.)

Ken o hashirimashita.
(i ran through the park.)

-----------------------------
No - Possesive Marker
-----------------------------

Think of this like the English Apostrophe plus S.

Examples :

Watakushi no inu wa, pdoru desu.
(My dog is a poodle.)

Komodo no kao ga yogorete imasu.
(The child's face is dirty.)

-----------------------------
No - Noun modification
-----------------------------

This usage of No is similar to the possessive, but it seen more with compound nouns or noun phrases.

Examples :

Sgaku no kurasu wa muzukashii desu.
(The math class is difficult.)

Amerika no tabemono wa, oishii desu.
(American food is delicious.)

-----------------------------
No - Appositional
-----------------------------

No link the noun or pronoun to the appositive that follows.

Examples :

Nikuya no Doi san wa, okanemochi desu.
(The butcher, Mr.Doi is rich.)

Amerikajin no jon san wa Shikago kara kimashita.
(The american, John, is from Chicago.)

-----------------------------
Ni - Indirect Object Marker
-----------------------------

Examples :
Yamada san ni hanashimashita.
(I talked to Ms.Yamada.)

Hon o watakushi ni kudasai.
(please give me the book.) [Please give the book to me]

Note that some Japanese verbs, such as 'ask' and 'meet' take an indirectobject, although their English counterparts do not.

Examples :

Watakushi wa, Tanaka san ni kikimashita.
(I asked Mr.Tanaka.)

Tomodachi ni aimashita.
(I meet my friend.)

-----------------------------
Ni - Location
-----------------------------

With stative (non-action) verbs meaning 'there is/are', imasu for people, and arimasu for things, ni means 'in, at, no', and so forth.

Examples:

Mer san wa, Kyto ni imasu.
(Mary is in Kyoto.)

Ginza wa tky ni arimasu.
(Ginza is in Tokyo.)

Haha wa depat ni imasu.
(My mother is at the departement store.)

Neko ga imasu.
(there is a cat.)

Kasa ga arimasu.
(There is an umbrella.)

For location, the equivalents of English expressions 'near, under, inside, on top of etc..' are usefull. Note how they are formed in Japanese. First look at the following words:

ue / top
mae / front
naka / inside
chikaky / nearby
shita / bottom
ushiro / back
soto / outside
tonari / next to

these words are nouns in Japanese. To form a locational phrase, the particle 'no' link another noun to one of these, and then the particle 'ni' follows.

Terebu no ue ni.
(On top of the table.)

Uchi no naka ni.
(Inside the house.)

Eki no chikaku ni.
(near the station.)

Ybinkyoku wa eki no chikaku ni arimasu.
(The post office is near the station.)

-----------------------------
Ni - Direction
-----------------------------

With verbs of motion, ni means 'to' or 'toward'.

Example :

Nakamura san wa, mainichi Tky ni ikimasu.
(Mrs. Nakamura goes to Tokyo every day.)

-----------------------------
Ni - Specific time
-----------------------------

With expressions of specific time, ni mean 'at' (clock time), in (month, year), or 'on' (day).

Example :

Ano hitotachi wa shichiji han ni tsukimashita.
(they arrived at 7:30.)

Rokugatsu ni / in june
kugatsu ni / in septembre
senkyhyakukyj nen ni / in (the year) 1990
getsuybi ni / on monday

-----------------------------
Ni - Notion of per
-----------------------------

Ni, is used with expressions such as 'per hour, per day, per person, etc..'

Examples :

Ichijikan ni san doru.
(three dollars per hour.)

Sandoitchi o hitori ni futatsu tsukurimasu.
(I'll make two sandwiches per person.


_________________________________________________________

To be continued....

Next lesson we will talk about

Particles :

Dake
De
E
Hodo
Ka
Kara
and more..
zarkannFriday 06th of August 2004 06:28:22 AM
Particles - -----------------------------
Dake - Limitation
-----------------------------

Dake translate English words such as 'only, all, just, no, more than, as many as, as much as'.

Examples:

Sore dake desu ka.
(Is that all ?)

Terebi wa, nysu bangumi dake mimasu.
(On television i watch only the news.)

Suki na dake tabete kudasai.
(Please est as much as you want.)

-----------------------------
De - Place of Action
-----------------------------

This use of De mean 'in, at, on' and so forth. It is used with action verbs, or with 'arimasu' when action is implied.

Example:

Panya de kaimashita.
(I bought it at the bakery.)

-----------------------------
De - Means
-----------------------------

De translate 'by, By means of, With, in, etc..'

Examples :

Takush de ikimashita.
(i went by taxi.)

Jisho de shirabemashita.
(I Checked it in the dictionary.)

-----------------------------
De - Totalizing
-----------------------------

This use of De connotes a 'unit, Certain number, amount, thogether'.

Examples :

Futari de.
([By] two people.)

Futari de shimasu.
(two of us [togheter] will do it.)

Nihon ni futari de ikimasu.
(two of us will go to Japan.)

Zenbu de sen en desu.
(all togheter it's 1,000 yen.)

-----------------------------
De - Time limit
-----------------------------

The meaning of De here is 'within, in' for a given lenght of time.

Examples :

Nishkan de dekimasu.
(I can do it within two weeks.)

Ichijikan de ikemasu.
(You can go in one hour.

-----------------------------
De - Scope
-----------------------------

Here De mean 'among, of, within, etc..' referring to extent or range.

Examples:

Kudamono de, nani ga ichiban suki desu ka.
(Wich of the fruit do you like the most ?)

Amerika de, doko ni ikitai desu ka.
(Where in America do you want to go ?)

-----------------------------
De - Material
-----------------------------

Here De means 'of, from, made of, made from' expressions.

Examples :

Kono tburu wa, ki de dekite imasu.
(This table is made of wood.)

Kore wa, gin de tsukurimashita.
(I made it of silver.)

-----------------------------
E - Direction
-----------------------------

Like 'ni', e is used with verbs of mothion to indicate 'to' or 'toward'.

Example:

Kariforunia e ikimasu ka.
(Are you going to California ?)

-----------------------------
Hodo - Extend or Degree
-----------------------------

Hodo means 'As much as, as....as', and it is often used in negative constructions, althought the meaning is positive.

Examples :

Watakushi wa, anata hodo isogashiku arimasen.
(i'm not as busy as you are.)

Kore hodo oishii mono wa arimasen.
(There is nothing as delicious as this.)

Ashi ga itaku naru hodo arukimashita.
(I walked so much that my feet hurt.)

-----------------------------
Hodo - About, approximately
-----------------------------

Whit things that can be counted, Hodo means 'about, Approximately'.

Examples :

Sen en hodo desu.
(it's about 1,000 yen.)

isshkan hodo de dekimasu.
(It can be done in about a week.)

-----------------------------
Ka - Enumerative
-----------------------------

The meaning of Ka here is 'or', thats is, listing parallel things and then choosing.

Examples :

Banana ka ringo o kaimash.
(Let's buy bananas or apples.)

Kh ka, kcha ka, kokoa wa ikaga desu ka.
(Would you like coffee, tea, or cocoa ?)

Note that Ka, like many particle, has several meanings. In the example above, it is also used as the question marker at the end of the sentence.

-----------------------------
Kara - Place of departure, origin
-----------------------------

The meaning of Kara here is 'from'.

Examples :

Kono kisha wa, kyto kara kimashita.
(This train came from Kyoto.)

Watakushi wa, Nihon kara kimashita.
(I am from Japan.)

-----------------------------
Kara - Starting Time
-----------------------------

The meaning of Kara here would be expressed by 'at' in English, but in Japanese, the meaning is 'from a certain time, and continuing on'. In other words, it is the beginning of a period of time. It differs from the use of the particle Ni, wich means 'At a precise time. (Meet me at one o'clock.)

Examples :

Gmu wa, ichiji kara hajimarimasu.
(The game begins at one o'clock.)

Getsuybi kara isogashiku narimasu.
(Starting Monday, i'll be busy.)

-----------------------------
Kara - Source
-----------------------------

Kara also mean 'from' in the sense of 'Origin'.

Examples :

Tanaka san kara kikimashita.
(I heard it from Mrs.Tanaka.)

Kono hon wa, toshokan kara karimashita.
(I borrowed this book from the library.)

-----------------------------
Made - Target time or place
-----------------------------

Made means 'Until, as far as'. It is often combined with kara in a sentence.

Examples :

Yguta made benky shimashita.
(I studied until evening.)

Tsugi no kado made arukimash.
(Let's walk as far as the corner.)

Gakk wa, kuji kara sanji made desu.
(School is from 9 until 3 o'clock.)

-----------------------------
Made ni - Time limit
-----------------------------

Unlike the time limit usage of the particle de (within), made ni means 'by' (the time given) or 'not later than'.

Examples :

Goji made ni dekimasu ka.
(Can you do it by 5 o'clock ?)

Kaybi made ni hitsuy desu.
(I need it by tuesday.)

_______________________________________________

To be continued...

In our next lesson :

Particles - -

Mo
Shika
To
Ya
Yori
And more...


nikiiSunday 08th of August 2004 03:50:31 PM
Thanks:| - :|whoa....I have no clue how to thank you:)
zarkannWednesday 11th of August 2004 12:09:57 PM
Particles - Sorry i'm late, i was on vacation :)

Let's go for another revision..

-----------------------------
MO - including, excluding
-----------------------------

Mo means 'also, too'. Depending on wich word it follows in a sentence, Mo can replace 'wa, ga, o'. When used with a negative verb, the meaning is '(not) either, neither, nor'.

Examples :

Watakushi mo ikitai desu.
(I want to go too.)

Gohan mo suki desu.
(I also like rice.)

Yko san wa, niku mo sakana mo tabemasen.
(Yoko eats neither meat nor fish.)

-----------------------------
MO - Emphasis
-----------------------------

This meaning of Mo is 'even' in the sence of emphasis.

Examples :

Ano Amerikajin wa, sashimi mo tabemasu.
(That american even eats raw fish.)

Ichi doru mo arimasen.
(I don't even hjave one dollar.)

-----------------------------
SHIKA - limitation
-----------------------------

Shika means 'only, just'. Although the meaning is affirmative, it takes the negative form of the verb.

Examples :

Eigo shika shirimasen.
(I only know English.)

Shinbun shika yomimasen.
(I only read newspaper.)

-----------------------------
TO - Complete listing
-----------------------------

To means 'and' when stating all possible items in a list. The implication is 'And nothing more'.

Examples :

Jon san to Mer san ga kimashita
(John and Mary came.)

Enpitsu to, nto to, jgi o kaimashita.
(I bought pencils, a notebook, and a ruler.)

-----------------------------
TO - Involvement
-----------------------------

Here, To means 'Together with'.

Examples :

Sat san to honya e ikimashita.
(I went to the bookstore with Mr.Sato.)

Tomu san to issho ni o kakimashita.
(I wrote a book with Tom.)

-----------------------------
TO - Quotation
-----------------------------

To follows both direct and indirect quotation.

Examples :

Ono san wa, "Watakushi ga shimasu, " to iimashita.
("i'll do it," said Mr.Ono.)

Ono san wa, kare ga suru to iimashita.
(Mr.Ono said that he would do it.)

-----------------------------
YA - Partial listing
-----------------------------

Ya is used for 'and' when starting a sample of, or some of the items in, a list. The implication is 'and others, among others, such thing as'; that is, something has been left out.

Examples :

Jon san ya Mer san ga kimashita.
(John and Mary came.)

Enpitsu ya, nto ya, jgi o kaimashita.
(I bough a pencil, a notebook, ans a ruler.)

-----------------------------
YORI - Comparison
-----------------------------

Used when comparising thing, Yori means 'than'. Think of it as the 'than' in expressions such as 'bigger than, smaller than, better than, worst than, rather than, etc'. It is often used in combination with 'H' (contrast).

Examples :

Kore yori sore o kudasai.
(Please give me that rather than this.)

Pan yori gohan no h ga suki desu.
(I like rice more than bread.)

Amerika wa, Nihon yori kii desu.
(America is larger than Japan.)

__________________________________________________________

In our next lessons :

Particles used with clauses (ga, kara, keredo, nagara, node, noni, to).

:)
zarkannFriday 13th of August 2004 07:09:57 AM
Particles used with clauses : - -----------------------------
GA - Contrary reasoning
-----------------------------

Ga means 'But, although'. The implication is 'despite the circumstances'.

Examples :

Samui desu ga, dekakemashita.
(Although it's cold, i went out.)

Byki desu ga, shigoto ni ikimasu.
(I'm sick, but i'm going to work.)

Ga is often used at the end of a clause with the final clause implied but unsaid. This has a softening effect on the exchange, with both speakers understanding the meaning of what has been left unspoken.

Example :

Ikitakatta desu ga...
(I wanted to go but...(i couldn't).)

-----------------------------
GA Neutral connector
-----------------------------

Here, Ga means and.

Examples :

Hawai ni ikimashita ga, subarashikatta desu.
(I went to Hawaii, and it was wonderfull.)

Sono hon o yomimashita ga, omoshirokatta desu.
(I read that book, and it was interesting.)

-----------------------------
KARA Reason
-----------------------------

Here, Kara means 'because, since'.

Examples :

Isogashii kara ikemasen.
(Because i'm busy, i can't go.)

Ame da kara uchi ni imasu.
(Since it's raining, i'll stay home.)

-----------------------------
KARA Sequential action
-----------------------------

The meaning of Kara here is 'after, since, ever since'.

Examples :

Tabete kara shigoto o shimasu.
(After eating, i'll do some work.)

Kekkonshite kara shiawase desu.
(Ever since he got married, he has been happy.)

-----------------------------
KEREDO Neutral connector
-----------------------------

Keredo means 'and'.

Examples :

Depto ni itta keredo, konde imashita.
(I went to the departement store, and it was crowded.)

Takush ni notta keredo, takakatta desu.
(I took a taxi and it was expensive.)

-----------------------------
KEREDO Contrary connector
-----------------------------

Here, Keredo means 'but, although, however'.

Examples :

Yonda keredo, wakarimasen deshita.
(I read it, but i didn't understand it.)

Eiga wa omoshirokatta keredo nete shimaimashita.
(Although the movie was interesting, i fell asleep.)

-----------------------------
NAGARA Simultaneous action
-----------------------------

Nagara mean 'while, As'.

Examples :

Aruki nagara, hanashimashita.
(While walking, we talked.)

Gohan o tabe nagara, terebi o mimasu.
(As i'm eating, i watch television.)

-----------------------------
NODE Cause and effect
-----------------------------

Node mean 'since, Because' when followed by an 'effect' clause.

Examples :

Kumotte iru node, umi ni ikimasen.
(Since it's cloudy, i'm not going to the beach.)

Hashitta node, tsukaremashita.
(Because i ran, i got tired.)

-----------------------------
NONI Contrast
-----------------------------

Noni means 'in spite of, although', with strong contrast between the two clause implied.

Examples :

Tabetakunai noni, tabemashita.
(Although i didn't want to eat it, i ate it.)

Takai noni, kaimashita.
(Although it was expensive, i bought it.)

-----------------------------
TO Condition
-----------------------------

When discussing under what condition, or under wich circumstance, 'to' mean 'if, when'.

Examples :

Kangaeri to wakarimasu.
(If you think, you'll understand it.)

Kuji ni iku to, Sano san ni aemasu.
(If you go there at 9, you can see Mr.Sano.)

_______________________________________________________

In the next lesson :

Particles used with sentences....Ka, Yo, Ne, Wa.


See ya soon ! :)
zarkannFriday 13th of August 2004 07:28:35 AM
Particles used with sentences : - Minna san, Ohayo Gozaimasu !

-----------------------------
KA Question Marker
-----------------------------

Ka is like the English question mark at the end of a sentence. In Japanese, however, the word order of a statement does notchange when a question is formed.

Examples :

Horiguchi san wa, kirei desu.
(Mrs.Horiguchi is beautiful.)

Horiguchi san wa, kirei desu ka.
(Is Mrs.Horiguchi beautiful?)

Imto san wa, sensei desu ka.
(Is your sister a teacher ?)

Doko de ban gohan o tabetai desu ka.
(where do you want to eat dinner ?)

Itsu eigo o benky shimashita ka.
(When did you study english ?)

-----------------------------
NE Confirmation
-----------------------------

Ne is similar to the English tag question 'Don't you think so, isn't it ?'. It calls for the listener to agree with or confirm what the speaker has said.

Examples :

Atsui desu ne.
(It's hot, isn't it?)

Omoshiroi eiga deshita ne.
(It was an interesting movie, wasn't it ?)

-----------------------------
YO Emphatic
-----------------------------

One usage of Yo is similar to the exclamation point. In that sense, it conveys emotion or strong feeling. It can also be an expression of emphasis, such as 'i'm certain'(of what has just been said). Because men and women use 'yo' differently, and because it can be assertive, beginners should use it with care.

Examples :

Benky shinasai yo.
(Study !)

Fujisan wa, kirei desu yo.
(Mt.Fuji is beautiful !)

-----------------------------
WA Female sentence ending
-----------------------------

Used only by women, Wa doesn't translate easily. It can have both emphatic function and a softening effect.

Examples :

Totemo atsui wa.
(It's very hot.)

Watakushi ga suru wa.
(I'll do it.)

_____________________________________________________

End of this lesson.

In our next lesson we will talk about Verbs:

What are verbs
Agreement
verb conjugation
The consonant conjugation
The vowel conjugation

etc...

Dewa mata minna san !
liltokyo4jesusFriday 13th of August 2004 08:54:53 PM
- [quote]Originally posted by zarkann


-----------------------------
Compound nouns
-----------------------------

When two nouns are used together to make a coumpound noun, they are usually joined by the particle 'no'

Examples:

rekishi no kurasu / history class
eigo no sensei / English teacher
apto no biru / apartement building

Some compound nouns may be formed without the 'no', however.

Examples:

Kh jawan / coffe cup
kank basu / tour bus
boki gaisha / trading compagny

[/quote]

this is great! lol but one question...how can u tell when you use "no" in a compound noun?
zarkannMonday 16th of August 2004 07:47:59 AM
About Compound nouns - <quote> this is great! lol but one question...how can u tell when you use "no" in a compound noun? </quote>

Well, Some predefinate words are not using the No particle.. you have to remember them. But usually, it take 'no. Some words came in only 1 word too.. like "Post Office" is 'Yubinkyoku'. We can't make a literal translation everytime :S so we have to remember them.
Monday 16th of August 2004 11:35:50 AM
Verbs - -----------------------------
Verbs - Agreement
-----------------------------

In English a verb must agree with its subject in person and number. In the present tense, for exemple, a subject in the first person takes a different verb form from a subject in the third person. And a plurial subject in the third person take a different verb form from a singuliar subject.(in french we have 3 differents ending for 'je,tu, il' and 3 other ending for 'nous, vous, ils' so thats mean 6 differents ending for the same verbs in present tense)

Examples :

First person:
Singuliar = I go
plurial = We go

Second person:
Singuliar = you go
plurial = you go

Third person:
Singuliar = he/she/it goes
plurial = They go

In Japanese, agr4eement is not an issue. Verbs do not have different form to indicate person, number, or gender. The same verb form is used no matter what the subject. This is true for all tenses.

Examples :

First person:
Singuliar = ikimasu / I go
plurial = ikimasu / We go

Second person:
Singuliar = ikimasu / you go
plurial = ikimasu / you go

Third person:
Singuliar = ikimasu / he/she/it goes
plurial = ikimasu / They go

This principle is easy to understand if you remember the folloing: If the meaning is clear from the context in a Japanese sentence, a pronoun is not necessary. Therefore, Ikimasu is both a verb and a sentence.

In english, except for imperative, or command form, a sentence consisting of a verb alone is not possible.

-----------------------------
Verb - Conjugation
-----------------------------

Japanese verbs can be classified into Two major group, or conjugations. The only exceptions are two irregular verbs :Suru(to do) and Kuru(to come).

These groupings are basic key to the japanese verb system. They enable you to change the verb form for different tenses and moods.

In a dictionary, an English verb is listed in its infinitive, or 'to' form: (to) go, (to) eat... A Japanese verb, on the other hand, is listed in what is called its 'dictionary form.' The dictionary form is the basic for categorizing a verb into one of the two major conjugations.

The two groups differ in how they form their stems and their infinitives. The stem is the most important inflectional base, wich may change, or to wich different suffixes, or endings, are added, to show tense, mood, and politeness level. The infinitive is the second most important inflectional base.

-----------------------------
Verbs - The consonant Conjugation
-----------------------------

In this group, the verb stem end in a consonant. Therefore, they may be called c-stem verbs, as we shall do here. Because the stems are formed by dropping the final 'u', this is also referred to as the u-dropping conjugation, and the verb may be called u-dropping verbs.

How can you tell a consonant Conjugation verb ?

If the dictionary form ends in anything but -eru, -iru, it belong in this group.

How do you form the stem ?

To form the stem of the verb, drop the final -u.

Examples :

Dictionary form : Isogu
Stem : isog-
English : To hurry

Dictionary form : Kaku
Stem : Kak-
English : To Write

Dictionary form : Nuru
Stem : Nur-
English : To Paint

For a few verbs, certain sound changes are necessary:

If a verb end in -su, the stem end in 'sh' before a suffix beginning with 'i', or 's' before other suffixes.

If a verb end in -tsu, the stem end in 'ch' before a suffix beginning with 'i', or 't' before other suffixes.

Examples :

Dictionary form : Dasu
Stem : das-, dash-
English : To take out

Dictionary form : Matsu
Stem : mat-, mach-
English : To Wait


If a verb end in -au,-iu, or -ou, it is still considered a c-stem verb, and it belongs in this group, even though a vowel remains after the 'u' is dropped. The reason is that a missing 'w' is considered the final consonant of the stem. That 'w', although not used in the affirmative forms, is needed for some of the negative forms.

Examples :

Dictionary form : Shimau
Stem : Shima(w)-
English : to put away

Dictionary form : Kau
Stem : Ka(w)-
English : to Buy

Dictionary form : Iu
Stem : I(w)-
English : to Say

Dictionary form : Omou
Stem : Omo(w)-
English : to Think

Some verbs that end in -eru and -iru belong to the c-stem verb group.

Examples :

Dictionary form : Hairu
Stem : hair-
English : to Enter

Dictionary form : Kaeru
Stem : kaer-
English : to return

Dictionary form : Shiru
Stem : shir-
English : to Know

Dictionary form : Kiru
Stem : kir-
English : to Cut

Dictionary form : Iru
Stem : Ir-
English : to Need

Note that Kiru(to cut), is a c-stem verb. When pronounced, the first sullable is stressed. The verb Kiru(to wear), is a v-stem verb. When pronounced, the second syllable is stressed.

___________________________________________________

To be continued...

In our next lesson we will talk about :

-The vowel conjugation
-The infinitive
-Plain and polite form
and more...

Have a nice study :)

zarkannMonday 16th of August 2004 11:37:36 AM
Verbs - -----------------------------
VERBS - Agreement
-----------------------------

In English a verb must agree with its subject in person and number. In the present tense, for exemple, a subject in the first person takes a different verb form from a subject in the third person. And a plurial subject in the third person take a different verb form from a singuliar subject.(in french we have 3 differents ending for 'je,tu, il' and 3 other ending for 'nous, vous, ils' so thats mean 6 differents ending for the same verbs in present tense)

Examples :

First person:
Singuliar = I go
plurial = We go

Second person:
Singuliar = you go
plurial = you go

Third person:
Singuliar = he/she/it goes
plurial = They go

In Japanese, agr4eement is not an issue. Verbs do not have different form to indicate person, number, or gender. The same verb form is used no matter what the subject. This is true for all tenses.

Examples :

First person:
Singuliar = ikimasu / I go
plurial = ikimasu / We go

Second person:
Singuliar = ikimasu / you go
plurial = ikimasu / you go

Third person:
Singuliar = ikimasu / he/she/it goes
plurial = ikimasu / They go

This principle is easy to understand if you remember the folloing: If the meaning is clear from the context in a Japanese sentence, a pronoun is not necessary. Therefore, Ikimasu is both a verb and a sentence.

In english, except for imperative, or command form, a sentence consisting of a verb alone is not possible.

-----------------------------
VERBS - Conjugation
-----------------------------

Japanese verbs can be classified into Two major group, or conjugations. The only exceptions are two irregular verbs :Suru(to do) and Kuru(to come).

These groupings are basic key to the japanese verb system. They enable you to change the verb form for different tenses and moods.

In a dictionary, an English verb is listed in its infinitive, or 'to' form: (to) go, (to) eat... A Japanese verb, on the other hand, is listed in what is called its 'dictionary form.' The dictionary form is the basic for categorizing a verb into one of the two major conjugations.

The two groups differ in how they form their stems and their infinitives. The stem is the most important inflectional base, wich may change, or to wich different suffixes, or endings, are added, to show tense, mood, and politeness level. The infinitive is the second most important inflectional base.

-----------------------------
VERBS - The consonant Conjugation
-----------------------------

In this group, the verb stem end in a consonant. Therefore, they may be called c-stem verbs, as we shall do here. Because the stems are formed by dropping the final 'u', this is also referred to as the u-dropping conjugation, and the verb may be called u-dropping verbs.

How can you tell a consonant Conjugation verb ?

If the dictionary form ends in anything but -eru, -iru, it belong in this group.

How do you form the stem ?

To form the stem of the verb, drop the final -u.

Examples :

Dictionary form : Isogu
Stem : isog-
English : To hurry

Dictionary form : Kaku
Stem : Kak-
English : To Write

Dictionary form : Nuru
Stem : Nur-
English : To Paint

For a few verbs, certain sound changes are necessary:

If a verb end in -su, the stem end in 'sh' before a suffix beginning with 'i', or 's' before other suffixes.

If a verb end in -tsu, the stem end in 'ch' before a suffix beginning with 'i', or 't' before other suffixes.

Examples :

Dictionary form : Dasu
Stem : das-, dash-
English : To take out

Dictionary form : Matsu
Stem : mat-, mach-
English : To Wait


If a verb end in -au,-iu, or -ou, it is still considered a c-stem verb, and it belongs in this group, even though a vowel remains after the 'u' is dropped. The reason is that a missing 'w' is considered the final consonant of the stem. That 'w', although not used in the affirmative forms, is needed for some of the negative forms.

Examples :

Dictionary form : Shimau
Stem : Shima(w)-
English : to put away

Dictionary form : Kau
Stem : Ka(w)-
English : to Buy

Dictionary form : Iu
Stem : I(w)-
English : to Say

Dictionary form : Omou
Stem : Omo(w)-
English : to Think

Some verbs that end in -eru and -iru belong to the c-stem verb group.

Examples :

Dictionary form : Hairu
Stem : hair-
English : to Enter

Dictionary form : Kaeru
Stem : kaer-
English : to return

Dictionary form : Shiru
Stem : shir-
English : to Know

Dictionary form : Kiru
Stem : kir-
English : to Cut

Dictionary form : Iru
Stem : Ir-
English : to Need

Note that Kiru(to cut), is a c-stem verb. When pronounced, the first sullable is stressed. The verb Kiru(to wear), is a v-stem verb. When pronounced, the second syllable is stressed.

___________________________________________________

To be continued...

In our next lesson we will talk about :

-The vowel conjugation
-The infinitive
-Plain and polite form
and more...

Have a nice study :)

zarkannTuesday 17th of August 2004 08:31:12 AM
Verbs - -----------------------------
VERBS - The vowel conjugation
-----------------------------

In this group, the verb stems end in a vowel. Therefore, they may be called v-stem verbs, as we shall do here. Because the stems are formed by dropping the final 'ru', this is also called the ru-dropping conjugation, and the verb may be referred to as the ru-dropping verbs.

How can you tell a vowel conjugation verb ?

- Most of the verbs with dictionary form wich end in -eru and -iru belong to this group. But dont foget about exceptions.

How do you form the stem ?

- To form the final stem of the verb, drop the final -ru.

Examples :

Dictionary form : Ageru
Stem : age-
English : To give, to raise

Dictionary form : Dekiru
Stem : deki-
English : To be able

Dictionary form : Hajimeru
Stem : hajime-
English : To begin

Dictionary form : Iru
Stem : i-
English : To be

Dictionary form : Kangaeru
Stem : Kangae-
English : To think

-----------------------------
VERBS - The infinitive
-----------------------------

The infinitive is also an important base for constructing other verb forms. To form the infinitive, do the following :

For c-stem verbs, add -i to the stem.

Example

Dictionary form : Isogu
Stem : Isog-
Infinitive : Isogi-

Dictionary form : Kaku
Stem : Kak-
Infinitive : Kaki-

For v-stem verbs, add nothing to the stem. (In this conjugation, the stem and the infinitive are the same.

For the irregular verbs, the forms are as follows:

Dictionary form : Kuru
Infinitive : Ki-

Dictionary form : Suru
infinitive : Shi-

-----------------------------
VERBS - The Plain and polite form
-----------------------------

The Japanese use different sets, or levels, of verb forms, depending on the politeness requirements of the situation, and the relationship among the speakers. For non-Japanese, using the different politeness levels correctly takes a great deal of experience with the Japanese language and culture.

The two most common levels are called plain and polite. The plain verb forms are used with immediate familly members and close friends and associates. The polite forms have a wider range, and are more appropriate for general use, especially for students of Japanese.

The exemples below show two ways of saying the same thing, one in plain style, and one polite style. Note the different verb forms.

*Plain

Present : Da / dictionary form
past : datta / -ta, -da

*Polite

Present : desu / -masu
past : deshita / -mashita

Both plain and polite are introduced with new verbs throughout this chapter.

[Plain Sentence]

Ban gohan o tabeta.
(I ate dinner.)

[Polite Sentence]

Ban gohan o tabemashita.
(I ate dinner.)

Although readers of this lesson should use the polite level, both form must be learned. This is because the plain can function other than as the main verb. When the main verb of the sentence, the one at the end, is in the polite form, other verbs earlier in the same sentence usually take the plain form.

The following exemples show two sentences that say the same thing. Note that both sentence use a plain verb form , Tabeta' for ate. And keep in mind that the verb at the end determine the politeness level for the entire sentence.

Examples :

[Plain sentence]

Ban gohan o tabeta ato, terebi o mita.
(After i ate dinner, i watched tv.)

[Polite sentence]

Ban gohan o tabeta ato, terebi o mimashita.
(After i ate dinner, i watched tv.)

In this sections on verbs that follow, both the plain and the polite forms will be given. Although there are otherm more formal verb forms, these two levels should be appropriate for the reader's needs.

-----------------------------
VERBS - The "TO BE" verbs
-----------------------------

English has one verb to express the meaning to be, although that verb take several forms (am, is, are, was, were, etc..) Japanese has 3 different words, each expressing a particuliar aspect of the meaning of to be : desu, arimasu, imasu.

_________________________________________________________

To be continued...

In our next lesson, we will talk about :

-Desu
-Arimasu
-Imasu
and more...

Mina-san, Sayonara !

zarkannWednesday 18th of August 2004 06:08:10 AM
Verbs - -----------------------------
VERBS - Desu
-----------------------------

Often called the copula, desu is used when you want to indicate such things as condition, quality, number, characteristics, or identity. You can understand it more easily if you think of desu as meaning not only 'is', but also 'equals', especially with two nouns or noun phrase. If you can substitute 'equals' for 'is' in an English sentence such as 'this equals/is a book' or 'Mrs.Smith equals/is my best friend', desu is the word you want.

Although the polite form desu (present) and deshita (past) are the ones you will use most often, you should know the following forms as well.

Present
-Plain : da (affirmative), dewa nai (negative)
-Polite : desu (affirmative), dewa arimasen (negative)

Past
-Plain : datta (affirmative), dewa nakatta (negative)
-Polite : deshita (affirmative), dewa arimasen deshita (negative)

Probable
-Plain : dar (affirmative), dewa nai dar(negative)
-Polite : desh (affirmative), dewa nai desh (negative)

For informal or familiar usage, 'ja' can replace 'dewa'

Examples:

Kore wa, hon desu.
(this is a book.)

Tanaka san wa, sensei desu.
(Mr.Tanaka is a teacher.)

otenki ga, ii desu.
(The weather is good.)

Otenki ga warui desh.
(The weather will probably be bad.)

Ano hito wa, kin byki deshita.
(He was sick yesterday.)

-----------------------------
VERBS - Arimasu
-----------------------------

Arimasu means 'is' or 'exist' for the location of inanimate things. It also expresses the Idea of English 'to have'. If you think of the meaning as '(Something) exist/is located (somewhere)', arimasu is the word you want. Because Arimasu is a stative (non-action) verb, the particle 'ni' is used with expressions of location.

Example :

Hon wa, trebu no ue ni arimasu.
(The book is on the table.)

In the 'to have' meaning of arimasu, the thing possessedis the subject of the sentence, and take the particle 'ga'.

Examples :

Okane ga arimasu ka.
(Do you have any money ?)[as for you, does money exist ?]

Hai, arimasu.
(Yes, i do.) [yes, it exist.]

Here are the other forms of arimasu :

Present
-Plain : aru (affirmative), nai (negative)
-Polite : arimasu (affirmative), arimasen (negative)

Past
-Plain : atta (affirmative), nakatta (negative)
-Polite : arimashita (affirmative), arimasen deshita (negative)

Probable
-Plain : aru dar (affirmative), nai dar(negative)
-Polite : aru desh (affirmative), nai desh (negative)

Examples :

Fujisan wa, Nihon ni arimasu.
(Mt.Fuji is in Japan.)

Ginza ni, sp ga arimasu ka.
(Is there a supermarket in Ginza ?)

Eki wa, doko ni arimasu ka.
(Where is the station ?)

Jisho ga arimasu ka.
(Do you have a dictionary ?)

Iie, arimasen.
(No, i don't (have a dictionary).)

Koko ni ken ga arimashita.
(There was a park here.)

-----------------------------
VERBS - Imasu
-----------------------------

Imasu is also a stative (non action) verb used to express 'is, exists' for location. But imasu is used for living things -- People, animals, insects (not plants). The particle 'ni' is used with imasu when the location is specified.

Imasu is also used as an auxiliary verb to form the progressive tenses, where it functions just like the English 'is: he is going, i was going, ect..'. Because this meaning of imasu is discussed later, the examples below will deal with only the locational meaning. First, here are the other forms of imasu :

Present
-Plain : iru (affirmative), inai (negative)
-Polite : imasu (affirmative), imasen (negative)

Past
-Plain : ita (affirmative), inakatta (negative)
-Polite : imashita (affirmative), imasen deshita (negative)

Probable
-Plain : iru dar (affirmative), inai dar(negative)
-Polite : iru desh (affirmative), inai desh (negative)

Examples :

Tanaka san wa imasu la.
(Is Mr.Tanaka here ?)

Hai, imasu.
(Yes, he is.)

Kin tky ni imashita ka.
(Were you in Tokyo yesterday ?)

Neko wa doko ni imasu ka.
(Where is the cat ?)

Mer san wa, raigetsu Nihon ni iru desho.
(Mary will probably be in Japan next month.)

-----------------------------
VERBS - The indicative mood
-----------------------------

The indicative mood allows you to express ordinary, objective statements, questions, etc. Tense refers to the time of the action or state expressed by the verb.

Sometime Japanese is described as having just two tenses : The past and the non-past. At forst, this sound strange; on second thought, it can be a useful concept. What does it mean ? it means that Japanese does not have to separate future tense. The past is the past and the non-past is everything else -- that is, present and future.Here we will use more conventional terms (present and past), horever.

Keep in mind as you look at the different tense and moods that Japanese verbs do not change their form for gender and number.

____________________________________________________

To be continued...

In the next lesson :

The present tense ;)

Ja mata !


nikiiWednesday 18th of August 2004 09:08:47 AM
haha - ....Thanks....:D
zarkannMonday 23rd of August 2004 09:34:10 AM
Verbs -
-----------------------------
VERBS - The present tense
-----------------------------

The present tense meanings in Japanese are similar to those of English: incomplete or habitual actions or states. The present tense is used for future time as well; Japanese has no separate future tense.

The plain form of the present tense is the same as the dictionary form, the one from wich the stem is derived. The dictionary form, the one from woch the stem is derived. The dictionary form was discussed in verbs conjugation.

Plain form, c-stem verbs :

iku / i go, you go, he/she/it goes, we go, they go, i will go, you will go, he/she/it will go, we will go, they will go.

Plain form, v-stem verbs :

Miru /i see, you see, he/she/it sees, we see, they see, i will see, you will see, he/she/it will see, we will see, they will see.

To form the negative of the form, do the following :

c-stem verbs: add -anai to the stem.

iku/ikanai go/don't go
yomu/yomanai read/don't read

- Note that for c-stem verbs ending in -au, -iu, -ou you must add a (w) to the stem before adding -anai.

shimau/shimawanai put/don't put
kau/kawanai buy/don't buy
iu/iwanai say/don't say

v-stem verbs: add -nai to the stem.

Hajimeru/hajimenai begin/don't begin
kangaeru/kangaenai think/don't think

Tip- The polite present is sometimes referred to as the masu form. It can be constructed in two different ways.

either: ass -masu to the infinitive.

c-stem verbs :

isogi+masu isogimasu/hurry
kaki+masu kakimasu/write
nuri+masu nurimasu/paint

v-stem verbs :

age+msu agemasu/give
hajime+masu hajimemasu/begin
kangae+masu kangaemasu/think about

Or : for the c-stem verbs, add -imasu to the stem.

isog+imasu isogimasu/hurry
kak+imasu kakimasu/write

for v-stem verbs, add -masu to the stem.

hajime+masu hajimemasu/begin
kangae+masu kangaemasu/think about.

To polite negative, do the following:

For all verbs, simply change the ending from masu to masen.

ikimasu/ikimasen go/don't go
wakarimasu/wakarimasen understand/don't understand

Here are a few verbs in their present tense conjugation:

Verbs : Taberu / eat
Present plain : taberu (affirmative), tabenai (negative)
Present Polite : tabemasu (affirmative), tabemasen (negative)

Verbs : nomu / drink
Present plain : nomu (affirmative), nomanai (negative)
Present Polite : nomimasu (affirmative), nomimasen (negative)

Verbs : suru / do
Present plain : suru (affirmative), shinai (negative)
Present Polite : shimasu (affirmative), shimasen (negative)

And some present tense sentence :

Examples :

Watakushi wa, kh o nomimasen.
(I don't drink Coffee.)

Tanaka san wa, sushi o mainichi tabemasu.
(Mr. Tanaka eats sushi every days.)

Ano hitotachi wa, terebi o mimasen.
(They don't watch television.)

Nihongo ga wakarimasu ka.
(Do you understand Japanese ?)

Kyto ni ahita ikimasu.
(I'll go to Kyoto tomorrow.)

______________________________________________________

To be continued....

In the next lesson :

-The past tense

See ya later !
zarkannTuesday 24th of August 2004 09:37:55 AM
Verbs -
-----------------------------
VERBS - The past tense
-----------------------------

Like English, the past tense is used for actions completed in the past (i ate, i studied, etc..). It's also used to express the equivalent of the English present perfect (i have walked, i have eaten, etc..).

Forming the plain past tense is easy for v-stem verbs, more complex for c-stem verbs.

For plain form, v-stem verbs, add -ta to the stem.

taberu/tabeta eat/ate
oshieru/oshieta teach/taught
miru/mita see/saw
ageru/ageta give/gave

For plain form, c-stem verbs : do the following :

-Look at the final syllable in the plain present form (dictionary form) of the verb. Find the syllable in column A below. Change it to the syllable in column B.

Plain form : omou
Change : u --> tta
Final verbs : omotta / thought

Plain form : motsu
Change : tsu --> tta
Final verbs : motta / held

Plain form : nuru
Change : ru --> tta
Final verbs : nutta / painted

Plain form : nomu
Change : mu --> nda
Final verbs : nonda / drank

Plain form : shinu
Change : nu --> nda
Final verbs : shinda / died

Plain form : tobu
Change : bu --> nda
Final verbs : tonda / flew

Plain form : kiku
Change : ku --> ita
Final verbs : kiita / asked

Plain form : oyogu
Change : gu --> ida
Final verbs : oyoida / swam

Plain form : hanasu
Change : su --> tta
Final verbs : hanashita / talked

-to form the negative of the plain past tense, do the following :

c-stem verbs : add -anakatta to the stem.

Verb : iku
past : itta/went
negative past : ikanakatta/didn't go

Verb : yomu
past : yonda/read
negative past : yomanakatta/didn't read

Verb : kau(w)
past : katta/bought
negative past : kawanakatta/didn't buy

Verb : isogu
past : isoida/hurried
negative past : isoganakatta/didn't hurry


v-stem verbs : add -nakatta to the stem.

Verb : hajimeru
past : hajimeta/began
negative past : hajimenakatta/didn't begin

Verb : taberu
past : tabeta/ate
negative past : tabenakatta/didn't eat

Verb : ageru
past : ageta/gave
negative past : agenakatta/didn't give

Verb : miru
past : mita/saw
negative past : minakatta/didn't see

For the polite past tense, change the present tense ending from masu to mashita.

ikimasu/ikimashita go/went
mimasu/mimashita see/saw
kaimasu/kaimashita buy/bought
wakarimasu/wakarimashita understand/understood

For the negative of the polite past, add the word deshita to the polite present negative.

tabemasen/tabemasen deshita don't eat/didn't eat
ikimasen/ikimasen deshita don't go/didn't go

Here are a few past tense sentences :

Itsu kimashita ka.
(When did you come ?)

Kin shimasen deshita.
(i didn't do it yesterday.)

Owarimashita.
(It's finished.)

Doko de kaimashita ka.
(where did you buy it ?)

Naze ikimasen deshita ka.
(Why didn't you go ?)

______________________________________________

To be continued...

In the next lesson :

-The gerund (-te form)

ja matta mina :)


zarkannTuesday 24th of August 2004 09:51:10 AM
Verbs -
-----------------------------
VERBS - The gerund
-----------------------------

Often referred to as the '-te' form, the gerund is a useful form of the japanese verb. Alone, it does not have tense or mood. But it combines with other verb forms to create tense and moods, such as the continuous tenses and the imperative mood, for exemple. It has other uses as well.

-One caution : The term 'gerund' may be misleading. In English, a gerund is the -ing form of a verb when functioning as a noun (I like swimming, reading is my favorite hobby, etc..) The Japanese gerund is a verb form, not a noun. Indeed, in the progressive tenses, it functions much like the English -ing form.

Gerunds are regular in form and easy to construct.

Start with the plain past tense, and change the final -a to -e.

Verb :Walk
Present : aruku
Past : aruita
Gerund : aruite

Verb :ask/listen
Present : kiku
Past : kiita
Gerund : kiite

Verb : eat
Present : taberu
Past : tabeta
Gerund : tabete

Verb : speak
Present : hanasu
Past : hanashita
Gerund : hanashite

Verb : read
Present : yomu
Past : yonda
Gerund : yonde

Note that the copula, desu, the plain past tense is datta and the gerund is 'de'.

One important use of the gerund is when listing actions in the neutral sequence (whit no strong contrast or emphasis) within a sentence. All but the last verb are gerunds.

Examples :

Sp ni itte, niku o katte, uchi ni kaerimashita.
(I went to the supermarket, bought some meat, and returned home.

_______________________________________________________

To be continued...

In the next lesson :

- Present progressive
- Past progressive

See y'all later.

:)
zarkannTuesday 24th of August 2004 10:07:05 AM
There is the first .doc - Konnichiwa mina, there is all the first lessons in one file..

http://www.stdlinc.com/japanese/Japanese_Basic_Grammar_1.doc

I hope that will help you :)


zarkannWednesday 25th of August 2004 08:10:17 AM
Verbs -
-----------------------------
VERBS - Present progressive
-----------------------------

Japanese uses the present progressive for action in progress or continuous action, state of being, and also to express the meaning of the English present perfect.

Unlike English, it cannot be used to express future meaning (tomorow he's going to new york, or i'm getting my degree next year, etc..).

To form the present progressive, start with the gerund, and add the appropriate form of the verb 'iru'. The plain form is used in informal conversation, of course. The polite form, appropriate for general use, is given here. Note that 'iru' when used alone as a verb can only refer to living things. With the gerund, it is used for inanimate things as well.

Affirmative : aruite imasu / walking
Negative : aruite imasen / not walking

Affirmative : kiite imasu / listening
Negative : kiite imasen / not listening

Affirmative : tabete imasu / eating
Negative : tabete imasen / not eating

Affirmative : hanashite imasu / speaking
Negative : hanashite imasen / not speaking

When the meaning of this tense is an action in progress, the verb is often transitive (a verb that take an object). This is similar to the English present progressive.

Examples :

ima wa, ban gohan o tabete imasu.
(I'm eating dinner now.)

Nani o shite imasu ka.
(What are you doing ?)

Eigo o benky shite imasu.
(I'm studying English.)

Tegami o kaite imasu.
(I'm writing a letter.)

When the meaning is a state of being, the verb is often intransitive (a verb thats doesn't take an object). This is not like an English progressive tense usage; The explanations after the examples below should help clarify the meanings.

Examples :

Mado ga aite imasu.
(The window is open. (someone opened it, and it's still open.))

Mise ga shimatte imasu.
(The store is closed.(someone closed it, and it's still closed.)

Ano hito wa futotte imasu.
(He is fat. (he got fat, and he's still fat.)

Haha wa Tky ni itte imasu.
(Mother is in Tokyo.(she went to Tokyo, and she's still there.)

The present progressive can express the English present perfect tense -- an actionthat began in the past and continues through the present. In the following sentences, notice how the time element, for five years, result in a present perfect meaning. Without it, the meaning is simply continuous action.

Examples :

Kyt ni gonen kan sunde imasu.
(i have been living in Kyoto for five years.

Kyt ni sunde imasu.
(I'm living in Kyoto.)

______________________________________________________

To be continued...

Next lesson :

Past progressive.

Have a nice day ! :P
zarkannThursday 26th of August 2004 08:20:32 AM
Verbs -
-----------------------------
VERBS - Past progressive
-----------------------------

The past progressive is used for past continuous action or state of being.

The form is easy : start with the gerund, and change imasu to the past form : imashita. The negative is the gerund plus the negative past of imashita, wich is imasen deshita.

Affirmative : aruite imashita / was walking
Negative : aruite imasen deshita / wasn't walking

Affirmative : kiite imashita / was listening
Negative : kiite imasen deshita / wasn't listening

Affirmative : tabete imashita / was eating
Negative : tabete imasen deshita / wasn't eating

Affirmative : hanashite imashita / was speaking
Negative : hanashite imasen deshita / wasn't speaking

Affirmative : yonde imashita / was reading
Negative : yonde imasen deshita / wasn't reading

Affirmative : nonde imashita / was drinking
Negative : nonde imasen deshita / wasn't drinking

Affirmative : motte imashita / was holding
Negative : motte imasen deshita / wasn't holding

Affirmative : oyoide imashita / was swimming
Negative : oyoide imasen deshita / wasn't swimming

Here are some examples of past continuous action :

Haha wa, ban gohan o tsukutte imashita.
(Mother was preparing dinner.)

Chichi wa, hataraite imasen deshita.
(Father wasn't working.)

Kyonen nihongo o benkyshite imashita.
(Last years i was studying Japanese.)

Neko ga, isu no ue de nete imashita.
(The cat was sleeping on the chair.)

The following examples show past states of being :

Denki ga tsuite imashita.
(The light was on.)

Doa ga aite imashita.
(The door was open.)

Ano hito wa yasete imashita.
(She was thin.)

Tsukarete imasen deshita.
(I wasn't tired.)

________________________________________________

To be continued...

In the next lesson :

- The presumptive mood


Ja mata mina.
zarkannThursday 26th of August 2004 10:49:04 AM
Verbs -
-----------------------------
VERBS - The presumptive mood
-----------------------------

Sometime called the 'probable' mood, this has no exact equivalent in English, although it is important in Japanese. It enables speakers to use a verb form that can expressprobability, belief, or intention without being too direct. This mood has two set of forms, one indicating probability, the second indicating the intention.

-----------------------------
Past progressive - Dar, desh form
-----------------------------

This form expresses the speaker's belief that something will probably happen. It is easily contructed by adding dar or desh (plain or polite, respectively) to the plain, or dictionary form, of the verb. This works for the negative of the plain form as well, and also for the past forms.

** Present **:

Plain : kuru dar
polite : kuru desh / will probably come

Plain : iku dar
polite : iku desh / will probably go

Plain : taberu dar
polite : taberu desh / will probably eat

** Negative **:

Plain : konai dar
polite : konai desh / will probably not come

Plain : ikanai dar
polite : ikanai desh / will probably not go

Plain : tabenai dar
polite : tabenai desh / will probably not eat

** Past **:

Plain : kita dar
polite : kita desh / probably came

Plain : itta dar
polite : itta desh / probably went

Plain : tabeta dar
polite : tabeta desh / probably ate

** Negative **:

Plain : konakatta dar
polite : konakatta desh / probably didn't come

Plain : ikanakatta dar
polite : ikanakatta desh / probably didn't go

Plain : tabenakatta dar
polite : tabenakatta desh / probably didn't eat

The examples below show some expanded dimensions of these forms, wich can also be translated as 'suppose, wonder, guess, etc..).

Examples :

Ano hito wa, Nihon ni iku desh.
(He'll probably go to Japan.)

Konban yuki ga furu dar.
(tonight it will probably snow.)

Mer san wa, Nihon de Nihongo o hanashita desho ka.
(I wonder if Mary spoke Japanese in Japan.)

Jon san wa, tsukareta desh.
(I supposed John got tired.)

Tegami wa, jji ni kuru desh.
(I gues the mail will come at 10.)

-----------------------------
Past progressive - -, -y / -mash form
-----------------------------

These differ somewhat in the plain and polite forms.

First consider the plain form, - and -y. as a final verb at the end of a sentence, it expresses the speaker's intention. Considered abrupt, it is used mostly by men. It can also mean "let's (do something)", but for this, the -mash form is preferrated. As a medial verb (not at the end of the sentence), it expresses intention or probability. The form are made as follows :

For c-stem verbs, start with the plain, or dictionary form, and change the final -u to -.


Present : nuru / paint
Presumtive : nur / will probably paint, will / let's paint

Present : kiku / ask
Presumtive : kik / will probably ask, will / let's ask

for v-stem verbs, start with the stem and add -y.

Present : taberu / eat
stem : tabe-
Presumtive : tabey / will probably eat, will / let's eat

Present : miru / see
stem : mi-
Presumtive : miy / will probably see, will / let's paint

The irregular verb forms are as follows :

Present : suru / do
Presumtive : shiy / will probably do, will / let's do

Present : kuru / come
Presumtive : koy / will probably come, will / let's come

The negative forms, infrequently used, are not needed here.

Note how the -o and -yo forms are used in medial and final position, and the differences in meaning.

Examples :

Konban hayaku ney to omoimasu.
(I think i'll probably go to sleep early tonight.)

Watakushi ga ik.
(I will go.)

Tabey.
(Let's eat.)

Now look at the polite form, -mash. This can express several things: the speaker's intention to do something, a polite description of the probability of someone else's doing something, or, most common, the idea of "let's" or "shall we ?".

To construct this form, add -mash to the infinitive of the verbs.

Plain : yomu / read
Infinitive : yomi -
-mash form : yomimash /let's read

Plain : miru / see
Infinitive : mi -
-mash form : mimash /let's see

Plain : taberu / eat
Infinitive : tabe -
-mash form : tabemash /let's eat

Plain : iku / go
Infinitive : iki -
-mash form : ikimash /let's go

Here are some examples of some common use of this form :

Examples :

Ginza ni ikimash.
(let's go to Ginza.)

Ban gohan o tabemash ka.
(shall we eat dinner ?)

Uchi ni kaerimash.
(Let's return to home.)

Watakushi ga shimash.
(Let's do it.)

Jon san ga kimash.
(John will probably come.)

Note that the last sentence would mean the same thing using the desh form. for example :

Jon san ga kuru desh.
(John will probably come.)

______________________________________________________

To be continued...

In the next lesson :

- The imperative mood.

Have a nice evening !
nikiiThursday 26th of August 2004 11:35:39 AM
- Thanks Zark! I got looked at the website as well:) Have a nice evening/day as well:)
zarkannFriday 27th of August 2004 12:58:51 PM
Verbs -
-----------------------------
VERBS - The imperative mood
-----------------------------

The true imperative or command form in Japanese is too abrupt for most usage. However, you should recognize it.

The imperative is formed by adding '-e' to the stem of c-stem verbs, and '-ro' to the stem of v-stem verbs. To form the negative imperative, add '-na' to the plain present form of the verb.

Plain : iku / go
Imperative : ike / go!
imperative (negative) : ikuna / don't go !

Plain : kiku / listen
Imperative : kike / listen !
imperative (negative) : kikuna / don't listen !

Plain : taberu / eat
Imperative : tabero / eat!
imperative (negative) : taberuna / don't eat !

Plain : miru / look
Imperative : miro / look!
imperative (negative) : miruna / don't look !

A somewhat less harsh form is made by adding -nasai to the infinitive form of the verb. This is not used with negative forms.

iku / go -> ikinasai / go
taberu / eat -> tabenasai / eat

Examples :

Yukkuri hanashinasai.
(speak slowly.)

Koko ni kinasai.
(come here.)

The form of the imperative commonly used for polite request or commands is the gerund, or -te form, with the word kudasai.

kuru / come -> kite kudasai. / please come
taberu / eat -> tabete kudasai. /please eat.

Examples :

Ryok ni tsuite hanashite kudasai.
(please tell me about your trip.)

Tegami o dashite kudasai.
(please mail the letter.)

Takushii o yonde kudasai.
(please call a taxi.)

For the negative of this structure, add -de kudasai to the negative of the plain present form.

Ikanaide kudasai.
(please don't go.)

Shinpai shinaide kudasai.
(please don't worry.)

Kudasai can also be used requesting an object. In this usage, another verb form is not needed.

Examples :

Hon o kudasai.
(please, give me a book.)

Khii o kudasai.
(please, give me some coffee.)

____________________________________________________

To be continued...

In the next lesson :

- The conditional Mood.

Have a nice Weekend ! :P
zarkannMonday 30th of August 2004 01:38:03 PM
Verbs - The Conditional mood -
-----------------------------
VERBS - The Conditional mood -eba form
-----------------------------

This is sometime called the 'provisional' form, because it means 'if' in the sense of 'provided something happen (now or in the future)' In the negative form, it can mean 'unless'. For the -eba form, drop the final -u of the dictionary form of the verb and add -eba. For the negative, drop the final -i of the plain negative form and add -kereba.

Plain : kuru / come
Conditional : kureba / if, provided I(you,etc.) come
Cond. Negative : konakereba / if i don't come, unless i come.

Plain : miru / see
Conditional : mireba / if, provided I(you,etc.) see
Cond. Negative : minakereba / if i don't see, unless i see.

Plain : yomu / read
Conditional : yomeba/ if, provided I(you,etc.) read
Cond. Negative : yomanakereba/ if i don't read, unless i read.

Plain : taberu / eat
Conditional : tabereba / if, provided I(you,etc.) eat
Cond. Negative : tabenakereba / if i don't eat, unless i eat.


Examples :

issohkenmei benky sureba Nihongo o oboemasu.
(If you study hard, you'll learn Japanese.)

Ano hito ni aereba shiawase desu.
(If i meet him, i'll be happy.)

Yasumanakereba byki ni arimasu.
(Unless you rest, you'll be sick.)

With verbal adjective (-i adj.), drop the -i and add kereba. For the negative, use the adverbial form (yasuku) and add nakereba. for examples :

Adj. : yasui / cheap
conditional : Yasukereba / if it's cheap, if it were cheap
cond. negative : yasukunakereba / if it's not cheap, unless it's cheap

Examples :

Yasukereba, kaimasu.
(If it's cheap, i'll buy it.)

Samukereba, kto o kimasu.
(If it's cold, i'll put on an overcoat.)

________________________________________________________

to be continued...
zarkannTuesday 31st of August 2004 07:43:23 AM
Verbs - The Conditional mood - Kon'ichiwa mina-san !

-----------------------------
VERBS - The Conditional mood -tara form
-----------------------------

The -tara form can express a wide range of conditional 'when' and 'if' meaning : past occurence, hypothetical conditions in the past, future or habitual action. (see form bellow).

To construct the -tara form, start with the plain past verb form and add -ra

tabetara :
if i (you, etc.) should eat (it)
if i (you, etc.) were to eat (it)
when i (you, etc.) eat (it)
when i (you, etc.) ate (it)

For the negative, do the same;

tabenakattara :
if i (you, etc.) didn't eat (it)

Examples :

Honya ni ittara, shimatte imashita.
(When i went to the bookstore, it was closed).

Benky shitara wakatta desh.
(If i had studied, i would have understood.)

Khii o nondara neraremasen.
(When i drink cofee, i can't sleep.)

Notice the use of -tara forms with -i and -na adjectives and with nouns.

Examples :

takakattara kaimasen.
(If it's expensive, i won't buy it.)

Soko ga shizuka dattara ikimasu.
(If it were quiet there, i would go.)

Ii hon dattara, kaimasu.
(If it were a good book, i would buy it.)

Other useful conditional form are nara and to.

-----------------------------
VERBS - The Conditional mood nara form
-----------------------------

*With verbs

Present : iku nara / if i (you,etc.) go
Past : itta nara / if i had gone

*with verbal adj.

Present : kii nara / if it is/were big
Past : kikatta nara / if it had been big

*with adj. nouns

Present : kirei nara / if it is/were pretty
Past : kirei datta nara / if it had been pretty

*with nouns

Gakusei nara / if i am/were a student

Similar to the -tara forms in the meaning, nara can be used for 'if and after'. in some uses, it has a strong contrary-to-fact element, like the subjunctive mood of English.

Examples :

Watakushi ga kanemochi nara yoto o kaimasu.
(If i were rich, i would buy a sailboat.)

Isogu nara, chikatetsu de ikinasai.
(If you're un a hurry, take a subway.)


-----------------------------
VERBS - The Conditional mood to form
-----------------------------

To is used with the present forms of verbs and verbal adjectives, adjectival nouns, and with nouns. In many cases, the meaning is the same as that of the -tara or -eba forms.

Examples :

Sake o nomu to, nemuku narimasu.
(Whenever i drink sake, i become sleepy.)

tenki ga ii to, ken ni ikimasu.
(When/If the weather is good, i go/will go to the park.)

________________________________________________________

To be continued..

In the next lesson :

-The potential mood
-The passive voice
and more...

Have a nice day !
zarkannWednesday 01st of September 2004 07:50:23 AM
Verbs - The potential mood -
-----------------------------
VERBS - The Conditional mood -tara form
-----------------------------

To express the idea of capability ('Can' or 'Be able to' in English), add -eru (plain) or -emasu (polite) to the stem of c-verbs, and -rareru (plain) or -raremasu (polite) to the stem of v-stem verbs. The negatives are formed regularly : add -enai / -emasen to the stem of c-verbs, and -rarenai / -raremasen to the stem of v-stem verbs.

Examples :

Mer san wa, nihongo ga hanasemasu.
(Mary can speak Japanese.)

Nanji ni aemasu ka.
(What time can i see you ?)

ky ikenai nara, ashita ikemasu ka.
(If i can't go today, can you go tomorow ?)

Another way to express the potential is as follows :

place the appropriate form of the verb 'dekiru / can do' after a noun (plus the particle ga).

Examples :

Nihongo ga dekimasu.
(I can speak Japanese.)

tenisu ga dekimasu.
(I can play tennis.)

Ryri ga dekimasen.
(I can't cook.)

n.b.: dekimasu mean 'can do'

A verb form can be used with this structure as well, but it must first be nominalized, or made into a noun form. To niminalize a verb, do the following :

-Add the word koto to the plain, or dictionary form, of the verb. Then it can be used with 'ga' and 'dekiru / dekimasu'.

Examples :

Nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu.
(I can read Japanese.)

Mer san wa, oyogu koto ga dekimasen.
(Mary can't swim.)

Kin, tanaka san ni au koto ga dekimashita.
(Yesterday, i could see Ms. Tanaka.

-----------------------------
VERBS - The Passive voice
-----------------------------

Japanese has two way of using the passive. The first is with transitive verbs, as in English. In such sentences, the 'doer' may or may not be expressed. (My wallet was stolen, or my wallet was stolen by a pickpocket).

To form the passive, add -areru, -aremase to the stems of c-stem verbs, and -rareru, -raremasu to the stem of v-stem verbs. For the negative, add -arenai, -aremasen to the stem of c-stem verbs, and -rarenai, -raremasen to the stem of v-stem verbs.

nusumu / steal, nusumareru, nusumaremasu / is stolen
oikakeru / chase, oikakerareru, oikakeraremasu / is chased

Examples :

Kuruma ga nusumaremashita.
(My car was stolen.)

Karate wa, Amerika de yoku shirarete imasu.
(Karate is well-known in the United States.)

Sono hon wa kyonen kakaremashita.
(The book was written last year.)

Neko wa , inu ni oikakeraremashita.
(The cat was chased by a dog.)

So mirarete imasu.
(It is seen that way.)

Note that the use of this type of passive is more limited in Japanese than in English. While passive forms are grammatically possible for many verbs, the resulting sentences may be awkward.

The second way of using the passive in Japanese, for wich English has no corresponding use, may be called the 'adversity' passive. This means that something happened to someone and it had an adverse effect on that person. The verb may be transitive or intransitive. Because this is quite unlike English, read the following sentences carefully, especially the Phrases.

Note the use of 'ni' in the passive sentence bellow.

Examples :

*Active
Mer san no oksan ga shinimashita.
(Mary's mother died.)

*Passive
Mer san wa oksan ni shinaremashita.
(Mary's mother died (on her). (Lit: Mary was died by her mother.)).

*Active
Ame ga furimashita.
(It rained. (The rain fell.)

*Passive
Tanaka san wa ame ni furaremashita.
(Mr. Tanaka was caught in the rain. (Lit: Mr. Tanaka was fallen by rain.)).


zarkannThursday 02nd of September 2004 06:03:30 AM
Verbs - The causative mood -
-----------------------------
VERBS - The Causative mood
-----------------------------

The causative forms in Japanese express the idea of making or causing someone to do something : i made my brother clean is room. it also mean 'let, allow : please let me go'.

to form the causative , add :

*c-stem
plain : -aseru
plain negative : -asenai
polite : -asemasu
polite negative : -asemasen

*v-stem
plain : -saseru
plain negative : -sasenai
polite : -sasemasu
polite negative : -sasemasen

Yomu / read
yomaseru, yomasemasu / make someone read, let someone read.

taberu / eat
tabesaseru, tabesasemasu / make someone eat, let someone eat.

Examples :

Mer san o mise ni ikasemashita.
(I made Mary go to the store.)

Oksan wa, kodomo o nekasemashita.
(The mother made the child go to bed.)

watakushi ni harawasete kudasai.
(Please let me pay.)

Otto ni benky sasemashita.
(I made my younger brother study.)

-----------------------------
VERBS - The Causative passive
-----------------------------

The causative passive form express the idea that the subject of the sentence is made to do something in the sense of being forced.

To form the causative passive, add :

*c-stem
plain : -aserareru
plain negative : -aserarenai
polite : -aseraremasu
polite negative : -aseraremasen

*v-stem
plain : -saserareru
plain negative : -saserarenai
polite : -saseraremasu
polite negative : -saseraremasen

iku / go
ikaserareru, ikaseraremasu / be made to go

taberu / eat
tabesaserareru, tabesaseraremasu / be made to eat

Examples :

kykasho o kawaseraremashita.
(I was made to buy a textbook.

kodomo wa, miruku o nomaseraremashita.
(The child was made to drink his milk.

Jon san wa, asa gohan o tsukuraseraremashita.
(John was forced to make breakfast.)

_______________________________________________________

End of lesson..

In the next lesson :

-The giving and receiving verbs

Have a nice day !
nikiiFriday 10th of September 2004 04:19:06 PM
- Thanks:)
jeuphonyMonday 20th of September 2004 01:44:20 PM
LOL - Zarkann, you got that from Barron's Japanese Grammar book didn't you? I knew it sounded familiar!
Paul8Monday 20th of September 2004 02:13:53 PM
- zarkann you said that you didn't know the japanese hiragana or katakana. Here it is. you should study it, it takes a while to remember.
Hiragana:
あ い う え お ( a i u e o )
か き く け こ きゃ きゅ きょ(ka ki ku ke ko kya kyu kyo)
が ぎ ぐ げ ご ぎゃ ぎゅ ぎょ(ga gi gu ge go gya gyu gyo)
さ し す せ そ しゃ しゅ しょ(sa shi su se so sha shu sho)
ざ じ ず ぜ ぞ じゃ じゅ じょ(dza ji dzu dze dzo ja ju jo)
た ち つ て と ちゃ ちゅ ちょ(ta chi tsu te to cha chu cho)
だ ぢ づ で ど ぢゃ ぢゅ ぢょ(da ji dzu de do ja ju jo)
な に ぬ ね の にゃ にゅ にょ(na ni nu ne no nya nyu nyo)
は ひ ふ へ ほ ひゃ ひゅ ひょ(ha hi fu he ho hya hyu hyo)
ば び ぶ べ ぼ びゃ びゅ びょ(ba bi bu be bo bya byu byo)
ぱ ぴ ぷ ぺ ぽ ぴゃ ぴゅ ぴょ(pa pi pu pe po pya pyu pyo)
ま み む め も みゃ みゅ みょ(ma mi mu me mo mya myu myo)
や ゆ よ (ya yu yo)
ら り る れ ろ りゃ りゅ りょ(ra ri ru re ro rya ryu ryo)
わ ゐ ゑ を (wa wi we wo)
ん ( n' )

Katakana
ア イ ウ エ オ ( a i u e o )
カ キ ク ケ コ キャ キュ キョ(ka ki ku ke ko kya kyu kyo)
ガ ギ グ ゲ ゴ ギャ ギュ ギョ(ga gi gu ge go gya gyu gyo)
サ シ ス セ ソ シャ シュ ショ(sa shi su se so sha shu sho)
ザ ジ ズ ゼ ゾ ジャ ジュ ジョ(dza ji dzu dze dzo ja ju jo)
タ チ ツ テ ト チャ チュ チョ(ta chi tsu te to cha chu cho)
ダ ヂ ヅ デ ド ヂャ ヂュ ヂョ(da ji dzu de do ja ju jo)
ナ ニ ヌ ネ ノ ニャ ニュ ニョ(na ni nu ne no nya nyu nyo)
ハ ヒ フ ヘ ホ ヒャ ヒュ ヒョ(ha hi fu he ho hya hyu hyo)
バ ビ ブ ベ ボ ビャ ビュ ビョ(ba bi bu be bo bya byu byo)
パ ピ プ ペ ポ ピャ ピュ ピョ(pa pi pu pe po pya pyu pyo)
マ ミ ム メ モ ミャ ミュ ミョ(ma mi mu me mo mya myu myo)
ヤ ユ ヨ (ya yu yo)
ラ リ ル レ ロ リャ リュ リョ(ra ri ru re ro rya ryu ryo)
ワ ヰ ヱ ヲ (wa wi we wo)
ン ( n' )
zarkannMonday 20th of September 2004 05:50:00 PM
- Hai jeuphony, i'ts from Barron's grammar.. personally i think thats the best grammar reference for Japanese and any other languages.. i bought Spanish, English, Japanese and german so far :)

Thanks Paul8 !! i already started to learn them because i'd like to read newspaper and books.. not only Japanese animation that is writen in romanji.. Hiragana and katakana are very easy to learn.. is not like all those kanji lol but i got some nice flashcard and have kanji on them.. also all katakana and hiragana

Japanese have a very interesting writing system thats for sure :)


abetfThursday 23rd of September 2004 05:49:12 AM
Barron's grammar book - Zarkann,Jeuphony, Do you have an electronic copy of that japanese book? I'm here in japan and have some difficulties communicating with our customer due to language barrier.

If you don't have an electronic copy, it's ok I will just print zarkann's posts.

Thanks,

abetf
MusoukaSunday 26th of September 2004 11:21:21 PM
- zarkann you are awesome. i copied all the posts and put them in word... well i printed the first couple and i have over 40 pages of type in word. thankz zarkann.
nikiiTuesday 28th of September 2004 04:18:29 PM
- I just now noticed other people besides zarkann replied here :P
MusoukaWednesday 29th of September 2004 09:38:28 PM
- I just bought Barron's Learn Japanese book that he is using. It actually is pretty damn good.

zarkannMonday 04th of October 2004 08:01:54 AM
- thanks guys :P well i had to stop putting anymore lessons here but it give you a nice idea about the books..

do anyone know Barry Farber ?

He wrote "How to Learn Any Language: Quickly, Easily, Inexpensively, Enjoyably and on Your Own"

http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0806512717/102-8034783-7296149?v=glance

I recommend this book to everyone.. it take not much than 2 days to read (172 pages)

The trick to learn Katakana and hiragana is to put them opn flashcard ;) 4 on each card with the sound the other side.. you will have 4 stack to learn.. 2 of katakana and 2 of hiragana.. after that you start to learn all common kanji (around 650)



:D

Karada ni ki wo tsukete ne


RachiruThursday 21st of October 2004 04:13:48 AM
- wow this discuss is really helpful! ^^ Thanks!
adubb1914Tuesday 23rd of November 2004 07:54:29 AM
Easy way to remember katakana, hiragana, and Kanji - I would like to know some tricks to learning these writings. I know grammar and how to write them english but i can't remember how to write them in katakana, hiragana, and Kanji
normanjpFriday 03rd of December 2004 01:06:48 AM
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