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MaryamMonday 18th of October 2004 05:02:52 AM
SPANISH GRAMMAR - I know that at times it can be difficult for a beginner to know when a spanish noun is feminine or not. Because the spanish adjectives must correspond with the noun in gender and number (unless the adjective in question is invariable, of course, like "inteligente" for example), it will be useful to have some tips in order to be used with the masculine and feminine genders. If you follow these guidelines the task will become less difficult.
Let's have a look at them:

- When a noun ends in -o , -or ... it is "generally" masculine.
Examples: colegio, camino, lago, cambio, mono, estudio, caso, lobo, candor, amor, dolor, sabor, color, temblor.

- When a noun ends in a- , -ad, -ión, -tud, -umbre .... it is "generally" feminine.
Examples: casa, amiga, comida, cantina, mona, loba, cita, ciudad, amistad, longevidad, canción, sensación, emancipación, coalición, pulcritud, senectud, inquietud, lumbre.

some "exceptions": emblema, fonema, dilema.


anschub86Monday 18th of October 2004 05:07:55 AM
exceptions - and problema *lol*
MaryamMonday 18th of October 2004 05:57:37 AM
- YESSSS:)!!
[quote]Originally posted by anschub86


and problema *lol*[/quote]
anschub86Monday 18th of October 2004 05:58:21 AM
- what about:
tema ?

MaryamMonday 18th of October 2004 06:28:01 AM
- When I said "generally" and "exceptions" I guessed there were going to be those kind of suggestions. That is very good. Tema is masculine.

As I said,"generally", "casi siempre". Many spanish nouns ended with -a are masculine. This is why it is very good to read the nouns always accompanied with the article to see which are masculine and which feminine.


MaryamMonday 18th of October 2004 06:40:02 AM
MASCULINE AND FEMININE NOUNS - -The letters of the alphabet are "feminine"
Ex.: La "a", la "eme", la "zeta"

- Name of rivers: Generally masculine. Exception: La Noguera-Pallaresa.
Ex.: El Ebro, el Sena, el Mississippi, el Ródano, el Volga...

- Names of cities. When the city ends in -a it will be a feminine noun. The rest will be masculine. some exceptions may take place.
Ex.: París es hermoso, Barcelona es muy extensa, Madrid es ruidoso, Nueva York es bonitO (or bonitA), Cairo es misterioso.
anschub86Monday 18th of October 2004 06:45:54 AM
-
I memorize it like this:
letter means "la letra" so you can say "la letra a" "la letra eme" "la letra zeta"

river comes from "el río" :el río Ebro,el río Sena...
MaryamMonday 18th of October 2004 06:53:27 AM
Some Maculine Nouns whose Feminine change in meaning - There are some masculine nouns that, if we write them with the feminine article, their sense will change completely, thus having a very different meaning.

El cámara (the camera operator) - la cámara (the chamber)
El capital (capital stock) - la capital (the main city )
El cólera (cholera)- la cólera (anger)
El cometa (comet) - la cometa (kite)
El cura (priest) - la cura (healing)
El frente (front line or rank) - la frente (forehead)
El guía (adviser, guide) - la guía (guidebook)
El orden (regularity) - la orden (order, sort)
El parte - (dispatch) - la parte (part, faction)
El pendiente (earring) - la pendiente (incline, slope)
El pez- (fish) - la pez (tar)
MaryamMonday 18th of October 2004 06:56:06 AM
- Yes, that´s a very good way.


[quote]Originally posted by anschub86



I memorize it like this:
letter means "la letra" so you can say "la letra a" "la letra eme" "la letra zeta"

river comes from "el río" :el río Ebro,el río Sena...[/quote]
anschub86Monday 18th of October 2004 07:06:31 AM
- Thats very interesting!i've only known the difference between the two "capital"s :-) Now I pay more attention to the articles!

[quote]Originally posted by Maryam


There are some masculine nouns that, if we write them with the feminine article, their sense will change completely, thus having a very different meaning.

El cámara (the camera operator) - la cámara (the chamber)
El capital (capital stock) - la capital (the main city )
El cólera (cholera)- la cólera (anger)
El cometa (comet) - la cometa (kite)
El cura (priest) - la cura (healing)
El frente (front line or rank) - la frente (forehead)
El guía (adviser, guide) - la guía (guidebook)
El orden (regularity) - la orden (order, sort)
El parte - (dispatch) - la parte (part, faction)
El pendiente (earring) - la pendiente (incline, slope)
El pez- (fish) - la pez (tar)[/quote]
Bruce B.Tuesday 19th of October 2004 11:14:14 AM
palabras griegas - I'm certainly not the Spanish expert. In regard to Maryam's first post and Anschub's replies, i can add this. While "a" nouns are generally feminine, "ma" nouns are generally masculine. This is because they are of Greek origin. In Greek they are masculine and entered Latin as such. Spanish retains them as masculine nouns. A notable exception is 'la forma' which is of Latin origin, not Greek. The student who is interested can use this as a good general rule: A masculine noun ending in "ma" is Greek in origin; a feminine noun ending in "ma" is Latin in origin. English students who care about the roots of words use a similar device. Words that start with "rh" (rhyme, rhapsody, etc) are Greek, as are words containing "ph" (photograph, morphology).
This is of more than passing interest. Knowing the origins of words is a key to understanding their meaning and retaining their use.
In the case of masculine -ma, this is less an exception to the rule than it is a key to origin and use of the words involved.
MaryamTuesday 19th of October 2004 12:13:43 PM
- Certainly true, languageboy. We must point out that there are also some "iberian words" that vulgar latin also assimilated thus making part of that language. Examples of iberian words are "camisia", becoming "camisa", "cervesia" becoming "cerveza".
Also we have substantial lexicon that came from germanic languages during the III and VI centuries. Examples of nouns with germanic root are "guerra", "robar", "guisar", "heraldo", "burgo". This last word meant "castle" and later on became to another meaning: city. Hamburgo, Edimburgo, Estrasburgo are some examples.

It is also important to know that the basques have also added many suffixes to our spanish language. Examples are carro, cerrro, cazurro, etc.

We also have many words that are a legacy from the celts.

But the most important heritage after the vulgar latin and the greek comes from the arab language. We can count about 4,000 words or "arabisms" that show how many of the spanish words have arab origins and roots. Most of names starting with "al", "ala", "car" have arab origins.

For an almost complete list of them, visit http://usuarios.lycos.es/Torbi/astronomiaenelmundoarabe/otraspalabras.htm