All Languages Pronouns Of All Languages What Are All The Pronouns Of All Languages?

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Danial
Saturday 10th of February 2007 11:02:32 PM
Pronouns of all languages: I'm curious, about how all the pronouns of all the languages in the world looked like. :p

So, I'll start first by posting my two natives.

English (Yay, the easiest :p)

1st person singular pronoun: I
2nd person singular pronoun: You
3rd person singular pronoun: He (male)/ She (female)/ It (objects)
1st person plural pronoun: We
2nd person plural pronoun: You
3rd person plural pronoun: They

Heh... English is easy :p now let's go to something wooo... complex :p



Malay: (I know it's a crazy list, which I've plucked from the internet ( http://macvaysia.com/?p=291 ) :D so I've underlined the only ones I've ever heard or used :p)

1st person singular pronouns:

Saya - the most common word, pairs with awak/kamu/anda.

Aku - common, said to someone close, may sound unmannered if speaker is not close to listener, but in Indonesia, this is OK. Also, when praying to God, aku is always used (to show closeness). Pairs with engkau/kau in Malaysia, engkau/kau/kamu in Indonesia.

Beta (bta) - saya, said by a sultan/sultanah.

Teman - saya, in Perak.

Cek (ck) - saya, in Penang/Kedah, said to someone older.

Kula/kulo - saya/aku, in Javanese (in Batu Pahat, Muar, Kuala Selangor, and other areas where old Javanese people can be found).

Kamek (Kamk) - saya, in Sarawak. Kamek orang for plural.

Denai/Den/Ese (Dnai/Dn/s) - saya, in Minangkabau slang (especially in Kuala Pilah, Negeri Sembilan, and South Sumatera).

Awak - saya, in sounthern Perak (Tapah, Setiawan, Bota, Batu Gajah, Grik, etc).

Ambo/Kawe (kaw) - saya, in Kelantan/Terengganu.

Kami/Kita - saya, said by kids among themselves.

Kawan - saya, in Johor (not widely used today).

Orang - saya, in Singapore (also in Johor!).

Ana - saya, from Arabic (sometimes used by Muslim scholars, eg tabligh, or someone who tries to adopt a little Arab culture).

Wa/Gua - aku, coined from Hokkien, in Indonesia: Gue (gu).

Sinda - (classical, northen slang I), to pair with sira.

Patik - saya, said by ordinary person to a sultan/sultanah.

Hamba - literally means slave, mainly in classical literature, it shows humbleness.

1st person plural pronouns:

Kami - we, plural of I, listener excluded.

Kita - we, you + I, you all + I, listener(s) included.

Kema - kami/kita, in Perak.

Sepa (spa) - kami, in Kedah/Penang.

Iboq - kami in Semang (an aborigine tribe in Pahang/Terengganu).

Manira - classical kami/kita, probably from Sanskrit.

Kita orang or simply kitorang - informal, broken, very common, daily speech. Not used in Indonesia/Brunei.

2nd person pronouns:

Awak (plural: awak semua*) - the common word, pairs with saya, not used in Indonesia, though. (* semua means all, this word is added to make a plural you.)

Engkau/Kau - sounds rude if speaker is not close to listener. Pairs with aku. Rude to be used with parents as well or older relatives.

Kamu (plural: kamu semua) - another common word, more formal, higher level (teacher, parents, older, boss) to lower level (students, kids, younger, employer) theres a sense of superiority of the speaker, Indonesian Malay doesnt have awak, some Kelantanese/Terengganu people think it sounds rather rude, especially if the listener is older. Ironically, they use the shorter form mu to pair with ambo. Again, dont mix up the pairs!

Anda (plural anda semua) - formal or polite form of you.

Saudara - you, polite, formal, addressed to a male stranger on the street when you want to ask for directions, shops, seminars, etc. Literally, it means brother, also used in informal letters.

Saudari - feminine form of saudara.

Demo (Dmo) - kamu, in Kelantan.

Sira - anda, classical, in northern states, pairs with sinda.

Mika - engkau, in Perak, used between close conversants, or older to younger, higher level to lower.

Kome/Kome(kom) - kamu in Perak, informal. Usually said by a superior speaker.

Hang - engkau, in Perlis/Kedah. Hangpa = kamu semua (plural).

Cek (ck) - kamu in Penang, used by older speaker to a younger listener.

Koe (ko) - awak, in Indonesia.

Kitak (plural kitak semuak) - awak in Sarawak.

Ekau (kau) - engkau in Minangkabau slang, pairs with den (dn).

Anta - kamu, from Arabic, for a male listener. Pairs with ana.

Anti - feminine form of anta.

Mung - kamu, in Terengganu.

Tuan hamba - literally means master of slave, mainly in classical literature, it shows greatness, pairs with hamba.

Kalian - plural form of anda in Indonesia.

Lu - awak/kau, coined from Hokkien; in Indonesia: Loh.

Kau orang or simply korang - informal, broken, very common, daily speech (plural). Not used in Indonesia/Brunei.

Encik - Mr., formal.

Puan - Mrs., (in Malaysia/Brunei), formal, polite. Dont use the husbands name, shes not Puan Jordan but Puan Leen (using her own name).

Nyonya - Mrs., especially in Penang, Melaka, and Singapore during pre-independence time, now only used in Indonesia, especially if she is of Chinese decent. Nyonya Mansur doesnt mean Mansur is a she-male! Its her husbands name.

Ibu - this doesnt mean youre calling another woman mom! Its the equivalent of Puan in Indonesia. Ibu Leen = Madam Leen.

Cik - Miss, in Malaysia.

Nona - Cik in Indonesia.

Tuan - literally means master. Equivalent to Mr., usually addressed to someone who has performed his pilgrimage to Mecca, eg: Tuan Haji Jordan (pairs with Puan Hajjah Mazleen) (***Jordans note: InshAllah!), also means Sir, especially to police officer, judge, eg: Tuan Inspektor, Tuan Hakim, Tuan Doktor (this even includes a female judge or doctor!). In that case, it means Lady/madam to show respect/status/higher rank. In classical Malay, Tuan Puteri (My Lady Princess). Not Puan Puteri or Cik Puteri.

Bapak - literally means father, used in Indonesia. Equivalent to Malaysians Encik/Tuan, excluding Tuan Puteri/Doktor. Eg: Bapak Polisi, Bapak Jordan. Male only.

Abang - elder brother, to a stranger on the street, at a warong, shops, campus. In Malaysia only.

(Kang) Mas - abang in Javanese, Indonesia.

Kakak/Kak - elder sister in Malaysia, also abang/kakang in Indonesia.

Kakek (kakk) - grandpa, in Indonesia.

Adik - younger brother/sister, in Malaysia.

Makcik - Aunty, in Malaysia.

Pakcik - Uncle, in Malaysia.

Tanter - Aunty, in Indonesia.

Om - Uncle, in Indonesia.

3rd person pronouns:

Dia - He/She

Ia - He/She/It

Deme (dme) - They in Northern dialect.

Nya - He/She in Sarawak. Nya orang for plural.

Mereka (Merka) - They

Dia orang - or simply diorang - informal, broken, very common, daily speech (plural). Not used in Indonesia/Brunei.


Mohamed
Saturday 10th of February 2007 11:12:08 PM
Arabic: good topic as usual Danial :) here are the pronouns for Arabic(except the dual and plural feminine cases as they are rare):


I
أنَا
anaa

You (m.)
أنتَ
anta

You (f.)
أنتِ
ante

You (pl.)
أنتُم
antom

He
هُوَ
howa

She
هِِيَ
heya

They
هُم
hom

We
نَحنُ
naHno



Keep it up


caeireann
Saturday 10th of February 2007 11:26:24 PM
Irish Gaelic

I: m [may]
you: t [teuu]
he/ it: s [shay]
she/ it: s [shee]
we: muid / sinn [mued / shin]
ye: sibh [shiv]
they: siad [sheed]



Tiger
Sunday 11th of February 2007 12:06:15 AM
German: ich - I
du - you (informal)
Sie - you (formal)
sie - she/they/it
er - he/it
es - it
wir - we
ihr - you (plural
man - one

Spanish - Espaol

yo - I
t - you (informal)
usted - you (formal)
l - he
ella - she
ellos/ellas - they
nosostros - we
vosotros - you (plural, used only in Spain)
ustedes - you (plural, formal)


Ania
Sunday 11th of February 2007 12:32:52 AM
Polish

Ja - I
Ty - You
On/ona/ono - He/She/It

My - We
Wy - You
Oni/One - they (masc/fem)


Italian

Io - I
Tu - You
Lui/Lei/Lo - He/She/It

Nos - We
Vos - You
Loro - They

Portuguese

Eu - I
Tu/Voc - You informal/formal
Ele/Ela - He/She

Ns - We
Vocs - You
Eles/Elas - They (masc/fem)


cleomau
Sunday 11th of February 2007 01:06:05 AM
Mandarin
wǒ - I
nǐ- You
tā - He
tā - She
tā - It
我们 wǒ men - We
你们 nǐ men - You (plural)
他们 tā men - They (male)
她们 tā men - They (female)
它们 tā men - They

Icelandic
g - I
- You
hann - He
hn - She
a - It
vi - We
i - You (plural)
ier - They (male)
r - They (female)
au - They (male and female)




smattew
Sunday 11th of February 2007 01:12:05 AM
pronouns of all languages: Italian language

I -> Io
You -> tu
He, She, It -> Egli
We -> Noi
You -> Voi
They -> Essi


Goran
Sunday 11th of February 2007 04:00:14 AM
I guess you are referring to personal pronouns ;) because there are many of them: ;)

In English these pronouns can be: (maybe I've forgotten to add some of them)

- personal pronouns:

* subjective personal pronouns
* objective personal pronouns
* possessive personal pronouns

- demonstrative pronouns
- relative pronouns
- disjunctive pronouns
- interrogative pronouns
- indefinite pronouns
- reflexive pronouns
- intensive pronouns

In other languages there are more or less pronouns.

Regarding the personal ones...

Spanish:

yo
t
l, ella, ello, usted
nosotros, nosotras
vosotros, vosotras
ellos, ellas, ustedes

Catalan:

jo
tu
ell, ella, vost
nosaltres
vosaltres
ells, elles, vosts

Croatian/Serbian:

ja
ti
on, ona, ono
mi
vi
oni, one


cleomau
Sunday 11th of February 2007 10:24:17 AM
I've already included Mandarin and Icelandic, but thought I should add Japanese. There are more, but I can't find my paper with the more obscure and older one's written down.

わたし,わたくし watashi,watakushi - I (both are formal, but watakushi is extremely formal)
あたし atashi - I (informal female)
ぼく boku - I (informal male)
おれ ore - I (very informaly male)
うち uchi - I (young girls Kansai dialect)
鼻様 はなさま hanasama - I (pompous)
Also, you can use your own name which is informal.

あなた anata - You (formal)
あんた anta - You (informal)
きみ kimi - You (informal)
お前 おまえ omae - You (informal)
手前 てめえ,てまえ temee,temae - You (rude)
貴様 きさま kisama - You (rude)
Also, you can use the person's name with an honorific.

かれ kare - He (formal/informal)
彼氏 かれし kareshi - He (formal/informal)
あの方 あのかた anokata - He/She (very formal)
あの人 あのひと anohito - He/She (formal)
やつ yatsu - He/She (informal)
彼奴 あいつ aitsu - He/She (informal, oftentimes rude)
彼女 かのじょ kanojo - She (formal/informal)

私達 わたしたち watashitachi - We (formal)
私ども わたしども watashidomo - We
僕ら ぼくら bokura - We (very informal, used by males)
僕達,僕たち ぼくたち bokutachi - We (informal, used by males)

あなた達 あなたたち anatatachi - You (formal plural)
君たち きみたち kimitachi - You (informal plural)
貴社 きしゃ kisha - You (formal plural)
貴様ら きさまら kisamara - You (rude plural)
諸君 しょくん shokun - You (plural)

彼等 かれら karera - They (written only)
あの人たち あのひとたち anohitotachi - They
彼女たち かのじょたち kanojotachi - They (female)
奴ら やつら yatsura - They (very informal)
彼奴ら あいつら aitsura - They (very informal)

我が社 わがしゃ wagasha - We (when representing your company)
我々 われわれ wareware - We (when representing your company)
弊社 へいしゃ heisha - We (when representing your company)
御社 おんしゃ onsha - You (plural, used when adressing someone at a meeting)
お宅, 御宅 おたく otaku - You (old way to say you, now associated with people obsessed with something)
拙者 せっしゃ sessha - I (old way to say it)
汝,爾 なんじ nanji - You (old way to say it, like say "thou")


EvanescenceChibi
Monday 12th of February 2007 12:20:20 AM
French:

I- je (j')
you sing.- tu
he- il
she- elle
one- on
we- nous
you pl.- vous
they (m.)- ils
they (f.)- elles


Russian:
I- я (ya)
you sing.- ты (ty)
he- он (on)
she- она (ona)
it- оно (ono)
we- мы (my)
you pl.- вы (vy)
they- они (oni)


Osman
Monday 12th of February 2007 02:25:08 AM
Thanks Goran for the clarification :)

I was really scared when i saw Danial's post lol! Loads of Pronouns! Danial! Beware! :D

Turkish

Ben - I

Sen - You (informal)

O - He/She/It

Biz - We

Siz - You (formal, plural)

Onlar - They




FaWzY
Monday 12th of February 2007 09:35:33 AM
Well, Mohamed missed the "Couple" pronouns.
In Arabic we have pronouns for couples (2 people)

أنتما (Antoma) = You both

هما (Homa) = Both of them

They are gender neutral.


nena77
Tuesday 13th of February 2007 02:45:27 AM
GREEK
Personal pronouns

Εγώ - Ego - I
Εσύ - Esi - You [singular, infomal]
Αυτός - Aftos - He [for male nouns]
Αυτή - Afti - She [for female nouns]
Αυτό - Afto - It [for neutral nouns]
Εμείς - Emis - We
Εσείς - Esis - You [2nd plural and also formal 2nd singular]
Αυτοί - Afti - They

;)


kea
Tuesday 13th of February 2007 08:11:54 PM
Estonian: mina/ma (long and short version) - I
sina/sa - you (singular)
tema/ta - he or she
see - it
meie/me - we
teie/te - you (plural)
nemad/nad - they


Agnese
Tuesday 13th of February 2007 09:30:03 PM
Latvian: Es- I
Tu- you (singular)
Viņ, viņa- he, she
Mēs- we
Jūs- you (plural)
Viņi, viņas- they (masc& f)

Tas - it- and other words for it is not a personal pronoun


Anonymous
Wednesday 14th of February 2007 01:45:01 AM
Esperanto - La Internacia Lingvo
Esperanto - The International Language

I: mi [mee]
you: vi [vee]
he: li [lee]
she: ŝi [shee]
it: ĝi [gee]
we: ni [nee]
ye: vi [vee]
they: ili [il-ee]


helene
Wednesday 14th of February 2007 05:05:16 AM
Norwegian bokml

I - jeg
you - du
he - han
she - hun
it - det
we - vi
you - dere
they - de

Norwegian nynorsk

I - eg
you - du
he - han
she - ho
it - det
we - vi, me
you - de
they - dei

and my dialect (Norwegian), just for fun :)

I - g, egg
you - du
he - han, 'an
she - hu, u, o
it - d, de
we - me
you - dkke, de
they - dai



utomjording
Friday 16th of February 2007 12:01:39 AM
Romansch:

I - jau
you - ti
he - el
she - ella
we - nus
you (pl) - vus
they (m) - els
they (f) - ellas
you (formal, sg+pl) - Vus


Hungarian:

I - n
you - te
he, she, it - ő
we - mi
you (pl) - ti
they - ők
you (formal sg) - n
you (formal pl) - nk


Faroese:

I - eg
you - t
he - hann
she - hon
it - ta
we - vit
you (pl) - tit
they (m) - teir
they (f) - tr
they (n) - tey
you (formal, sg+pl) - tygum


EvanescenceChibi
Friday 16th of February 2007 06:52:20 AM
Schwbisch:

I- i
you (sing.)- du
he- er
she- sie
it- es
we- mir
you (pl.)- ihr
they- sie


Ivan16
Friday 23rd of February 2007 04:50:50 AM

Asturian:

I- yo
You - t
He- Elli
She - ella

We - nosotros/ nosotres (f)
You (plural) - Vosotros/ Vosotres (f)
They - Ellos/Elles (f)


Dolores
Friday 23rd of February 2007 05:15:24 AM
Bulgarian:

I - аз
you - ти
he - той
she - тя
it - то

we - ние
you - вие
they - те

Swahili

I - mimi
you - wewe
he/she/it - yeye

we - sisi
you - ninyi
they - wao




MiHA
Saturday 05th of May 2007 04:36:42 AM
Romanian

the personal pronoun

I - eu
you - tu
he - el
she - ea
it - el (ea)

we - noi
you - voi
they - ei(m), ele(f)



Aleco
Sunday 06th of May 2007 03:45:45 AM
Swedish:
I - jag
Thou - du
He - han
She - hon
It - det
We - vi
You - ni
They - de

Me - mig/mej
Thee - dig/dej
Him - honom
Her - henne
It - det
Us - oss
You - er
Them - dom

My - min/mitt/mina (masc/neut/plural)
Thy - din/ditt/dina (masc/neut/plural)
His - hans
Her - hennes
Its - dens/dets (masc/neut)
Our - vår/vårt/våra (masc/neut/plural)
Your - er/ert/era (masc/neut/plural)
Their - doms


nyka
Monday 07th of May 2007 09:10:04 PM
Lithuanian:
I - aš
Thou - tu
He - jis
She - ji

We - mes
You - jūs
They - jie (masculine), jos (feminine)

Me - manęs, man, mane
Thee - tau, tave
Him - jam, jį
Her - jai, ją
Us - mus, mums, mūsų
You - jus, jums
Them - juos (masculine, accusative), jas (feminine, accusative), jiems (masculine, dative), joms (feminine, dative)

My - mano
Thy - tavo
His - jo
Her - jos
Our - mūsų
Your - jūsų
Their - jų



landrew
Friday 25th of May 2007 05:41:00 PM
In Ukrainian they are:
I-я(ya)
You-ти(ty)
He-він(vin)
She-вона(vona)
It-воно(vono)
We-ми(my)
You-ви(vy)
They-вони(vony)


karingal
Tuesday 29th of May 2007 08:30:17 PM
Finnish...
I- minä
You- sinä
He- hän
She- hän
We- me
You- te
They- he


mmagmarco
Sunday 16th of September 2007 02:52:38 AM
In portuguese is:

I = eu
you = tu (or você, informal)
He / She = Ele / Ela
we = nós
you = vós (or voces, informal)
They = Eles


Jamovi
Thursday 11th of October 2007 01:25:28 AM
Nauruan: Oh there are many Personal pronouns in Nauruan...
For each Pronoun there are three forms, but explanation to that would be too much now.

Singular:
1. aña – 2. naña – 3. a = I
1. auwe – 2. ñauwe – 3. wo = you
1. eiy, rar, ateb – 2. ñeiy – 3. e, o, i = he, she, it (no difference)

Dual:
1. attar – 2. ñattar – 3. ar = we two (incl.)
1. amar – 2. ñamar – 3. mar = we two (excl.)
1. amurõr – 2. ñamurõr – 3. mar = you two
1. urõr – 2. ñurõr – 3. õr = they two

Trial:
1. atteiy – 2. ñatteiy – 3. eiy = we three (incl.)
1. ameiy – 2. ñameiy – 3. meiy = we three (excl.)
1. amieiy – 2. ñamieiy – 3. meiy = you three
1. ureiy – 2. ñureiy – 3. reiy = they three

Plural:
1. atta – 2. ñatta – 3. an = we four (or more, incl.)
1. ama – 2. ñama – 3. ma(n) = we four (or more, excl.)
1. amie – 2. ñamie – 3. ma(n) = you four (or more)
1. ura – 2. ñura – 3. re, ri, ro = they four (or more)



AdibM
Thursday 15th of November 2007 01:30:39 AM
Farsi: 1st person singular pronoun: Man
2nd person singular pronoun: To (informal)
3rd person singular pronoun: Oon (informal, Ishoon (formal)
1st person plural pronoun: Mah
2nd person plural pronoun: Shoma (also a formal version of "you)
3rd person plural pronoun: Oona


Rosinu-Skurin
Thursday 31st of January 2008 05:08:51 AM
In Faroese: 1st person singular pronoun: I = Eg
2nd person singular pronoun: You = Tú
3rd person singular pronoun: He (male) = Hann/ She (female) = Hon/ It (objects) = Tað
1st person plural pronoun: We = Vit
2nd person plural pronoun: You = Tit
3rd person plural pronoun: They = Tey

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