Romanian Folosirea Cazurilor Usage Of The Cases

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Dominick_Korshanyenko
Monday 04th of February 2008 02:36:13 AM
Folosirea Cazurilor: Cases can be very confusing but I'll try to make them as simple as possible. Lets start with the Accusative.

The Accusative Case

The main thing you must know about this case is how it is used with its prepositions. Let's review. The Accusative is used with the prepositions în-in, pe-on, la-at, cu-with, lâng?-near, despre-about, pentru-for, f?r?-without.

All direct objects in Romanian either use the preposition pe or don't. When all other prepositions are used in the Accusative it is an object of a preposition. An [color=orange]object of a preposition[/color] is a noun that a preposition describes for example:

She works at the university. At describes university.

So let's start with regular direct objects and the preposition pe.

Direct Object with Pe

Basically you use pe before a direct object if it is an animate(living)noun, a name, also the subject, and before the demonstrative and possessive articles. Here are the rules. The preposition pe is used to show the direct object when:

* A common noun designating identified, definite or unique persons, as well as people assumed to be known both
by the speaker and the listener.

— O a?tept pe mama. I'm waiting for mom.
— Îl caut pe profesor. I am looking for the professor (that particular professor we all know).
— Îl caut pe profesorul de matematic?. I'm looking for the math professor.
— Îl caut pe profesorul Gheorghiu. I'm looking for professor Gheorghiu.

* A proper noun, the name of a person or of an animal.

— L-am v?zut asear? pe Radu. I saw Radu last night.
— Îl plimbi tu pe Rex? Will you walk Rex(a dog's name)?

* A common noun designating inanimate objects or animals that implies a metaphor for a person, or used in a
complex comparison in which the first term is a person; names of toys that can be perceived as persons or pets
(dolls, teddy-bears, etc.).

— L-ai auzit pe m? garul ?la de George care zice c? nu ?tie de ce s-au desp?r?it Anca ?i Matei?! Did you hear
that bastard (lit. donkey) George who says he doesn't know why Anca and Matei broke up?!
— A aruncat-o ca pe o m?sea stricat? . He discarded her like a broken tooth.
— O iube ?ti pe p?pu??? Dar pe ursule?? Do you love the doll? And the teddy-bear?

* A common noun designating inanimate objects or animals in a construction in which the subject and the direct
object are the same noun and they precede the predicate.

Cui pe cui se scoate. Romanian proverb. Lit. A nail takes out a nail.

* With the possessive (al, a, ai, ale) or demonstrative (cel, cea, cei, cele) article, that works as a substitute for nouns designating both persons and objects.

— Prietenii de la Viena au venit, acum îi a?tept?m pe cei de la Roma. The friends from Vienna arrived, now we are
waiting for those from Rome.
— Am b?gat în cas? scaunele din curte, hai s? le b?g?m ?i pe cele de pe teras? . I brought in the lounges form the
courtyard, let's bring inside those on the terrace.
— Prietenii mei au venit deja, acum îi a?tept?m pe ai Alexandrei. My friends arrived already, now we are waiting for Alexandra's (friends).
— Eu mi-am g?sit dic?ionarul, dar pe al Alexandrei nu îl v?d nic?ieri. I found my dictionary, but I don't see Alexandra's (dictionary).

Direct Object Without Pe

Pe is not used before inanimate(non-living)objects, general terms for people, and when the definite article is used with. Here are the rules for when to not use pe.

* A common noun designating inanimate objects or animals, with or without definite or indefinite article, with or
without modifiers (when the noun does not function as a metaphor designating persons, in which case it will be
preceded by pe).

— Am citit un articol. I read an article.
— Am citit un articol interesant despre originea limbii române. I read an interesting article about the origins of the Romanian language.
— Am citit articolul. I read the article.
— Am citit articolul despre originea limbii române. I read the article about the origins of the Romanian language.
— Am citit trei articole. I read three articles.
— Am citit cele trei articole recomandate de profesor. I read the three articles recommended by the professor.
— Ai v?zut m? garul? Ai v?zut ce urechi mari are? Did you see the donkey? Did you see how big his ears are?

* A common noun designating unidentified persons, used as a generic term – categories of people (nationalities,
professions), ideal, imaginary persons, as well as such a noun preceded by modifiers like a?a, atare, astfel de such, such as.

— Caut translator. I am looking for an interpreter.
— Caut un translator de limba portughez?. I'm looking for a Portuguese language interpreter.
— Înc? mai caut profesorul ideal. I'm still looking for the ideal teacher.
— Îmi doresc s? cunosc o fat? frumoas?, înalt?, supl?, blond?, ?i cu ochii verzi. I wish I met a beautiful girl, tall, slim, blond, and with green eyes.
— Ai mai v?zut a?a un om? Have you ever seen such a person?
— Cine a mai cunoscut atare persoan??! Who has ever met such a person?!

* Any common noun, including nouns designating persons, with the definite article when used in a construction with
the possessive dative by the verb.

— Îmi ? tie toate problemele. He/she knows all my problems.
— Îi cunosc rudele. I know his/her relatives.

* A proper noun designating inanimate objects (countries, cities, mountains, rivers, etc.), that can generally take the definite article.

— Iubesc Kenya. I love Kenya.
— Am admirat Dun?rea de pe terasa hotelului. I admired the Danube from the terrace of my hotel.
— Visez Parisul zi ?i noapte. I dream of Paris day and night.

Objects of a Preposition

All accusative case nouns that don't have pe or don't use pe as a modifier are objects of a preposition. Here's some sentences with objects of a preposition.

— Cartea e pe mas?. The book is on the table.
— Ea lucreaz? la universitate. She works at the univeristy.
— Vorbe ?ti despre Anton? Are you talking about Anton?
— Beau cafeaua f?r? zah?r ?i ceaiul cu mult? l?mâie. I drink my coffee with no sugar, and the tea with lots of lemon.

Review & Exercises

1. What is an object of a preposition?
2. Pe modifies direct objects that are ___________ (living).
3. Pe doesn't modify direct objects that are ____________ (non-living).
4. Decide if a pe or nothing should go in the blanks in the following sentences:

Eu v?d ___ mama.
Eu v?d ___ casa.
Îl caut ___ profesorul de muzic?.
Îl caut ___ cartea.
Îl caut ___ translator.
Îmi ?tie ___ to?i fra?i.
O iube?ti ___ ursule??
Cui ___ cui se scoate.
Am citit ___ revista.
Ai v?zut ___ elefant?!

5. Identify the preposition and its object in each of these sentences. Careful one sentence has multiple ones.

— Cartea e pe mas?.
— Ea lucreaz? la universitate.
— Vorbe ?ti despre Anton?
— Beau cafeaua f?r? zah?r ?i ceaiul cu mult? l?mâie.

[color=red]Work in Progress still have three more cases to go.[/color]


Lina
Monday 04th of February 2008 08:26:59 PM

Very well Kenny, it is better to discuss each case separately. Afterwards, we'll start practicing with exercises.
:)


Dominick_Korshanyenko
Saturday 09th of February 2008 05:17:26 AM
The Genitive Case

*The genitive indicates possession, belonging or origin. The case question of the genitive is al, a, ai, ale cui? whose?. There are two types of genitive structure.

Simple Genitive Structure

In simple structure, the noun in the genitive is placed after the noun with the definite article that it modifies, in its immediate proximity:

cartea profesorului - professor's book.
mama Corinei - Corina'a mother.
misterele Egiptului - misteries of Egypt.
prietenii copiilor - children's friends.
acoperi?urile caselor - the roofs of the houses.

Complex Genitive Structure

In complex genitive structure is when the modified noun takes the indefinite article, or if it is modified by one or more adjectives or by a noun in the accusative. The noun with the definite article begins it, then the words that modify it, then the genitival article, and finally the noun in the genitive:

o carte a profesorului - a book of the professor's.
cartea nou? a profesorului - the new professor's book.
mama minunat? a Corinei - the wonderful mother of Corina.
misterele fermec?toare ale Egiptului the enchanting misteries of Egypt.
prietenii de la gr?dini?? ai copiilor - cihldren's friends from the kindergarten.
acoperi?urile de tabl? ale caselor - the tin roofs of the houses.

For more information on the [color=orange]Genitival Articles[/color] see the lesson Articole.

Using the Genitive with Prepositions

Like the Accusative case the genitive is used with some prepositions but unlike the accusative case pe is not used to label it. Here are some prepositions that require the genitive case (they are usually compound prepositions):

asupra-about,regarding: Discu?ia asupra metodelor de evaluare a durat dou? ore. The discussion regarding the evaluation methods lasted for 2 hours.

contra-against: Argumentele contra pozi?iei mele nu au fost conving?toare. The arguments against my position were not convincing.

deasupra/pe deasupra-over: Zborul deasupra/pe deasupra oceanului este fascinant. The flight over the ocean is
fascinating.

înaintea/dinaintea/de dinaintea-before: E lini?tea dinaintea furtunii. This is the calm before the storm.

înapoia/dinapoia/de dinapoia-behind: Curtea dinapoia casei e mic ? . The yard behind the house is small.

în fa?a-in front of: Suntem în fa?a Ateneului Român. We are in front of the Romanian Atheneum.

din fa?a-in front of: Tân?rul din fa?a doamnei Alexandrescu este fiul ei? The young man in front of Mrs. Andreescu is her son?

în spatele-behind: Anton e tân?rul care st? în spatele Mariei. Anton is the young man who is standing behind Maria.

din spatele-behind: Cred c? îl cunosc pe tipul din spatele Mariei. I think I know the young man behind Maria.

de-a lungul-along,in: — Am mers de-a lungul râului. We walked along the river.

de-a latul-across: De ce stai a?a, de-a latul patului? Why are you laying like this, across the bed?

pe din?untrul-inside: Pe din?untrul sufletului meu sunt cam trist?. Deep inside I am pretty sad.

pe dinafara-out of: Pare bine informat, îns? este total pe dinafara problemelor. He seems well informed, but in reality he is out of picture.

împrejurul-around: Nu este decât p?dure împrejurul caselor, altceva nimic. There isn't anything but forest around the houses.

în jurul-around: Am dat ture vreo 10 minute în jurul statuii pân? au venit ?i ei. We walked around the statue until they arrived.

din jurul-around: Gardul din jurul gr?dinii nu e prea înalt. The fence around the garden is not too high.

în timpul-during: Tinerii aceia au vorbit încontinuu între ei în timpul conferin?ei. Those young people kept talking
amongst themselves during the conference.

Review and Exercises

1. The genitive case shows _____________, ______________, and ____________.
2. The genitival articles are ___, ___, ___, ___.
3. In simple genitive structure it goes: noun with the defintie article, noun in the __________.
4. In complex Genitive structure it goes: noun with the definite article, modifiers, _________ article, noun in the genitive.
5. Fill in the blank with the correct form of the genitive noun. If the first noun is plural make the second plural too.

c?r?ile __________ (student)
biroul __________ (profesor)
prietenii ___________ (b?iat)
mama ___________ (fat?)
p?l?ria ___________ (copil)
ochiul ___________ (câine)
urechile __________ (pisic?)
acoperi?urile ____________ (cas?)

Bonus Question: What case is the title of this topic written in?

A. Accusative
B. Dative
C. Genitive
D. Nominitive


Lina
Saturday 09th of February 2008 01:50:17 PM

Kenny, the bonus question is a good one;)and the lesson is absolutely great!

It's time to do the exercises! So, who has the courage to make the first exercise?
/Este timpul s? facem exerci?iile! Deci, cine are curajul s? fac? primul exerci?iu?:D


I.The Accusative Case

Review & Exercises



1. What is an object of a preposition?
2. Pe modifies direct objects that are ___________ (living).
3. Pe doesn't modify direct objects that are ____________ (non-living).
4. Decide if a pe or nothing should go in the blanks in the following sentences:

Eu v?d ___ mama.
Eu v?d ___ casa.
Îl caut ___ profesorul de muzic?.
Eu caut ___ cartea.
Îl caut ___ translator.
Îmi ?tie ___ to?i fra?ii.
Îl iube?ti ___ ursule??
Cui ___ cui se scoate.
Am citit ___ revista.
Ai v?zut ___ elefantul?!

5. Identify the preposition and its object in each of these sentences. Careful one sentence has multiple ones.

— Cartea e pe mas?.
— Ea lucreaz? la universitate.
— Vorbe?ti despre Anton?
— Beau cafeaua f?r? zah?r ?i ceaiul cu mult? l?mâie.


Dominick_Korshanyenko
Sunday 10th of February 2008 02:48:22 AM
The Dative Case

The dative indicates the person or thing the action of the verb is directed to. The case question of the dative is cui? to whom?. The dative case in Romanian is the same as indirect objects in English. For example:

I give the [color=red]book[/color] [color=blue]to the boy.[/color] The book is the direct object and the boy is the indirect object.

The Dative is used in sentences like "I gave what to whom." You just have to exchange [color=red]what[/color] and [color=blue]whom[/color] with nouns.

Usage of the Dative Case

*The dative comes after certain verbs related to the general idea of 'giving':

a da-to give: —— I-am dat colegei tale c?r?ile de spaniol?. I gave your colleague the Spanish textbooks.

a oferi-to offer: —— Azi le ofer prietenilor daruri. I'm offering gifts to my friends today.

a înmâna-to hand in: —— Decanul le-a înmânat diplomele studen?ilor. The dean handed in the diplomas to the students.

a d?rui-to give(a gift): —— Îi d?ruie?te prietenei sale lucruri foarte scumpe. He gives his girlfriend very expensive things.

a spune-to tell, to say: —— Le-am spus studen?ilor c? examenul va fi greu. I told the students that the exam would be difficult.

a explica-to explain: —— Le-a explicat studen?ilor ce au de f?cut. He explained to the students what they have to do.

a promite-to promise: —— I-am promis mamei c? voi telefona zilnic. I promissed my mother that I would call every day.

a ar?ta-to show: —— Le-am ar?tat oaspe?ilor pe ce strad? este muzeul. I showed the guests what street the museum is on.


*The dative case is required by the prepositions with the general meaning 'thanks to':

datorit?: Am ob?inut aceste rezultate datorit? ajutorului t?u. I got these results thanks to your help.

gra?ie: Am ajuns acasa mai devreme gra?ie bun? voin?ei dumneavoastr? . I got home earlier thanks to your kindness.

mul?umit? : Mul?umit? eforturilor voastre am ocupat locul întâi. We won the first place thanks to your efforts.


*The dative is also required by some adjectives and comparative adverbs:

folositor-useful to: —— Obiectul acesta îi este folositor medicului? Is this object useful to the doctor?

util-useful to: —— Dic?ionarele noi le sunt foarte utile studen?ilor care studiaz? româna. The new dictionaries are very useful to those students who study Romanian.

asemenea-like, alike: —— Comportamentul t?u e asemenea comportamentului unui copil de cinci ani! Your behavior
is like the behavior of a 5-year-old.

conform-according to: —— Ac?ion?m conform planului ini?ial. We are going to proceed according to the initial plan.

Names in the Genitive/Dative Case

Next I'll explain names in the Genitive and Dative case.
The names of persons have some particular features in declension. They are very rarely declined with an indefinite article.

The feminine first names that end in -a (including foreign names) are declined like the common nouns with definite
article (N.–A. Maria, G.–D. Mariei):

Maria (nominative) are un frate. Maria has a brother.
Stau de vorb? cu Maria (accusative). I'm speaking with Maria.
El este fratele Mariei (genitive). He is Maria's brother.
I-am dat Mariei (dative) toate c?r?ile mele de român?. I gave Maria all my Romanian textbooks.

The genitive-dative of the feminine first names ending in -ca will have the ending -c?i: Ilinca – Ilinc?i, Rodica – Rodic?i, Anca – Anc?i, Florica – Floric?i, etc.

To form the genitive-dative of all masculine first names and of the feminine first names ending in consonant, -i, -u, etc., the definite article lui must be placed before the noun: lui Ion, lui Vasile, lui Alexandru, lui Mircea, lui Luca(masculine), lui Carmen, lui Mimi, lui Irinel, lui John, lui Alice, lui Milagros, etc.:

Alexandru (nominative) are o sor? . Alexandru has a sister.
Stau de vorb? cu Alexandru. (accusative). I'm speaking with Alexandru.
Ea este sora lui Alexandru. (genitive). She is Alexandru's sister.
I-am dat lui Alexandru (dative) toate c?r?ile mele de român?. I gave Alexandru all my Romanian textbooks.

Last names form the genitive-dative with the article lui, too: lui Ionescu, lui Popescu, lui Cojocaru, lui Moraru, lui Popovici, etc. Very often last names are preceded by common nouns: domnul, doamna, domni?oara, studentul,
elevul, etc. When the combination is in genitive-dative, the common noun is the one that changes according to the
general rule of declension with the definite article:

domnului Popescu, doamnei Georgescu, domni?oarei Olteanu,
studentului Popa, elevei Cristea, etc.

Review and Exercises

1. The dative case answers the question _____?
2. The dative case in Romanian is the same as the ___________________ in English.
3. Finish the sentence with the correct Dative noun.

I-a dat cartea __________. (student)
Îi dau creionul ___________. (fat?)
Îi dai cartea ___________. (Lina)
I-am dat câinele ___________. (Alexandru)
Le ofer daruri ___________. (prieteni)
I-am oferit daruri ___________. (copil)

P.S. Lina can you check my sentences?


Dominick_Korshanyenko
Monday 11th of February 2008 06:27:10 AM
The Vocative Case

The vocative can be identical in form with the nominative-accusative, or it can take special case endings. The general tendency in contemporary Romanian is not to use the special endings, i.e. to use the nominative case forms instead of the vocative case forms. [color=orange]Intonation[/color] is the most important means to convey the idea of addressing or calling somebody.

The endings of the vocative are:

Masculine Singular

-cons. + -e
b?iat – b?iete! boy
prieten – prietene! friend
Dan – Dane!

-u + -le
fiu – fiule! son
erou – eroule! hero
Radu – Radule!

-cons., -i + -ule
domn – domnule! sir
unchi – unchiule! uncle

Feminine Singular

-? , -a, ? -o
sor? – soro! sister
fat? – fato! girl
iubit? – iubito! honey
Florica – Florico!
Elena – Eleno!

-e + -o
vr?jitoare – vr?jitoareo! witch


Masculine and Feminine Plural

-lor
domni – domnilor! gentlemen
fra?i – fra?ilor! brothers
eroi – eroilor! heroes
doamne – doamnelor! ladies
fete – fetelor! girls
vr?jitoare – vr?jitoarelor! witches

Vocative "Rules"

- The masculine nouns ending in -e do not have a separate ending for the vocative: frate – frate! brother, George –
George!

- There are no fixed rules for the use of the endings, some masculine nouns ending in consonant accept both the
ending -e and -ule: b?iat – b?iete! and b?iatule! boy, iubit – iubitule! and iubite! honey (m.)

- Some nouns that are frequently used in the vocative always take the special vocative endings: domnule! sir!, fiule! son!, omule! man!, prietene! friend!, unchiule! uncle!, vere! cousin!, bunico! grandma!, bunicule! grandpa!, fetelor! girls!, fra?ilor! brothers, folks!, doamnelor ?i domnilor! ladies and gentlemen!, doctore! doctor!, tinere! young man!, iubitule!/dragule! honey! (m.), iubito! honey! (f.), prostule! you stupid! (m.), proasto! you stupid! (f.), de?teptule! you
smart one! (m., iron.), de?teapto! you smart one! (f., iron.)

- some nouns frequently used in the vocative never take the special endings: mam?! mother!, tat?! father!, copii!
children!, b?ie?i! boys!, prieteni! friends!, doamn?! madam, ma'am!, femeie! woman!

The Vocative with Interjections

The nouns in the vocative can be preceded by specific interjections that introduce the vocative forms, such as m?i, m?, bre, hei:

— M?i, Ioane, m? auzi? Hey, Ion, do you hear me?
— Vino, m?, vere, încoace! Come here, dude!
— Haide, bre, unchiule, intr?! Hey, uncle, come on in!
— Hei, omule, a?teapt? -m?! Hey, man, wait up!

Review & Exercises

1. ______________ is the most important means to convey the idea of addressing or calling somebody.
2. Get these people's attention:

Alexandru
Ana
Clara
Drago?
Diana
George
Gabriela
Ion
Iulia
Laura
Manuel
Maria
Petre
Paula
Sergiu
Toma
Vlad
Victoria
Mam?
Tat?
Frate
Sor?
Bunic?
Copii
Prieteni
Doamn?


Lina
Monday 11th of February 2008 12:55:07 PM

I-a dat cartea __________. (student)
Îi dau creionul ___________. (fat?)
Îi dai cartea ___________. (Lina)
I-am dat câinele ___________. (Alexandru)
Le ofer daruri ___________. (prieteni)
I-am oferit daruri ___________. (copil)

P.S. Lina can you check my sentences?


mike111
Wednesday 09th of July 2008 11:54:22 PM
I tried to go from memory.


I-a dat cartea __studentului___. (student)
Îi dau creionul __fatalui______. (fat?)
Îi dai cartea _lui Lina___. (Lina)
I-am dat câinele __lui Alexandru__. (Alexandru)
Le ofer daruri ___prietenilor____. (prieteni)
I-am oferit daruri __copilului____. (copil)



anda
Thursday 10th of July 2008 01:32:29 PM
You only made two mistakes, Mike. The rest is perfect.

Îi dau creionul __fatalui______. (fat?)-the corect form is fetei
Îi dai cartea _lui Lina___. (Lina)-the correct form is Linei


mike111
Thursday 10th of July 2008 10:35:04 PM
Thats great news! Thank you. I want to try it again... (without looking cheating)

I-a dat cartea __studentului___. (student)
Îi dau creionul __fetei__. (fat?)
Îi dai cartea __Linie___. (Lina)
I-am dat câinele _lui Alexandru___. (Alexandru)
Le ofer daruri __prietenilor__. (prieteni)
I-am oferit daruri ___________. (copil)


mike111
Thursday 10th of July 2008 10:35:09 PM
Thats great news! Thank you. I want to try it again... (without cheating)

I-a dat cartea __studentului___. (student)
Îi dau creionul __fetei__. (fat?)
Îi dai cartea __Linie___. (Lina)
I-am dat câinele _lui Alexandru___. (Alexandru)
Le ofer daruri __prietenilor__. (prieteni)
I-am oferit daruri ___________. (copil)


anda
Thursday 10th of July 2008 10:50:15 PM
Mike, la Dativ Lina este Linei.
In the Dative case Lina becomes Linei.


mike111
Tuesday 15th of July 2008 05:39:48 PM
thanks Anda.

{Practice: linei linei linei
Linie linei linei linei linei}

It seems I didn't want to do this one.

- I-am oferit daruri _copilului_. (copil)




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