Romanian Grammar Lessons The Adjective

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Lina
Saturday 13th of October 2007 09:56:23 PM
Grammar lessons:
The adjective

*In Romanian, adjectives have different forms, according to the gender and number of the noun.
It seems, the noun with its gender and number should be the key to learn Romanian:)


Example :

masculine, singular/plural - copil înalt/copii înal?i(tall child/tall children)

feminine, singular/plural - fat? înalt?/fete înalte(tall girl/tall girls)

neuter, singular/plural - gard înalt/garduri înalte(tall fence/tall fences)


**Have you notice an interesting aspect about the neuter?! (regarding the article, the demonstrative pronoun and adjective)


*The adjective may either precede or follow the noun. When it precedes the noun the adjective gains in intensity(frequently used in exclamatory sentences)


Example :

Uite un câine frumos /Look, a beautiful dog.

Ai dreptate, frumos câine! /You are right, beautiful dog!



* Romanian adjectives are grouped in four classes :


1. Adjectives with four forms :


a) singular :


masculine(ending u) - feminine(ending ?)


pantof alb (white shoe) - rochie alb? (white dress)

cal scump (expensive horse) - br??ar? scump? (expensive bracelet)

b?iat fericit (happy boy) - fat? fericit? (happy girl)

om bun (good man) - ma?in? bun? (good car)

copil mândru (proud child) - femeie mândr? (proud woman)



b) plural :


masculine(ending i) - feminine(ending e)


pantofi albi - rochii albe

cai scumpi - br???ri scumpe

b?ie?i ferici?i - fete fericite

oameni buni - ma?ini bune

copii mândri - femei mândre



c) neuter :


singular(u) - plural(ending e)


gard alb - garduri albe

costum galben - costume galbene

aparat scump - aparate scumpe

fotoliu bun(good armchair) - fotolii bune

covor aspru(rough carpet) - covoare aspre



d) adjectives with following suffixes :


bucurie(gladness) = bucuros(m,sg), bucuroas?(f,sg), bucuro?i(m,pl), bucuroase(f,pl)

prieten(friend) = prietenos, prietenoas?, prietenoase, prieteno?i

fric?(fear) = fricos, fricoas?, frico?i, fricoase

p?mânt(earth) = p?mântean, p?mântean?, p?mânteni, p?mântene

fug?(run) = fugar, fugar?, fugari, fugare

catifea(velvet) = catifelat, catifelat?, catifela?i, catifelate



2. Adjectives with three forms:


mic(small), lung(long), larg(large), nou(new), ro?u(red)


a) singular:


masculine(u) - feminine(? or e) - neuter(u)


mic - mic? - mic

lung - lung? - lung

larg - larg? - larg

nou - nou? - nou

ro?u - ro?ie - ro?u


b) plural :


masculine(i) - feminine(i) - neuter(i)


mici - mici - mici

lungi - lungi - lungi

largi - largi - largi

noi - noi - noi

ro?ii - ro?ii - ro?ii



c) with following suffixes :


b?trân(old) - sfat b?trânesc(old advise), b?trâneasc?, b?trâne?ti

tineresc(youth) - gest tineresc(youthful gesture), tinereasc?, tinere?ti

prieten (friend) - prietenesc(friendly), sear? prieteneasc?(youthful evening), prietene?ti

farmec(charm) - fermec?tor(charming), fermec?toare(charming person), fermec?tori

uimire(amazedness) - uimitor(amazing), uimitoare, oameni uimitori(amazing people)

aur(gold) - auriu(golden), aurie, br???ri aurii(golden bracelets)

argint(silver) - argintiu(silvery), vulpe argintie(silvery fox), argintii

cenu??(cinders) - cenu?iu, p?pu?? cenu?ie(grey doll), cenu?ii




3. Adjectives with two forms(very few adjectives)


a)Singular(ending e - the same for all genders):


mare(big), tare(hard), sub?ire(thin), verde(green), iute(hot), dulce(sweet)


b)Plural(ending i - the same for all genders):


mari, tari, sub?iri, verzi, iu?i, dulci


*an exception for the word "veche"(old) :

feminine singular = veche
masculine sg./pl., neuter sg./pl., feminine plural = vechi




4. The class of adjectives with one form has only a few adjectives :


gata(ready), asemenea(similar), aidoma(alike), ferice(lucky)



This class includes colours such as :


roz(pink), bleu(blue), bej(beige), maro(brown), gri(grey)



*Adjectives also imply vocalic and consonantal alternations


cald(warm) - calzi

blând(mild) - blânzi

verde(green) - verzi

gras(fat) - gra?i

albastru(blue) - alba?tri

frumos(beautiful)- frumoas?

negru(black)- neagr?

tân?r(young) - tineri

viteaz(brave) - viteji

treaz(awake) - treji


Lina
Sunday 21st of October 2007 01:34:24 AM

Adjective comparision


In Romanian, the adjective has three degrees of comparision.


I. The Positive degree


El este inalt / He is tall

Ea este frumoas? / She is beautiful



II. The comparative degree


1. The degree of superiority :


mai + adjective + ca/decât

El este mai înalt decât ea / He is taller than she



2. The degree of equality :


la fel de/ tot a?a de/ tot atât de/ + adjective + ca ?i/ca


El este la fel de înalt ca ?i ea / He is as tall as she



3. The degree of inferiority :


mai pu?in + adjective + decât/ca

El este mai pu?in inalt decât ea / He is less tall than she



II. The superlative degree


1. Relatively


cel/cea/cei/cele + adjective + din/dintre

El este cel mai inalt din clasa noastr? / He is the tallest from our classroom


2. Absolutely


foarte/extraordinar de/ prea/tare/ + adjective

El este foarte înalt / He is very tall

Ea este prea înalt? / She is too tall

Ea este extraordinar de înalt? / She is extremely(extraordinarily) tall



There are adjectives without degrees of comparision :


superior, inferior, anterior, posterior

optim, maxim, minim, suprem

românesc, englezesc

mort, viu, întreg, rotund

extraordinar, teribil, fantastic, unic







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