Romanian Last Things For Now!!! Case Markings On Nouns And Relation To Other Parts Of Syntax

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HollsShann
Tuesday 03rd of May 2005 12:09:25 AM
Last things for now!!!: Since I posted three big posts in a row, I guess you can see how behind I have been in this project. These are the last questions that I need to answer to be caught up. Anything will help.

Question: Do affixes indicate case of noun phrases (e.g., Subject, Object)? If so, give examples.

Question: Are there any differences in the noun when it is the Subject of the clause rather than the Object? (e.g., "The cat ate the rat" versus "The dog chased the cat")

Question: Are there any differences in the noun when it is the Indirect Object rather than the Subject or Object? (e.g., "The child gave rice to the cat.)

Question: Are these differences indicated by affixes? by prepositions/postpositions?


lorelai
Tuesday 03rd of May 2005 01:55:56 AM
Well, Hollie, the short answer to most of your questions is: Romanian is a highly inflectional language (as compared to English) and uses five cases (definitely better than Serbian or Finnish :)) ): the nominative, accusative, dative, genitive and vocative.

While the subject of a sentence is expressed by a noun (or pronoun, noun phrase, etc.) in the nominative case, the object (generally the direct object) is in the accusative. The form of a noun in the nominative and accusative case is the same, but, when used in a sentence, the object in the accusative might add a preposition.

The genitive and dative forms of nouns are also the same, but they fulfill different functions in discourse. The dative indicates the person or thing the action of the verb is directed to; the genitive indicates the possession or the origin.

The vocative case is used when addressing or calling somebody; its form is generally equal to the nominative+accusative form, with some minor exceptions, you probably shouldn't worry about.

The instruments we use to express noun cases are the article and the preposition. Cf. :

Pisica a mâncat soarecele. - The cat ate the rat.
(Pisica- subject, nominative).

Câinele a fugărit pisica. - The dog chased the cat.
(pisica + direct object in the accusative).

Copilul i-a dat orez pisicii. - The child gave rice to the cat.

(pisicii - indirect object, dative form of "pisică").

Jucăria aceasta este a pisicii noastre. - This toy belongs to our cat.
(a pisicii -genitive form).

Pisică, vino să ne jucăm. - Come and play kitty!
(pisică - vocative, can also be used as "pisico", although less frequent in current Romanian usage).

Hope I've ben able to help to a certain extent.


HollsShann
Tuesday 03rd of May 2005 04:05:29 AM
lorelai thank you so much! Yay! All of you fine people helped me catch up before finals... thank you thank you thank you thank you!

-Hollie

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