Romanian Substantive- Nouns

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Dominick_Korshanyenko
Sunday 03rd of February 2008 12:15:10 AM
Substantive- Nouns: Nouns are the first part of speech I will talk about. A [color=orange]noun[/color] is a person, place, thing, or idea. There are two types of nouns: common and proper. [color=orange]Common Nouns[/color] are everyday objects which includes most nouns. [color=orange]Proper Nouns[/color] are specific names and should be capitalized. Finally Romanian nouns also have three aspects gender, number, and case.

Gender

Romanian nouns can have three genders masculine, feminine, and neuter. The gender of a noun is very important.

Masculine

*Nouns ending in a consonant or -u are masculine nouns. They always end in -i in the plural.

[color=blue]Masculine[/color]
Singularb?rbatleucodru
Pluralb?rba?ilei codri


Feminine

*Feminine nouns end in -?,-a,-ea,-ia,-e,-ie and in the plural usually end in -e,-le,-i.

[color=red]Feminine[/color]
Singularcas?steafloare
Pluralcasestele flori


Neuter

*Neuter nouns end in a consonant or -u but usually end in -e,-uri in the plural.

[color=green]Neuter[/color]
Singularscaunrolteatru
Pluralscauneroluri teatre


- I strongly recommend learning the gender of a noun when you learn a noun to prevent confusion. A noun is masculine when referring to people. Most other nouns are feminine ending in -?,-a,-ea,-ia,-e,-ie. Or are neuter. If an unknown noun ends in a consonant it is most likely neuter.

Finding Gender

*Traditionally gender is asociated and found with the numbers one and two.

[color=blue]Masculine[/color]- Un/Doi

un b?iat- one boy, doi b?ie?i- two boys
un leu- one lion, doi lei- two lions
un frate- one brother, doi fra?i- two brothers

[color=red]Feminine[/color]- O/Dou?

o cas?- one house, dou? case- two houses
o cafea- one coffee, dou? cafele- two coffees
o carte- one book, dou? car?i- two books

[color=green]Neuter[/color]- Un/Dou?

un scaun- one chair, dou? scaune- two chairs
un muzeu- one museum, dou? muzee- two museums
un nume- one name, dou? nume- two names

- This is a good exercise for learning nouns.

Notes

* Neuter nouns act like masculine nouns in the singular but like feminine nouns in the plural.
** The word nume is the same in the plural.
*** Some masculine nouns end in -?. They are names of people or men. tat?- father, Pap?- Pope

Review and Exercises

1. _____________ are specific names that should be capitalized.
2. Write the following nouns' genders:

mas?
tigru
elefant
cap
profesoare
student
?ar?
introducere
cuvânt
iubire
hran?
stea
birou
lucru
loc


Dominick_Korshanyenko
Sunday 03rd of February 2008 01:18:53 AM
Number

A noun can be singular(only one) or plural(many). To pluralize nouns in English just we just add -s.

one dog- two dogs

In Romanian this process is a little more complex. Here is how nouns in Romanian form their plural.

-i - All genders

un frate- one brother, doi fra?i- two brothers
o floare- one flower, dou? flori- two flowers
un fotoliu- one armchair, dou? fotolii- two armchairs

-e - Only Feminine and Neuter

o cas?- one house, dou? case- two houses
un autobuz- one bus, dou? autobuze- two buses

-uri - Only Neuter

un tablou- one picture, dou? tablouri- two pictures
un birou- one office, dou? birouri- two offices

-le - Only Feminine

o cafea- one coffee, dou? cafele- two coffees
o stea- one star, dou? stele- two stars
o zi- one day, dou? zile- two days
o perdea- one curtain, dou? perdele- two curtains

Notes

* Some nouns have irregular plural forms or are the same in the plural.

un om- one man, doi oameni- two men
un cap- one head, dou? capete- two heads
o cinste- one honor, dou? cinste- two honors
un ochi- one eye, doi ochi- two eyes

** The plural is very important for making the cases and the article noun forms.
*** All masculine nouns end in -i in the plural.
**** A nouns ending in the singular determines its ending in the plural.

Review and Exercises

1. Nouns can be ___________ or ___________.
2. Pluralize the following nouns:

mas?
tigru
elefant
cap
profesoare
student
?ar?
introducere
cuvânt
iubire
hran?
stea
birou
lucru
loc
sor?


Dominick_Korshanyenko
Sunday 03rd of February 2008 09:36:55 AM
Case

By now you should know what cases are. If not I strongly suggest you find out in the grammar lesson Introducere. There are five cases nominitive, accusative, genitive, dative, and vocative. The nominitive case is the same form as the accusative case and the genitive case is the same form as the dative case. The vocative though is different then all of the other cases.

The Nominitive Case

- Is the subject of the sentence.
- Is the base form of all nouns.
- It answers the questions Cine? & Ce? (Who? & What?)

The Accusative Case

- Is the direct object of the sentence.
- Is used with the prepositions în-in, pe-on, la-at, cu-with, lâng?-near, despre-about, pentru-for, and far?-without.
- It answers the questions Pe cine? & Pe ce?

The Genitive Case

- Indicates possession or belonging.
- Is like the English 's.
- Answers the questions Al/A/Ai/Ale cui?

The Dative Case

- Is the indirect object.
- Shows the destination of giving.
- Answers the question Cui?

The Vocative Case

- Indicates the person adressed.
- Used to get attention.
- Doesn't answer a question pronoun.

How to Form the Cases

Forming cases is relatively simple. For [color=blue]masculine[/color] and [color=green]neuter[/color] nouns the Accusative, Genitive, and Dative are all the same as the nominitive singular. In the plural the [color=blue]masculine[/color] and [color=green]neuter[/color] nouns in the Accusative, Genitive, and Dative are the same as the nominitive plural. [color=red]Feminine[/color] nouns; however, are different. It has only one form for the Nominitive/Accusative Plural and Genitive/Dative.

*NOTE: When a genitive or dative noun is not being modified by an adjective or a pronoun it always has an article in front of it. Learn about the following after learning about articles in the grammar lesson Articole.

Declension with Indefinite Article


[color=blue]Masculine[/color][color=green]Neuter[/color][color=red]Feminine[/color]
N/A Singularun pomun scauno cas?o floareo cafea
G/D Singularunui pomunui scaununei caseunei floriunei cafele
N/A Pluralni?te pomini?te scauneni?te caseni?te florini?te cafele
G/D Pluralunor pomiunor scauneunor caseunor floriunor cafele


- See the grammar lesson Articole for more information on the genitive/dative forms of the indefinite article.
- Note the only real change in declension is the genitive/dative singular in the feminine.

Declension with Definite Article


[color=blue]Masculine[/color][color=green]Neuter[/color][color=red]Feminine[/color]
N/A Singularpomulscaunulcasafloareacafeaua
G/D Singularpomuluiscaunuluicaseifloriicafelei
N/A Pluralpomiiscaunelecaseleflorilecafelele
G/D Pluralpomilorscaunelorcaselorflorilorcafelelor


- In the Nominitive/Accusative singular Masculine nouns and Neuter nouns add -ul, Feminine nouns add -a,-ua. See the grammar lesson Articole for more information.
- In the Genitive/Dative singular Masculine nouns and Neuter nouns add -ului, Feminine nouns add -i.
- In the Nominitive/Accusative plural Masculine nouns add -i, Neuter nouns and Feminine nouns add -le.
- In the Genitive/Dative plural Masculine nouns, Neuter nouns, and Feminine nouns all add -lor.

Review and Exercises

1. What are the five cases?
2. What does each case do?
3. Decline the following words:

mas?
tigru
elefant
cap
profesoare
student
?ar?
introducere
cuvânt
iubire
hran?
stea
birou
lucru
loc
sor?

[color=red]I am now done with this post so you may comment![/color]


Lina
Sunday 03rd of February 2008 03:38:35 PM

Kenny, your lesson is very well structured, very complex, and I think the Romanian native could refresh their Romanian grammar knowledge, also;)
It's more for advanced level! I hope we are ready to answer to any possible question:D




Lina
Saturday 09th of February 2008 02:15:17 PM
I. Nouns

Review and Exercises


1. _____________ are specific names that should be capitalized.
2. Write the following nouns' genders:

mas?
tigru
elefant
cap
profesoare
student
?ar?
introducere
cuvânt
iubire
hran?
stea
birou
lucru
loc


mike111
Thursday 21st of February 2008 01:53:36 AM
Originally posted by LinaI. Nouns

Review and Exercises


1. ___Proper_Nouns___ are specific names that should be capitalized.
2. Write the following nouns' genders:

mas? - f
tigru - n
elefant - m
cap - n
profesoare - m
student - m
?ar? - f
introducere - verb?
cuvânt - n
iubire - f
hran? - f
stea - f
birou - n
lucru - n
loc - n



Lina
Thursday 21st of February 2008 07:27:30 PM

Da, uite c? se pot face ?i exerci?iile de gramatic?!



1. ___Proper_Nouns___ are specific names that should be capitalized.
2. Write the following nouns' genders:

mas? - f
tigru - n - *masculine
elefant - m
cap - n
profesoare - m - *feminine
student - m
?ar? - f
introducere - verb? - verb : to introduce(a introduce/a prezenta); noun: introduction (o introducere/dou? introduceri) - feminine
cuvânt - n
iubire - f
hran? - f
stea - f
birou - n
lucru - n
loc - n



Lina
Friday 22nd of February 2008 02:56:42 AM

Exercise 2

Review and Exercises

1. Nouns can be ___________ or ___________.
2. Pluralize the following nouns:

mas?
tigru
elefant
cap
profesoar?
student
?ar?
introducere
cuvânt
iubire
hran?
stea
birou
lucru
loc
sor?




mike111
Friday 22nd of February 2008 07:46:01 AM
Exercise 2

Review and Exercises

1. Nouns can be ___singular___ or __plural___.
2. Pluralize the following nouns:

mas? - mase
tigru - tigri
elefant - elefante
cap - capi
profesoar? - profesoare
student - studente
?ar? - ?are
introducere - introduceri
cuvânt - cuvânturi
iubire - iubiri
hran? - hran?
stea - stele
birou - birouri
lucru - lucruri
loc - locuri
sor? - sorori

Btw, I am avoiding referencing anything so that I know what I need to study the most.


Lina
Wednesday 05th of March 2008 01:02:53 AM
Originally posted by mike000Exercise 2

Review and Exercises

1. Nouns can be ___singular___ or __plural___.
2. Pluralize the following nouns:

mas? - mese
tigru - tigri
elefant - elefan?i
cap - capuri
profesoar? - profesoare
student - studente
?ar? - ??ri
introducere - introduceri
cuvânt - cuvinte
iubire - iubiri
hran? - hran?
stea - stele
birou - birouri
lucru - lucruri
loc - locuri
sor? - surori

Btw, I am avoiding referencing anything so that I know what I need to study the most.

Keep up the good work! You are on the right path;)
?ine-o tot a?a! E?ti pe drumul cel bun.


Lina
Wednesday 05th of March 2008 01:06:30 AM
Înc? un exerci?iu/One more exercise!

Review and Exercises

1. What are the five cases?
2. What does each case do?
3. Decline the following words:

mas?
tigru
elefant
cap
profesoare
student
?ar?
introducere
cuvânt
iubire
hran?
stea
birou
lucru
loc
sor?



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