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Albania Facts

Albania Facts | Republic of Albania Information | Albania Statistics | People's Socialist Republic of Albania

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 ALBANIAN POLITICAL
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Background: Between 1990 and 1992 Albania ended 46 years of xenophobic Communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has proven challenging as successive governments have tried to deal with high unemployment, widespread corruption, a dilapidated physical infrastructure, powerful organized crime networks, and combative political opponents. Albania has made progress in its democratic development since first holding multiparty elections in 1991, but deficiencies remain. International observers judged elections to be largely free and fair since the restoration of political stability following the collapse of pyramid schemes in 1997. In the 2005 general elections, the Democratic Party and its allies won a decisive victory on pledges of reducing crime and corruption, promoting economic growth, and decreasing the size of government. The election, and particularly the orderly transition of power, was considered an important step forward. Although Albania's economy continues to grow, the country is still one of the poorest in Europe, hampered by a large informal economy and an inadequate energy and transportation infrastructure. Albania has played a largely helpful role in managing inter-ethnic tensions in southeastern Europe, and is continuing to work toward joining NATO and the EU. Albania, with troops in Iraq and Afghanistan, has been a strong supporter of the global war on terrorism.
 
 
Common Name: Albania Local Official Name: Shqiperia
Abbreviated Name: Republic of Albania Official Name: Republika e Shqiperise
Official Script Name: Albania Local Common Name: Albania
Former Name: People's Socialist Republic of Albania Territory of: NA
 
Head of State: President of the Republic Alfred MOISIU
 
Government Type: emerging democracy
 
Independence: 1912 November 28 (from Ottoman Empire)
 
Constitution: adopted by popular referendum on 28 November 1998
 
National Holiday: Independence Day, 28 November
 
International Organization Participation: BSEC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, OIC, OIF (associate member), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
 
Administrative Divisions: 12 counties (qarqe, singular - qark); Qarku i Beratit, Qarku i Dibres, Qarku i Durresit, Qarku i Elbasanit, Qarku i Fierit, Qarku i Gjirokastres, Qarku i Korces, Qarku i Kukesit, Qarku i Lezhes, Qarku i Shkodres, Qarku i Tiranes, Qarku i Vlores
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: has a civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; has accepted jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court for its citizens
 
Suffrage: 18 years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: President of the Republic Alfred MOISIU (since 24 July 2002) head of government: Prime Minister Sali BERISHA (since 10 September 2005) cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, nominated by the president, and approved by parliament elections: president elected by the People's Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 24 June 2002 (next to be held June 2007); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Alfred MOISIU elected president; People's Assembly vote by number - total votes 116, for 97, against 19 Legislative Branch: unicameral Assembly or Kuvendi (140 seats; 100 are elected by direct popular vote and 40 by proportional vote for four-year terms) elections: last held 3 July 2005 (next to be held in 2009) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PD 56, PS 42, PR 11, PSD 7, LSI 5, other 19 Judicial Branch: Constitutional Court, Supreme Court (chairman is elected by the People's Assembly for a four-year term), and multiple appeals and district courts
 
Party Leaders: Agrarian Environmentalist Party or PAA [Lufter XHUVELI]; Christian Democratic Party or PDK [Nikolle LESI]; Communist Party of Albania or PKSH [Hysni MILLOSHI]; Democratic Alliance Party or DAP [Neritan CEKA]; Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; Legality Movement Party or PLL [Ekrem SPAHIU]; Liberal Union Party or PBL [Arjan STAROVA]; National Front Party (Balli Kombetar) or BNK [Adriatik ALIMADHI]; New Democratic Party or PDR [Genc POLLO]; Party of National Unity or PUK [Idajet BEQIRI]; Renewed Democratic Party or PDRN [Dashamir SHEHI]; Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEDIU]; Social Democracy Party or PDS [Paskal MILO]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI]; Socialist Movement for Integration or LSI [Ilir META]; Socialist Party or PS [Edi RAMA]; Union for Human Rights Party or PBDNj [Vangjel DULE]
 
International Disputes: the Albanian Government calls for the protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians in neighboring countries, and the peaceful resolution of interethnic disputes; some ethnic Albanian groups in neighboring countries advocate for a "greater Albania," but the idea has little appeal among Albanian nationals; thousands of unemployed Albanians emigrate annually to nearby Italy and other developed countries
 
Illicit Drugs: increasingly active transshipment point for Southwest Asian opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and - to a far lesser extent - cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; limited opium and growing cannabis production; ethnic Albanian narcotrafficking organizations active and expanding in Europe; vulnerable to money laundering associated with regional trafficking in narcotics, arms, contraband, and illegal aliens 
 
 
 ALBANIAN GEOGRAPHY
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Location of Albania: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, between Greece and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
 
Continent: Europe Land Area Total: 28,748 sq km 
Region: South Eastern Europe Land Area Land: 27,398 sq km
Capitol City: Tirana Land Area Water: 1,350 sq km
      
Latitude: 041 00 N Border Boundary Land: 720 km
Longitude: 020 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 362 km 
  
Arable Land: 20.10 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 4.21 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 2,764 m Location: Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab)
Lowest Elevation: 0 m Location: Adriatic Sea
  
Largest City in Albania: Tirana Tirana Largest City Population: 279,000
  
Threatened Species: 30
 
Environmental Issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and domestic effluents
 
Environmental Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
Irrigated Land: 3,530
 
Bordering Countries: Greece 282 km, Macedonia 151 km, Montenegro 172 km, Serbia 115 km
 
Natural Resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, bauxite, chromite, copper, iron ore, nickel, salt, timber, hydropower
 
Geographical Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast
 
Comparative Area of Albania: slightly smaller than Maryland
 
Albania's Geography: strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)
 

 ALBANIAN CLIMATE
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General Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter
 
Natural Hazards: destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along southwestern coast; floods; drought
 
 
 ALBANIAN ECONOMY
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Economic Overview: Lagging behind its Balkan neighbors, Albania is making the difficult transition to a more modern open-market economy. The government has taken measures to curb violent crime and to spur economic activity and trade. The economy is bolstered by annual remittances from abroad of $600-$800 million, mostly from Greece and Italy; this helps offset the towering trade deficit. Agriculture, which accounts for about one-quarter of GDP, is held back because of frequent drought and the need to modernize equipment, to clarify property rights, and to consolidate small plots of land. Energy shortages and antiquated and inadequate infrastructure contribute to Albania's poor business environment, which make it difficult to attract and sustain foreign investment. The planned construction of a new thermal power plant near Vlore and improved transmission and distribution facilities will help relieve the energy shortages. Also, the government is moving slowly to improve the poor national road and rail network, a long-standing barrier to sustained economic growth. On the positive side: growth was strong in 2003-05 and inflation is not a problem.
 
 
GDP: $18,970,000,000 USD Currency: lek
GDP per Capita: $4,900 USD Currency Code: ALL
GDP Growth Rate: 5.50 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: leke per US dollar - 102.649 (2005), 102.78 (2004), 121.863 (2003), 140.155 (2002), 143.485 (2001)
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 23.20 % GDP of Industry: 18.80 %
GDP of Services: 57.90 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 2.40 % Population in Poverty: 25.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 14.30 % Tourism: 39,000.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 0.00 % Budget Revenue in USD: $1,960,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 0.00 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $2,377,000,000 USD
   
Electricity Production: 5,680,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 200,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 6,760,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 1,080,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 3.00% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 97.00% Other Electricity Production: 0.00%
   
Oil Production: 3,600 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 30,000,000 cu m
Oil Consumption: 25,200 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 30,000,000 cu m
Oil Exports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 21,600 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 185,500,000 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 2,832,000,000 cu m
   
External Debt: $1,550,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $366,000,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
   
Agricultural Products: wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes; meat, dairy products
 
Primary Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower
 
Industrial Growth Rate: 3.10 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $2,473,000,000 USD - machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, chemicals
 
Import Partners: Italy 29.3%, Greece 16.4%, Turkey 7.5%, China 6.6%, Germany 5.4%, Russia 4%
 
Export Amount in USD: $650,100,000 USD - textiles and footwear; asphalt, metals and metallic ores, crude oil; vegetables, fruits, tobacco
 
Export Partners: Italy 72.4%, Greece 10.5%, Serbia and Montenegro 5%
 
    
GINI Index: 28.20%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 1,090,000
 
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture: 58%, industry: 19%, services: 23%
 
  
 ALBANIAN COMMUNICATIONS
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Radio Broadcast Stations: 60 Number of People with Radios: 1,000,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 65 Number of People with Televisions: 700,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 255,000 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 1,100,000
 
Internet Service Providers: 749 Internet Users: 75,000
 
Internet Country Code: .al Newspapers: 36
Two Letter Country Code: AL Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: 355 Electricity Voltage: 220 Volts
  
Telephone Systems: general assessment: despite new investment in fixed lines, the density of main lines remains the lowest in Europe with roughly eight lines per 100 people; however, cellular telephone use is widespread and generally effective domestic: offsetting the shortage of fixed line capacity, mobile phone service has been available since 1996; by 2003 two companies were providing mobile services at a greater density than some of Albania's Balkan neighbors international: country code - 355; inadequate fixed main lines; adequate cellular connections; international traffic carried by fiber optic cable and, when necessary, by microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece
 
  
 ALBANIAN TRANSPORTATION
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Highways: 5,400 km Railways: 447 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 315 km Waterways: 43 km
Airports: 3 Heliports: 1
 
Motor Vehicles: 45 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 1,583,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 0.50 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: total: 24 ships (1000 GRT or over) 52,987 GRT/79,863 DWT by type: cargo 23, roll on/roll off 1 foreign-owned: 1 (Turkey 1) registered in other countries: 1 (Georgia 1)
 
Ports and Harbors: Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore
 
  
 ALBANIAN PEOPLE
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Population: 3,581,655 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 15.11 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 110.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 5.22 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 0.52% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 2.03 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 464,954 Population Female 0-14: 423,003
Population Male 15-64: 1,214,942 Population Female 15-64: 1,158,562
Population Male 65+: 148,028 Population Female 65+: 172,166
 
Population 0-14: 24.80% Literacy Rate: 86.50%
Population 15-64: 66.30% Literacy rate of Males: 93.30%
Population 65+: 8.90% Literacy rate of Females: 79.50%
 
Population that is Male: 52.00 % Population that is Female: 48.00%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 77.43 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 20.75 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 74.78 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 80.34 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.00% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 0
Number of people who died of AIDS: 0
   
Disease Risk:
 
Diseases:
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: -4.67
 
Nationality: ALBANIAN
 
Ethnic Groups: Albanian 95%, Greek 3%, other 2% (Vlach, Gypsy, Serb, and Bulgarian) (1989 est.) note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from 1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization) 
 
  
Primary Language: Albanian
 
Other Languages: Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek
 
 
Primary Religion: Muslim
 
Other Religions: Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10% note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice
 
  
 ALBANIAN MILITARY
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Branches: General Staff Headquarters, Land Forces Command (Army), Naval Forces Command, Air Defense Command, Logistics Command, Training and Doctrine Command
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 19 years
 
Manpower Available: 1,593,723 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 1,316,860 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 71,994 People per year
 
Expenditures: $56,500,000 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 1.49
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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