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Antarctica Facts

Antarctica Facts | Antarctica Information | Antarctica Statistics | Antarctica

Antarctica Facts |  Antarctica Information | Antarctica Statistics Antarctica Facts |  Antarctica Information | Antarctica Statistics
Antarctica Continent
 
Antarctica Map
 
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Antarctica Map
 
NA Flag
 
 NA POLITICAL
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Background: Speculation over the existence of a "southern land" was not confirmed until the early 1820s when British and American commercial operators and British and Russian national expeditions began exploring the Antarctic Peninsula region and other areas south of the Antarctic Circle. Not until 1840 was it established that Antarctica was indeed a continent and not just a group of islands. Several exploration "firsts" were achieved in the early 20th century. Following World War II, there was an upsurge in scientific research on the continent. A number of countries have set up year-round research stations on Antarctica. Seven have made territorial claims, but no other country recognizes these claims. In order to form a legal framework for the activities of nations on the continent, an Antarctic Treaty was negotiated that neither denies nor gives recognition to existing territorial claims; signed in 1959, it entered into force in 1961.
 
 
Common Name: Antarctica Local Official Name: Antarctica
Abbreviated Name: Antarctica Official Name: Antarctica
Official Script Name: Antarctica Local Common Name: Antarctica
Former Name: Antarctica Territory of: NA
 
Head of State: NA
 
Government Type: Antarctic Treaty Summary - the Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, establishes the legal framework for the management of Antarctica. The 24th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was held in Russia in July
 
Independence: NA
 
Constitution: NA
 
National Holiday: NA
 
International Organization Participation: NA
 
Administrative Divisions: NA
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: Antarctica is administered through meetings of the consultative member nations. Decisions from these meetings are carried out by these member nations (within their areas) in accordance with their own national laws. US law, including certain criminal offen
 
Suffrage: NA years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: NA
 
Party Leaders: NA
 
International Disputes: Antarctic Treaty freezes claims (see Antarctic Treaty Summary in Government type entry); sections (some overlapping) claimed by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, NZ, Norway, and UK; the US and most other states do not recognize the territorial claims of other states and have made no claims themselves (the US and Russia reserve the right to do so); no claims have been made in the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west; several states with land claims in Antarctica have expressed their intention to submit data to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf to extend their continental shelf claims to adjoining undersea ridges
 
Illicit Drugs: NA 
 
 
 NA GEOGRAPHY
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Location of Antarctica: continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle
 
Continent: Antarctica Land Area Total: 14,000,000 sq km 
Region: Antarctica Land Area Land: 14,000,000 sq km
Capitol City: NA Land Area Water: 0 sq km
      
Latitude: 090 00 S Border Boundary Land: 0 km
Longitude: 000 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 17,968 km 
  
Arable Land: 0.00 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 0.00 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 4,897 m Location: Vinson Massif
Lowest Elevation: -2,555 m Location: Bentley Subglacial Trench
  
Largest City in Antarctica: Largest City Population: 0
  
Threatened Species: 0
 
Environmental Issues: in 1998, NASA satellite data showed that the antarctic ozone hole was the largest on record, covering 27 million square kilometers; researchers in 1997 found that increased ultraviolet light coming through the hole damages the DNA of icefish, an antarctic fish lacking hemoglobin; ozone depletion earlier was shown to harm one-celled antarctic marine plants; in 2002, significant areas of ice shelves disintegrated in response to regional warming
 
Environmental Agreements: NA
 
Irrigated Land: 0
 
Bordering Countries: NA
 
Natural Resources: iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum and other minerals, and coal and hydrocarbons have been found in small uncommercial quantities; none presently exploited; krill, finfish, and crab have been taken by commercial fisheries
 
Geographical Terrain: about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, with average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to nearly 5,000 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsu
 
Comparative Area of Antarctica: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US
 
Antarctica's Geography: the coldest, windiest, highest (on average), and driest continent; during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; mostly uninhabitable
 

 NA CLIMATE
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General Climate: severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the coast and average slightly below freezing
 
Natural Hazards: katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along the coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak; large icebergs may calve from ice shelf
 
 
 NA ECONOMY
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Economic Overview: Antarctica is administered through meetings of the consultative member nations. Decisions from these meetings are carried out by these member nations (within their areas) in accordance with their own national laws. US law, including certain criminal offenses by or against US nationals, such as murder, may apply extra-territorially. Some US laws directly apply to Antarctica. For example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C. section 2401 et seq., provides civil and criminal penalties for the following activities, unless authorized by regulation of statute: the taking of native mammals or birds; the introduction of nonindigenous plants and animals; entry into specially protected areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the importation into the US of certain items from Antarctica. Violation of the Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 in fines and one year in prison. The National Science Foundation and Department of Justice share enforcement responsibilities. Public Law 95-541, the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, as amended in 1996, requires expeditions from the US to Antarctica to notify, in advance, the Office of Oceans and Polar Affairs, Room 5801, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520, which reports such plans to other nations as required by the Antarctic Treaty. For more information, contact Permit Office, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22230; telephone: (703) 292-8030, or visit their website at www.nsf.gov.
 
 
GDP: $0 USD Currency: NA
GDP per Capita: $0 USD Currency Code: NA
GDP Growth Rate: 0.00 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: NA
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 0.00 % GDP of Industry: 0.00 %
GDP of Services: 0.00 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 0.00 % Population in Poverty: 0.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 0.00 % Tourism: 0.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 0.00 % Budget Revenue in USD: $0 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 0.00 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $0 USD
   
Electricity Production: 0 kWh Electricity Exports: 0 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 0 kWh Electricity Imports: 0 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 0.00% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 0.00% Other Electricity Production: 0.00%
   
Oil Production: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 0 cu m
Oil Consumption: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 0 cu m
Oil Exports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 0 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 0 cu m
   
External Debt: $0 USD Received in economic aid: $0 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
   
Agricultural Products: NA
 
Primary Industries: NA
 
Industrial Growth Rate: 0.00 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $0 USD - NA
 
Import Partners: NA
 
Export Amount in USD: $0 USD - NA
 
Export Partners: NA
 
    
GINI Index: 0.00%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 0
 
Labor Force by Occupations: NA
 
  
 NA COMMUNICATIONS
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Radio Broadcast Stations: 3 Number of People with Radios: 0
Television Broadcast Stations: 1 Number of People with Televisions: 0
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 0 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 0
 
Internet Service Providers: 0 Internet Users: 0
 
Internet Country Code: .aq Newspapers: 0
Two Letter Country Code: AQ Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: 672 Electricity Voltage: Volts
  
Telephone Systems: general assessment: local systems at some research stations domestic: NA international: via satellite from some research stations
 
  
 NA TRANSPORTATION
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Highways: 0 km Railways: 0 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 0 km Waterways: 0 km
Airports: 0 Heliports: 27
 
Motor Vehicles: 0 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 0 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 0.00 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: NA
 
Ports and Harbors: there are no developed ports and harbors in Antarctica; most coastal stations have offshore anchorages, and supplies are transferred from ship to shore by small boats, barges, and helicopters; a few stations have a basic wharf facility; US coastal stations include McMurdo (77 51 S, 166 40 E), Palmer (64 43 S, 64 03 W); government use only except by permit (see Permit Office under "Legal System"); all ships at port are subject to inspection in accordance with Article 7, Antarctic Treaty; offshore anchorage is sparse and intermittent
 
  
 NA PEOPLE
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Population: 0 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 0.00 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 0.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 0.00 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 0.00% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 0.00 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 0 Population Female 0-14: 0
Population Male 15-64: 0 Population Female 15-64: 0
Population Male 65+: 0 Population Female 65+: 0
 
Population 0-14: 0.00% Literacy Rate: 0.00%
Population 15-64: 0.00% Literacy rate of Males: 0.00%
Population 65+: 0.00% Literacy rate of Females: 0.00%
 
Population that is Male: 0.00 % Population that is Female: 0.00%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 0.00 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 0.00 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 0.00 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 0.00 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.00% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 0
Number of people who died of AIDS: 0
   
Disease Risk:
 
Diseases:
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: 0.00
 
Nationality: NA
 
Ethnic Groups: NA 
 
  
Primary Language: NA
 
Other Languages: NA
 
 
Primary Religion: NA
 
Other Religions: NA
 
  
 NA MILITARY
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Branches: NA
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: NA years
 
Manpower Available: 0 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 0 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 0 People per year
 
Expenditures: $0 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 0.00
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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