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Argentina Facts

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 ARGENTINE POLITICAL
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Background: In 1816, the United Provinces of the Rio Plata declared their independence from Spain. Eventually, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay went their own way, but the area that remained became Argentina. The country's population and culture were subsequently heavily shaped by immigrants from throughout Europe, but most particularly Italy and Spain, which provided the largest percentage of newcomers from 1860 to 1930. Up until about the mid-20th century, much of Argentina's history was dominated by periods of internal political conflict between conservatives and liberals and between civilian and military factions. After World War II, an era of Peronist authoritarian rule and interference in subsequent governments was followed by a military junta that took power in 1976. Democracy returned in 1983, and has persisted despite numerous challenges, the most formidable of which was a severe economic crisis in 2001-02 that led to violent public protests and the resignation of several interim presidents. Successful negotiations with the IMF allowed Argentina to sidestep some fiscal discipline measures normally imposed in such circumstances. Since 2003, the government's efforts to stem the crisis have led to rapid economic recovery.
 
 
Common Name: Argentina Local Official Name: Argentina
Abbreviated Name: Argentine Republic Official Name: Republica Argentina
Official Script Name: Argentina Local Common Name: Argentina
Former Name: Argentina Territory of: NA
 
Head of State: President Nestor KIRCHNER
 
Government Type: republic
 
Independence: 1816 July 9 (from Spain)
 
Constitution: 1853 May 1; revised 1994 August
 
National Holiday: Revolution Day, 25 May
 
International Organization Participation: ABEDA, AfDB, Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (associate), CSN, FAO, G-6, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMOVIC, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
 
Administrative Divisions: 23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), and 1 autonomous city* (distrito federal); Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires Capital Federal*, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego - Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur, Tucuman note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
 
Suffrage: 18 years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: President Nestor KIRCHNER (since 25 May 2003); Vice President Daniel SCIOLI (since 25 May 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Nestor KIRCHNER (since 25 May 2003); Vice President Daniel SCIOLI (since 25 May 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 27 April 2003 (next election to be held in 2007) election results: results of the presidential election of 27 April 2003: Carlos Saul MENEM 24.3%, Nestor KIRCHNER 22%, Ricardo Lopez MURPHY 16.4%, Adolfo Rodriguez SAA 14.4%, Elisa CARRIO 14.2%, other 8.7%; the subsequent runoff election slated for 25 May 2003 was awarded to KIRCHNER by default after MENEM withdrew his candidacy on the eve of the election Legislative Branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate (72 seats; members are elected by direct vote; presently one-third of the members elected every two years to a six-year term) and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; members are elected by direct vote; one-half of the members elected every two years to a four-year term) elections: Senate - last held 23 October 2005 (next to be held in 2007); Chamber of Deputies - last held last held 23 October 2005 (next to be held in 2007) election results: Senate - percent of vote by bloc or party - FV 45.1%, FJ 17.2%, UCR 7.5%, other 30.2%; seats by bloc or party - FV 14, FJ 3, UCR 2, other 5; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by bloc or party - FV 29.9%, UCR 8.9%, ARI 7.2%, PJ 6.7%, PRO 6.2%, FJ 3.9%, other 37.2%; seats by bloc or party - FV 50, UCR 10, ARI 8, PJ 9, PRO 9, FJ 7, other 34 Judicial Branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (the nine Supreme Court judges are appointed by the president with approval by the Senate)
 
Party Leaders: Alternative for a Republic of Equals or ARI [Elisa CARRIO]; Front for Victory or FV [Nestor KIRCHNER]; Interbloque Federal or IF (a broad coalition of approximately 12 parties including RECREAR); Justicialist Front or FJ [Eduardo DUHALDE]; Justicialist Party or PJ (Peronist umbrella political organization); Radical Civic Union or UCR [Roberto IGLESIAS]; Republican Initiative Alliance or PRO (including Federal Recreate Movement or RECREAR [Ricardo LOPEZ MURPHY] and Commitment for Change or CPC [Mauricio MACRI]); Socialist Party or PS [Ruben GIUSTINIANI]; Union For All [Patricia BULLRICH]; several provincial parties
 
International Disputes: Argentina continues to assert its claims to the UK-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands in its constitution, forcibly occupying the Falklands in 1982, but in 1995 agreed no longer to seek settlement by force; territorial claim in Antarctica partially overlaps UK and Chilean claims (see Antarctic disputes); unruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and illegal narcotics trafficking, and fundraising for extremist organizations; uncontested dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; action by the joint boundary commission, established by Chile and Argentina in 2001, for mapping and demarcating the disputed boundary in the Andean Southern Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur) remains pending
 
Illicit Drugs: used as a transshipment country for cocaine headed for Europe; some money-laundering activity, especially in the Tri-Border Area; domestic consumption of drugs in urban centers is increasing  
 
 
 ARGENTINE GEOGRAPHY
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Location of Argentina: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Chile and Uruguay
 
Continent: South America Land Area Total: 2,766,890 sq km 
Region: Southern American Land Area Land: 2,736,690 sq km
Capitol City: Buenos Aires Land Area Water: 30,200 sq km
      
Latitude: 034 00 S Border Boundary Land: 9,665 km
Longitude: 064 00 W Border Boundary Coastline: 4,989 km 
  
Arable Land: 10.30 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 0.36 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 6,960 m Location: Cerro Aconcagua
Lowest Elevation: -105 m Location: Laguna del Carbon
  
Largest City in Argentina: Buenos Aires Buenos Aires Largest City Population: 12,423,000
  
Threatened Species: 142
 
Environmental Issues: environmental problems (urban and rural) typical of an industrializing economy such as deforestation, soil degradation, desertification, air pollution, and water pollution note: Argentina is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse gas targets
 
Environmental Agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
 
Irrigated Land: 15,500
 
Bordering Countries: Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km, Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km
 
Natural Resources: fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium
 
Geographical Terrain: rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border
 
Comparative Area of Argentina: slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US
 
Argentina's Geography: second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic and the South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); diverse geophysical landscapes range from tropica
 

 ARGENTINE CLIMATE
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General Climate: mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest
 
Natural Hazards: San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the pampas and northeast; heavy flooding
 
 
 ARGENTINE ECONOMY
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Economic Overview: Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. Over the past decade, however, the country has suffered problems of inflation, external debt, capital flight, and budget deficits. Growth in 2000 was a negative 0.8%, as both domestic and foreign investors remained skeptical of the government's ability to pay debts and maintain the peso's fixed exchange rate with the US dollar. The economic situation worsened in 2001 with the widening of spreads on Argentine bonds, massive withdrawals from the banks, and a further decline in consumer and investor confidence. Government efforts to achieve a "zero deficit," to stabilize the banking system, and to restore economic growth proved inadequate in the face of the mounting economic problems. The peso's peg to the dollar was abandoned in January 2002, and the peso was floated in February. The exchange rate plunged and real GDP fell by 10.9% in 2002, but by mid-year the economy had stabilized, albeit at a lower level. GDP expanded by about 9% per year from 2003 to 2005. Growth is being led by a revival in domestic demand, solid exports, and favorable external conditions. The government boosted spending ahead of the October 2005 midterm congressional elections, but strong revenue performance allowed Argentina to maintain a budget surplus. Inflation has been rising steadily and reached 12.3 percent in 2005.
 
 
GDP: $543,400,000,000 USD Currency: Argentine peso
GDP per Capita: $13,700 USD Currency Code: ARS
GDP Growth Rate: 9.20 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: Argentine pesos per US dollar - 2.9037 (2005), 2.9233 (2004), 2.9006 (2003), 3.0633 (2002), 0.9995 (2001)
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 9.50 % GDP of Industry: 35.80 %
GDP of Services: 54.70 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 4.00 % Population in Poverty: 38.50 %
Unemployment Rate: 11.60 % Tourism: 2,898,000.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 0.00 % Budget Revenue in USD: $42,630,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 0.00 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $39,980,000,000 USD
   
Electricity Production: 87,160,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 2,070,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 82,970,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 1,561,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 51.81% Nuclear Electricity Production: 7.23%
Hydro Electricity Production: 40.67% Other Electricity Production: 0.29%
   
Oil Production: 745,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 41,040,000,000 cu m
Oil Consumption: 450,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 34,580,000,000 cu m
Oil Exports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 6,050,000,000 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 2,950,000,000 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 663,500,000,000 cu m
   
External Debt: $118,200,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $10,000,000,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
   
Agricultural Products: sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, wheat; livestock
 
Primary Industries: food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel
 
Industrial Growth Rate: 7.70 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $28,800,000,000 USD - machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal manufactures, plastics
 
Import Partners: Brazil 34.6%, US 16.8%, China 5.4%, Germany 5.3%
 
Export Amount in USD: $40,000,000,000 USD - edible oils, fuels and energy, cereals, feed, motor vehicles
 
Export Partners: Brazil 15.3%, US 10.8%, Chile 10.5%, China 8.3%
 
    
GINI Index: 0.00%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 15,340,000
 
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
 
  
 ARGENTINE COMMUNICATIONS
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Radio Broadcast Stations: 266 Number of People with Radios: 24,300,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 42 Number of People with Televisions: 7,950,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 8,800,000 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 22,100,000
 
Internet Service Providers: 1,612,423 Internet Users: 10,000,000
 
Internet Country Code: .ar Newspapers: 123
Two Letter Country Code: AR Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: 54 Electricity Voltage: Volts
  
Telephone Systems: general assessment: by opening the telecommunications market to competition and foreign investment with the "Telecommunications Liberalization Plan of 1998," Argentina encouraged the growth of modern telecommunications technology; fiber-optic cable trunk lines are being installed between all major cities; the major networks are entirely digital and the availability of telephone service is improving; however, telephone density is presently minimal, and making telephone service universally available will take time domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network; more than 110,000 pay telephones are installed and mobile telephone use is rapidly expanding international: country code - 54; satellite earth stations - 112; Atlantis II and Unisur submarine cables; two international gateways near Buenos Aires
 
  
 ARGENTINE TRANSPORTATION
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Highways: 68,809 km Railways: 31,902 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 48,771 km Waterways: 11,000 km
Airports: 154 Heliports: 0
 
Motor Vehicles: 198 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 137,875,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 3.90 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: total: 41 ships (1000 GRT or over) 435,969 GRT/707,767 DWT by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 10, chemical tanker 1, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 21, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 1 foreign-owned: 11 (Chile 6, UK 4, Uruguay 1) registered in other countries: 24 (Bolivia 1, Chile 1, Liberia 7, Panama 9, Paraguay 3, Uruguay 3)
 
Ports and Harbors: Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Concepcion del Uruguay, La Plata, Punta Colorada, Rosario, San Lorenzo-San Martin, San Nicolas
 
  
 ARGENTINE PEOPLE
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Population: 39,921,833 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 16.73 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 14.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 7.55 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 0.96% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 2.41 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 5,153,164 Population Female 0-14: 4,921,625
Population Male 15-64: 12,804,376 Population Female 15-64: 12,798,731
Population Male 65+: 1,740,118 Population Female 65+: 2,503,819
 
Population 0-14: 25.20% Literacy Rate: 97.10%
Population 15-64: 64.10% Literacy rate of Males: 97.10%
Population 65+: 10.60% Literacy rate of Females: 97.10%
 
Population that is Male: 52.50 % Population that is Female: 47.50%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 76.12 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 14.73 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 72.38 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 80.05 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.69% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 130,000
Number of people who died of AIDS: 1,800
   
Disease Risk:
 
Diseases:
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: 0.40
 
Nationality: ARGENTINE
 
Ethnic Groups: white (mostly Spanish and Italian) 97%, mestizo, Amerindian, or other nonwhite groups 3% 
 
  
Primary Language: Spanish
 
Other Languages: Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French
 
 
Primary Religion: Roman Catholic
 
Other Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%
 
  
 ARGENTINE MILITARY
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Branches: Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic (includes naval aviation and naval infantry), Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Argentina, FAA)
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years
 
Manpower Available: 17,865,642 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 14,758,627 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 679,224 People per year
 
Expenditures: $0 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 1.30
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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