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Armenia Facts

Armenia Facts | Republic of Armenia Information | Armenia Statistics | Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian

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 ARMENIAN POLITICAL
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Background: Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt Christianity (early 4th century). Despite periods of autonomy, over the centuries Armenia came under the sway of various empires including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman. During World War I in the western portion of Armenia, Ottoman Turkey instituted a policy of forced resettlement coupled with other harsh practices that resulted in an estimated 1 million Armenian deaths. The eastern area of Armenia was ceded by the Ottomans to Russia in 1828; this portion declared its independence in 1918, but was conquered by the Soviet Red Army in 1920. Armenian leaders remain preoccupied by the long conflict with Muslim Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated region, assigned to Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow. Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also a significant portion of Azerbaijan proper. The economies of both sides have been hurt by their inability to make substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution. Turkey imposed an economic blockade on Armenia and closed the common border because of the Armenian occupation of Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding areas.
 
 
Common Name: Armenia Local Official Name: Hayastan
Abbreviated Name: Republic of Armenia Official Name: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
Official Script Name: Armenia Local Common Name: Armenia
Former Name: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Territory of: NA
 
Head of State: President Robert KOCHARIAN
 
Government Type: Republic
 
Independence: 1991 September 21 (from Soviet Union)
 
Constitution: 1995 July 5 adopted by nationwide referendum; 2005 November 27 amendments adopted through a nationwide referendum
 
National Holiday: Independence Day, 21 September
 
International Organization Participation: ACCT (observer), AsDB, BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
 
Administrative Divisions: 11 provinces (marzer, singular - marz); Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir, Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush, Vayots' Dzor, Yerevan
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: based on civil law system
 
Suffrage: 18 years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Excutive Branch: Chief of state: President Robert KOCHARIAN (since 30 March 1998) Head of government: Prime Minister Andranik MARGARYAN (since 12 May 2000) Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 19 February and 5 March 2003 (next to be held in 2008); prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed with the majority support of the National Assembly; the prime minister and Council of Ministers must resign if the National Assembly refuses to accept their program Election results: Robert KOCHARIAN reelected president; percent of vote - Robert KOCHARIAN 67.5%, Stepan DEMIRCHYAN 32.5% Legislative Branch: unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov (131 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms; 90 members elected by party list, 41 by direct vote) Elections: last held 25 May 2003 (next to be held in the spring of 2007) Election results: percent of vote by party - Republican Party 23.5%, Justice Bloc 13.6%, Rule of Law 12.3%, ARF (Dashnak) 11.4%, National Unity Party 8.8%, United Labor Party 5.7%; seats by faction - Republican Party 39, Rule of Law 20, Justice Bloc 14, ARF (Dashnak) 11, National Unity 7, United Labor 6, People's Deputy Group 16, independent (not in faction or group) 18; note - as of 10 March 2006; voting blocs in the legislature are more properly termed factions and can be composed of members of several parties; seats by faction change frequently as deputies switch parties or announce themselves independent Judicial Branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; Court of Cassation (Appeals Court)
 
Party Leaders: Agro-Industrial Party [Vladimir BADALYAN]; Armenia Party [Myasnik MALKHASYAN]; Armenian National Movement or ANM [Alex ARZUMANYAN, chairman]; Armenian Ramkavar Liberal Party or HRAK [Harutyun MIRZAKHANYAN, chairman]; Armenian Revolutionary Federation ("Dashnak" Party) or ARF [Levon MKRTCHYAN]; Democratic Party [Aram SARKISYAN]; Justice Bloc (comprised of the Democratic Party, National Democratic Party, National Democratic Union, the People's Party, and the Republic Party) [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; National Democratic Party [Shavarsh KOCHARIAN]; National Democratic Union or NDU [Vazgen MANUKIAN]; National Revival Party [Albert BAZEYAN]; National Unity Party [Artashes GEGHAMYAN, chairman]; People's Party of Armenia [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; Republic Party [Aram SARKISYAN, chairman]; Republican Party or RPA [Andranik MARGARYAN]; Rule of Law Party [Samvel BALASANYAN]; Union of Constitutional Rights [Hrant KHACHATURYAN]; United Labor Party [Gurgen ARSENYAN]
 
International Disputes: Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh and since the early 1990s, has militarily occupied 16% of Azerbaijan - Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute; over 800,000 mostly ethnic Azerbaijanis were driven from the occupied lands and Armenia; about 230,000 ethnic Armenians were driven from their homes in Azerbaijan into Armenia; Azerbaijan seeks transit route through Armenia to connect to Naxcivan exclave; border with Turkey remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh dispute; ethnic Armenian groups in Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy; tens of thousands of Armenians emigrate, primarily to Russia, to seek employment.
 
Illicit Drugs: illicit cultivation of small amount of cannabis for domestic consumption; minor transit point for illicit drugs - mostly opium and hashish - moving from Southwest Asia to Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe  
 
 
 ARMENIAN GEOGRAPHY
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Location of Armenia: Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey
 
Continent: Asia Land Area Total: 29,800 sq km 
Region: Western Asia Land Area Land: 28,400 sq km
Capitol City: Yerevan Land Area Water: 1,400 sq km
      
Latitude: 040 00 N Border Boundary Land: 1,254 km
Longitude: 045 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 0 km 
  
Arable Land: 16.78 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 2.01 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 4,090 m Location: Aragats Lerrnagagat'
Lowest Elevation: 400 m Location: Debed River
  
Largest City in Armenia: Yerevan Yerevan Largest City Population: 1,281,000
  
Threatened Species: 29
 
Environmental Issues: Soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; the energy crisis of the 1990s led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant in spite of its location in a seismically active zone.
 
Environmental Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
 
Irrigated Land: 2,860
 
Bordering Countries: Azerbaijan-proper 566 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km
 
Natural Resources: small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina
 
Geographical Terrain: Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley
 
Comparative Area of Armenia: Slightly smaller than Maryland.
 
Armenia's Geography: Landlocked in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan) is the largest lake in this mountain range.
 

 ARMENIAN CLIMATE
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General Climate: highland continental, hot summers, cold winters
 
Natural Hazards: Occasionally severe earthquakes; Droughts
 
 
 ARMENIAN ECONOMY
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Economic Overview: Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia had developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange for raw materials and energy. Since the implosion of the USSR in December 1991, Armenia has switched to small-scale agriculture away from the large agroindustrial complexes of the Soviet era. The agricultural sector has long-term needs for more investment and updated technology. The privatization of industry has been at a slower pace, but has been given renewed emphasis by the current administration. Armenia is a food importer, and its mineral deposits (copper, gold, bauxite) are small. The ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over the ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh and the breakup of the centrally directed economic system of the former Soviet Union contributed to a severe economic decline in the early 1990s. By 1994, however, the Armenian Government had launched an ambitious IMF-sponsored economic liberalization program that resulted in positive growth rates in 1995-2005. Armenia joined the WTO in January 2003. Armenia also has managed to slash inflation, stabilize its currency, and privatize most small- and medium-sized enterprises. Armenia's unemployment rate, however, remains high, despite strong economic growth. The chronic energy shortages Armenia suffered in the early and mid-1990s have been offset by the energy supplied by one of its nuclear power plants at Metsamor. Armenia is now a net energy exporter, although it does not have sufficient generating capacity to replace Metsamor, which is under international pressure to close. The electricity distribution system was privatized in 2002. Armenia's severe trade imbalance has been offset somewhat by international aid, remittances from Armenians working abroad, and foreign direct investment. Economic ties with Russia remain close, especially in the energy sector. The government made some improvements in tax and customs administration in 2005, but anti-corruption measures will be more difficult to implement. Investment in the construction and industrial sectors is expected to continue in 2006 and will help to ensure annual average real GDP growth of about 13.9%.
 
 
GDP: $13,460,000,000 USD Currency: dram
GDP per Capita: $4,500 USD Currency Code: AMD
GDP Growth Rate: 13.90 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: drams per US dollar - 457.69 (2005), 533.45 (2004), 578.76 (2003), 573.35 (2002), 555.08
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 23.90 % GDP of Industry: 34.30 %
GDP of Services: 41.80 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 0.60 % Population in Poverty: 43.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 31.60 % Tourism: 41,000.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 1.60 % Budget Revenue in USD: $786,100,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 41.30 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $930,700,000 USD
   
Electricity Production: 6,317,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 650,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 4,374,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 463,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 36.34% Nuclear Electricity Production: 32.34%
Hydro Electricity Production: 31.32% Other Electricity Production: 0.00%
   
Oil Production: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 0 cu m
Oil Consumption: 40,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 1,685,000,000 cu m
Oil Exports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 1,685,000,000 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 0 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 0 cu m
   
External Debt: $1,819,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $254,000,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
   
Agricultural Products: fruit (especially grapes), vegetables; livestock
 
Primary Industries: diamond-processing, metal-cutting machine tools, forging-pressing machines, electric motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, jewelry manufacturing, software development, food processing,
 
Industrial Growth Rate: 7.50 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $1,500,000,000 USD - natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products, foodstuffs, diamonds
 
Import Partners: Russia 13.5%, Belgium 8%, Germany 7.9%, Ukraine 7%, Turkmenistan 6.3%, US 6.2%, Israel 5.8%, Iran 5%, Romania 4.2%
 
Export Amount in USD: $800,000,000 USD - diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs, energy
 
Export Partners: Germany 15.6%, Netherlands 13.7%, Belgium 12.8%, Russia 12.2%, Israel 11.5%, US 11.2%, Georgia 4.8%
 
    
GINI Index: 41.30%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 1,200,000
 
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture 45%, services 30%, industry 25%
 
  
 ARMENIAN COMMUNICATIONS
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Radio Broadcast Stations: 16 Number of People with Radios: 850,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 3 Number of People with Televisions: 825,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 582,500 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 203,300
 
Internet Service Providers: 8,852 Internet Users: 150,000
 
Internet Country Code: .am Newspapers: 24
Two Letter Country Code: AM Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: +374 Electricity Voltage: Volts
  
Telephone Systems: General assessment: system inadequate; now 90% privately owned and undergoing modernization and expansion Domestic: the majority of subscribers and the most modern equipment are in Yerevan (this includes paging and mobile cellular service) International: country code - 374; Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and through the Moscow international switch and by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 3
 
  
 ARMENIAN TRANSPORTATION
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Highways: 7,633 km Railways: 845 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 1,871 km Waterways: 0 km
Airports: 11 Heliports: 0
 
Motor Vehicles: 0 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 2,777,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 0.16 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: NA
 
Ports and Harbors: NA
 
  
 ARMENIAN PEOPLE
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Population: 2,976,372 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 12.07 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 103.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 8.23 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: -0.19% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 1.33 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 322,189 Population Female 0-14: 268,944
Population Male 15-64: 949,975 Population Female 15-64: 1,085,484
Population Male 65+: 133,411 Population Female 65+: 198,369
 
Population 0-14: 20.50% Literacy Rate: 98.60%
Population 15-64: 68.40% Literacy rate of Males: 99.40%
Population 65+: 11.10% Literacy rate of Females: 98.00%
 
Population that is Male: 58.50 % Population that is Female: 41.50%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 71.84 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 22.47 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 68.25 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 76.02 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.01% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 2,600
Number of people who died of AIDS: 0
   
Disease Risk:
 
Diseases:
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: -5.72
 
Nationality: ARMENIAN
 
Ethnic Groups: Armenian 97.9%, Yezidi (Kurd) 1.3%, Russian 0.5%, other 0.3% (2001 census) 
 
  
Primary Language: Armenian
 
Other Languages: Yezidi 1%, Russian 0.9%, other 0.4% (2001 census)
 
 
Primary Religion: Armenian Apostolic
 
Other Religions: Christian 4%, Yezidi (monotheist with elements of nature worship) 1.3%
 
  
 ARMENIAN MILITARY
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Branches: Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Nagorno-Karabakh Self Defense Force (NKSDF), Air Force, Air Defense Force
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years
 
Manpower Available: 1,517,920 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 1,208,431 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 62,956 People per year
 
Expenditures: $135,000,000 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 6.50
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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