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Bhutan Facts

Bhutan Facts | Kingdom of Bhutan Information | Bhutan Statistics | Bhutan

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 BHUTANESE POLITICAL
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Background: In 1865, Britain and Bhutan signed the Treaty of Sinchulu, under which Bhutan would receive an annual subsidy in exchange for ceding some border land. Under British influence, a monarchy was set up in 1907; three years later, a treaty was signed whereby the British agreed not to interfere in Bhutanese internal affairs and Bhutan allowed Britain to direct its foreign affairs. This role was assumed by independent India after 1947. Two years later, a formal Indo-Bhutanese accord returned the areas of Bhutan annexed by the British, formalized the annual subsidies the country received, and defined India's responsibilities in defense and foreign relations. A refugee issue of some 100,000 Bhutanese in Nepal remains unresolved; 90% of the refugees are housed in seven United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) camps. Maoist Assamese separatists from India, who have established themselves in the southeast portion of Bhutan, have drawn Indian cross-border incursions.
 
 
Common Name: Bhutan Local Official Name: Druk Yul
Abbreviated Name: Kingdom of Bhutan Official Name: Druk Gyalkhap
Official Script Name: Bhutan Local Common Name: Bhutan
Former Name: Bhutan Territory of: NA
 
Head of State: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK
 
Government Type: monarchy; special treaty relationship with India
 
Independence: 1949 August 8 (from India)
 
Constitution: no written constitution or bill of rights; note - in 2001, the king commissioned the drafting of a constitution, and in March 2005 publicly unveiled it; is awaiting national referendum
 
National Holiday: National Day (Ugyen WANGCHUCK became first hereditary king),
 
International Organization Participation: AsDB, BIMSTEC, CP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer
 
Administrative Divisions: 18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang, Dagana, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang, Tashigang, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang Note: there may be two new districts named Gasa and Yangtse
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: based on Indian law and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
 
Suffrage: Each family has one vote in village-level elections. years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972) elections: none; the monarch is hereditary, but democratic reforms in July 1998 grant the National Assembly authority to remove the monarch with two-thirds vote head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Lyonpo Khandu WANGCHUK (since 8 August 2001) Cabinet: Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog) nominated by the monarch, approved by the National Assembly; members serve fixed, five-year terms; note - there is also a Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde), members nominated by the monarch Legislative Branch: unicameral National Assembly or Tshogdu (150 seats; 105 elected from village constituencies, 10 represent religious bodies, and 35 are designated by the monarch to represent government and other secular interests; members serve three-year terms) Judicial Branch: Supreme Court of Appeal (the monarch); High Court (judges appointed by the monarch)
 
Party Leaders: NA
 
International Disputes: Approximately 105,000 Bhutanese have lived decades as refugees in Nepal, 90% of whom reside in seven UN Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees camps. Bhutan cooperates with India to expel Indian separatists.
 
Illicit Drugs: NA 
 
 
 BHUTANESE GEOGRAPHY
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Location of Bhutan: Southern Asia, between China and India
 
Continent: Asia Land Area Total: 47,000 sq km 
Region: Central Asia Land Area Land: 47,000 sq km
Capitol City: Thimphu Land Area Water: 0 sq km
      
Latitude: 027 30 N Border Boundary Land: 1,075 km
Longitude: 090 30 E Border Boundary Coastline: 0 km 
  
Arable Land: 2.30 % Pastures: 0.43 %
Crops: 0.00 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 7,553 m Location: Kula Kangri
Lowest Elevation: 97 m Location: Drangme Chhu
  
Largest City in Bhutan: Thimphu Thimphu Largest City Population: 28,000
  
Threatened Species: 0
 
Environmental Issues: soil erosion; limited access to potable water
 
Environmental Agreements: Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban Signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
 
Irrigated Land: 400
 
Bordering Countries: China 470 km, India 1075 km
 
Natural Resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide
 
Geographical Terrain: mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna
 
Comparative Area of Bhutan: About half the size of Indiana.
 
Bhutan's Geography: landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes
 

 BHUTANESE CLIMATE
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General Climate: varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas
 
Natural Hazards: violent storms from the Himalayas are the source of the country's name which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season
 
 
 BHUTANESE ECONOMY
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Economic Overview: The economy, one of the world's smallest and least developed, is based on agriculture and forestry, which provide the main livelihood for more than 90% of the population. Agriculture consists largely of subsistence farming and animal husbandry. Rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy is closely aligned with India's through strong trade and monetary links and dependence on India's financial assistance. The industrial sector is technologically backward, with most production of the cottage industry type. Most development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian migrant labor. Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for tourists are key resources. Model education, social, and environment programs are underway with support from multilateral development organizations. Each economic program takes into account the government's desire to protect the country's environment and cultural traditions. For example, the government, in its cautious expansion of the tourist sector, encourages visits by upscale, environmentally conscientious tourists. Detailed controls and uncertain policies in areas like industrial licensing, trade, labor, and finance continue to hamper foreign investment.
 
 
GDP: $2,900,000,000 USD Currency: ngultrum, Indian rupee
GDP per Capita: $1,400 USD Currency Code: BTN
GDP Growth Rate: 5.30 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: ngultrum per US dollar - 44.101 (2005), 45.317 (2004), 46.583 (2003), 48.61 (2002), 47.186 (2001)
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 45.00 % GDP of Industry: 10.00 %
GDP of Services: 45.00 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 3.00 % Population in Poverty: 0.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 0.00 % Tourism: 7,000.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 0.00 % Budget Revenue in USD: $146,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 0.00 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $152,000,000 USD
   
Electricity Production: 1,882,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 1,510,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 250,300,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 10,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 0.05% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 99.95% Other Electricity Production: 0.00%
   
Oil Production: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 0 cu m
Oil Consumption: 1,100 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 0 cu m
Oil Exports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 0 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 0 cu m
   
External Debt: $245,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $0 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
   
Agricultural Products: rice, corn, root crops, citrus, foodgrains; dairy products, eggs
 
Primary Industries: cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium carbide
 
Industrial Growth Rate: 9.30 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $196,000,000 USD - fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts, vehicles, fabrics, rice
 
Import Partners: Hong Kong 68.4%, Mexico 20.8%, France 3.9%
 
Export Amount in USD: $154,000,000 USD - electricity (to India), cardamom, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit, precious stones, spices
 
Export Partners: Japan 33.2%, Germany 13.6%, France 13.5%, South Korea 7.8%, US 7.7%, Thailand 5.8%, Italy 5.1%
 
    
GINI Index: 0.00%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 0
 
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry and commerce 2%
 
  
 BHUTANESE COMMUNICATIONS
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Radio Broadcast Stations: 10 Number of People with Radios: 37,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 1 Number of People with Televisions: 11,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 32,700 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 22,000
 
Internet Service Providers: 3 Internet Users: 20,000
 
Internet Country Code: .bt Newspapers: 0
Two Letter Country Code: BT Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: +975 Electricity Voltage: Volts
  
Telephone Systems: General assessment: telecommunications facilities are poor domestic: very low teledensity; domestic service is very poor especially in rural areas; wireless service available since 2003 International: country code - 975; international telephone and telegraph service via landline and microwave relay through India; satellite earth station - 1
 
  
 BHUTANESE TRANSPORTATION
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Highways: 8,050 km Railways: 0 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 0 km Waterways: 0 km
Airports: 1 Heliports: 0
 
Motor Vehicles: 190 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 392,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 0.08 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: NA
 
Ports and Harbors: NA
 
  
 BHUTANESE PEOPLE
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Population: 2,279,723 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 33.65 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 48.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 12.70 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 2.10% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 4.74 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 458,801 Population Female 0-14: 426,947
Population Male 15-64: 606,184 Population Female 15-64: 631,078
Population Male 65+: 46,217 Population Female 65+: 45,623
 
Population 0-14: 38.90% Literacy Rate: 47.00%
Population 15-64: 57.10% Literacy rate of Males: 60.00%
Population 65+: 4.00% Literacy rate of Females: 34.00%
 
Population that is Male: 53.50 % Population that is Female: 46.50%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 54.78 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 98.41 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 55.02 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 54.53 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.10% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 100
Number of people who died of AIDS: 0
   
Disease Risk:
 
Diseases:
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: 0.00
 
Nationality: BHUTANESE
 
Ethnic Groups: Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35% (includes Lhotsampas--one of several Nepalese ethnic groups), indigenous or migrant tribes 15% 
 
  
Primary Language: Dzongkha
 
Other Languages: Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects, Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects
 
 
Primary Religion: Lamaistic Buddhist
 
Other Religions: Lamaistic Buddhist 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 25%
 
  
 BHUTANESE MILITARY
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Branches: Royal Bhutan Army, Royal Bodyguard, National Militia, Royal Bhutan Police.
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years of age years
 
Manpower Available: 937,543 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 611,808 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 45,918 People per year
 
Expenditures: $8,290,000 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 1.00
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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