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Bosnia And Herzegovina Facts

Bosnia And Herzegovina Facts | Bosnia and Herzegovina Information | Bosnia and Herzegovina Statistics | People's Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina,

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 BOSNIAN POLITICAL
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Background: Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October 1991 was followed by a declaration of independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "Greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed a peace agreement that brought to a halt three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Peace Accords retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a joint multi-ethnic and democratic government charged with conducting foreign, diplomatic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government comprised of two entities roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments were charged with overseeing most government functions. The Office of the High Representative (OHR) was established to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. In 1995-96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission was to deter renewed hostilities. European Union peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR in December 2004; their mission is to maintain peace and stability throughout the country.
 
 
Common Name: Bosnia And Herzegovina Local Official Name: Bosna i Hercegovina
Abbreviated Name: Bosnia and Herzegovina Official Name: Bosnia and Herzegovina
Official Script Name: Bosnia and Herzegovina Local Common Name: Bosnia and Herzegovina
Former Name: People's Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Territory of: NA
 
Head of State: Chairman of the Presidency Sulejman TIHIC
 
Government Type: emerging federal democratic republic
 
Independence: 1992 March 1 (from Yugoslavia; referendum for independence was completed 1992 March 1; independence was declared 1992 March 3)
 
Constitution: the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included a new constitution now in force; note - each of the entities also has its own constitution
 
National Holiday: National Day, 25 November
 
International Organization Participation: BIS, CE, CEI, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NAM (guest), OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)
 
Administrative Divisions: 2 first-order administrative divisions and 1 internationally supervised district* - Brcko district (Brcko Distrikt)*, the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska; note - Brcko district is in northeastern Bosnia and is an administrative unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina; the district remains under international supervision
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: based on civil law system
 
Suffrage: 18 years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Sulejman TIHIC (chairman since 28 February 2006; presidency member since 5 October 2002 - Bosniak); other members of the three-member presidency rotating (every eight months): Borislav PARAVAC (since 10 April 2003 - Serb) and Ivo Miro JOVIC (since 28 June 2005 - Croat) head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Adnan TERZIC (since 20 December 2002) cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman; approved by the National House of Representatives elections: the three members of the presidency (one Bosniak, one Croat, one Serb) are elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term, but then ineligible for four years); the member with the most votes becomes the chairman unless he or she was the incumbent chairman at the time of the election, but the chairmanship rotates every eight months; election last held 5 October 2002 (next to be held in 2006); the chairman of the Council of Ministers is appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the National House of Representatives election results: percent of vote - Mirko SAROVIC with 35.5% of the Serb vote was elected chairman of the collective presidency for the first eight months; Dragan COVIC received 61.5% of the Croat vote; Sulejman TIHIC received 37% of the Bosniak vote; note - Mirko SAROVIC resigned 2 April 2003, replaced by Mirko PARAVAC, and Dragan COVIC was sacked by the High Representative serving the UN and EU on 29 March 2003, replaced by Ivo Miro JOVIC note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Niko LOZANCIC (since 27 January 2003); Vice Presidents Sahbaz DZIHANOVIC (since in 2003) and Desnica RADIVOJEVIC (since in 2003); President of the Republika Srpska: Dragan CAVIC (since 28 November 2002) Legislative Branch; bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of the national House of Representatives or Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats - elected by proportional representation, 28 seats allocated from the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 14 seats from the Republika Srpska; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); and the House of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats - 5 Bosniak, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members elected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives and the Republika Srpska's National Assembly to serve four-year terms); note - Bosnia's election law specifies four-year terms for the state and first-order administrative division entity legislatures elections: national House of Representatives - elections last held 5 October 2002 (next to be held in 2006); House of Peoples - last constituted in January 2003 (next to be constituted in 2007) election results: national House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - SDA 21.9%, SDS 14.0%, SBiH 10.5%, SDP 10.4%, SNSD 9.8%, HDZ-BH 9.5%, PDP 4.6%, other 19.3%; seats by party/coalition - SDA 10, SDS 5, SBiH 6, SDP 4, SNSD 3, HDZ-BH 5, PDP 2, other 7; House of Peoples - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - NA note: the Bosniak/Croat Federation has a bicameral legislature that consists of a House of Representatives (98 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 5 October 2002 (next to be held in October 2006); percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party/coalition - SDA 32, HDZ-BH 16, SDP 15, SBiH 15, other 20; and a House of Peoples (60 seats - 30 Bosniak, 30 Croat); last constituted December 2002; the Republika Srpska has a National Assembly (83 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 5 October 2002 (next to be held in the fall of 2006); percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party/coalition - SDS 26, SNSD 19, PDP 9, SDA 6, SRS 4, SBH 4, SPRS 3, DNZ 3, SDP 3, other 6; as a result of the 2002 constitutional reform process, a 28-member Republika Srpska Council of Peoples (COP) was established in the Republika Srpska National Assembly including eight Croats, eight Bosniaks, eight Serbs, and four members of the smaller communities Judicial Branch: BH Constitutional Court (consists of nine members: four members are selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives, two members by the Republika Srpska's National Assembly, and three non-Bosnian members by the president of the European Court of Human Rights); BH State Court (consists of nine judges and three divisions - Administrative, Appellate and Criminal - having jurisdiction over cases related to state-level law and appellate jurisdiction over cases initiated in the entities); note - a War Crimes Chamber opened in March 2005 note: the entities each have a Supreme Court; each entity also has a number of lower courts; there are 10 cantonal courts in the Federation, plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska has five municipal courts
 
Party Leaders: Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK]; Bosnian Party or BOSS [Mirnes AJANOVIC]; Civic Democratic Party or GDS [Ibrahim SPAHIC]; Croat Christian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HKDU [Marin TOPIC]; Croat Party of Rights or HSP [Zvonko JURISIC]; Croat Peasants Party or HSS [Marko TADIC]; Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HDZ-BH [Dragan COVIC]; Croatian Peoples Union [Milenko BRKIC]; Democratic National Union or DNZ [Rifet DOLIC]; Democratic Peoples Alliance [Marko PAVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Rasim KADIC]; New Croat Initiative or NHI [Kresimir ZUBAK]; Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina or SBiH [Safet HALILOVIC]; Party for Democratic Action or SDA [Sulejman TIHIC]; Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Mladen IVANIC]; Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Dragan CAVIC]; Serb Radical Party of the Republika Srpska or SRS-RS [Milanko MIHAJLICA]; Serb Radical Party-Dr. Vojislav Seselj or SRS-VS [Radislav KANJERIC]; Social Democratic Party of BIH or SDP [Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]; Social Democratic Union or SDU [Sejfudin TOKIC]; Socialist Party of Republika Srpska or SPRS [Petar DJOKIC]
 
International Disputes: Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia and Montenegro have delimited most of their boundary, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute; discussions continue with Croatia on several small disputed sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinder ratification of the 1999 border agreement
 
Illicit Drugs: minor transit point for marijuana and opiate trafficking routes to Western Europe; remains highly vulnerable to money-laundering activity given a primarily cash-based and unregulated economy, weak law enforcement, and instances of corruption 
 
 
 BOSNIAN GEOGRAPHY
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Location of Bosnia And Herzegovina: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia
 
Continent: Europe Land Area Total: 51,129 sq km 
Region: South Eastern Europe Land Area Land: 51,129 sq km
Capitol City: Sarajevo Land Area Water: 0 sq km
      
Latitude: 044 00 N Border Boundary Land: 1,459 km
Longitude: 018 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 20 km 
  
Arable Land: 19.61 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 1.89 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 2,386 m Location: Maglic
Lowest Elevation: 0 m Location: Adriatic Sea
  
Largest City in Bosnia And Herzegovina: Sarajevo Sarajevo Largest City Population: 522,000
  
Threatened Species: 36
 
Environmental Issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife; deforestation
 
Environmental Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
Irrigated Land: 30
 
Bordering Countries: Croatia 932 km, Montenegro 225 km, Serbia 302 km
 
Natural Resources: coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt, manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, forests, hydropower
 
Geographical Terrain: mountains and valleys
 
Comparative Area of Bosnia And Herzegovina: slightly smaller than West Virginia
 
Bosnia And Herzegovina's Geography: within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is co
 

 BOSNIAN CLIMATE
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General Climate: hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast
 
Natural Hazards: destructive earthquakes
 
 
 BOSNIAN ECONOMY
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Economic Overview: Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture is almost all in private hands, farms are small and inefficient, and the republic traditionally is a net importer of food. Industry remains greatly overstaffed, a holdover from the socialist economic structure of Yugoslavia. TITO had pushed the development of military industries in the republic with the result that Bosnia was saddled with a host of industrial firms with little commercial potential. The interethnic warfare in Bosnia caused production to plummet by 80% from 1992 to 1995 and unemployment to soar. With an uneasy peace in place, output recovered in 1996-99 at high percentage rates from a low base; but output growth slowed in 2000-02. Part of the lag in output was made up in 2003-05. National-level statistics are limited and do not capture the large share of black market activity. The konvertibilna marka (convertible mark or BAM)- the national currency introduced in 1998 - is pegged to the euro, and confidence in the currency and the banking sector has increased. Implementation of privatization, however, has been slow, and local entities only reluctantly support national-level institutions. Banking reform accelerated in 2001 as all the Communist-era payments bureaus were shut down; foreign banks, primarily from Western Europe, now control most of the banking sector. A sizeable current account deficit and high unemployment rate remain the two most serious economic problems. The country receives substantial amounts of reconstruction assistance and humanitarian aid from the international community but will have to prepare for an era of declining assistance.
 
 
GDP: $22,890,000,000 USD Currency: marka
GDP per Capita: $6,800 USD Currency Code: BAM
GDP Growth Rate: 5.30 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: marka per US dollar - 1.5727 (2005), 1.5752 (2004), 1.7329 (2003), 2.0782 (2002), 2.1857 (2001)
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 14.20 % GDP of Industry: 30.80 %
GDP of Services: 55.00 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 4.40 % Population in Poverty: 25.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 45.50 % Tourism: 89,000.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 0.00 % Budget Revenue in USD: $4,373,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 0.00 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $4,401,000,000 USD
   
Electricity Production: 10,510,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 3,200,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 8,849,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 2,271,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 37.67% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 62.33% Other Electricity Production: 0.00%
   
Oil Production: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 0 cu m
Oil Consumption: 21,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 160,000,000 cu m
Oil Exports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 300,000,000 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 0 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 0 cu m
   
External Debt: $3,116,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $650,000,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
   
Agricultural Products: wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock
 
Primary Industries: steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining
 
Industrial Growth Rate: 5.50 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $6,800,000,000 USD - machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
 
Import Partners: Croatia 24.7%, Germany 13.7%, Slovenia 13.1%, Italy 11%, Austria 6.9%, Hungary 5.5%
 
Export Amount in USD: $2,700,000,000 USD - metals, clothing, wood products
 
Export Partners: Croatia 18.4%, Italy 17.1%, Slovenia 14.6%, Germany 12.8%, Austria 6.5%, Hungary 5.2%, China 4.2%
 
    
GINI Index: 26.20%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 1,026,000
 
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
 
  
 BOSNIAN COMMUNICATIONS
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Radio Broadcast Stations: 25 Number of People with Radios: 940,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 33 Number of People with Televisions: 0
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 928,000 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 1,050,000
 
Internet Service Providers: 8,525 Internet Users: 225,000
 
Internet Country Code: .ba Newspapers: 152
Two Letter Country Code: Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: 387 Electricity Voltage: 220 Volts
  
Telephone Systems: general assessment: telephone and telegraph network needs modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average as contrasted with services in other former Yugoslav republics domestic: NA international: country code - 387; no satellite earth stations
 
  
 BOSNIAN TRANSPORTATION
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Highways: 11,425 km Railways: 1,216 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 264 km Waterways: 0 km
Airports: 8 Heliports: 5
 
Motor Vehicles: 0 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 4,437,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 1.30 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: NA
 
Ports and Harbors: Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac, and Brcko (all inland waterway ports on the Sava), Orasje
 
  
 BOSNIAN PEOPLE
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Population: 4,498,976 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 8.77 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 81.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 8.27 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 1.35% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 1.22 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 359,739 Population Female 0-14: 336,978
Population Male 15-64: 1,590,923 Population Female 15-64: 1,564,665
Population Male 65+: 265,637 Population Female 65+: 381,034
 
Population 0-14: 15.50% Literacy Rate: 94.60%
Population 15-64: 70.10% Literacy rate of Males: 98.40%
Population 65+: 14.40% Literacy rate of Females: 91.10%
 
Population that is Male: 48.50 % Population that is Female: 51.50%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 78.00 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 9.82 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 74.39 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 81.88 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.00% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 900
Number of people who died of AIDS: 100
   
Disease Risk:
 
Diseases:
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: 13.01
 
Nationality: BOSNIAN
 
Ethnic Groups: Bosniak 48%, Serb 37.1%, Croat 14.3%, other 0.6% note: Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam 
 
  
Primary Language: Croatian
 
Other Languages: Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian
 
 
Primary Religion: Muslim
 
Other Religions: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 14%
 
  
 BOSNIAN MILITARY
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Branches: VF Army (the air and air defense forces are subordinate commands within the Army), VRS Army (the air and air defense forces are subordinate commands within the Army)
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years
 
Manpower Available: 2,198,943 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 1,797,985 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 64,408 People per year
 
Expenditures: $234,300,000 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 4.50
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
 BOSNIAN RESOURCES
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Bosnia And Herzegovina Spa and Resort Directory
 
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