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Brunei Facts

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  BRUNEIAN POLITICAL
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Background: The Sultanate of Brunei's influence peaked between the 15th and 17th centuries when its control extended over coastal areas of northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was achieved in 1984. The same family has ruled Brunei for over six centuries. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in the developing world.
 
 
Common Name: Brunei Local Official Name: Brunei
Abbreviated Name: Negara Brunei Darussalam Official Name: Negara Brunei Darussalam
Official Script Name: Brunei Local Common Name: Brunei
Former Name: Brunei Territory of: NA
 
Head of State: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah
 
Government Type: Constitutional Sultanate
 
Independence: 1984 January 1 (from UK)
 
Constitution: 1959 September 29 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)
 
National Holiday: National Day, 23 February
 
International Organization Participation: APEC, APT, ARF, ASEAN, C, EAS, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFRCS, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
 
Administrative Divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: Based on English common law; For Muslims, Islamic Shari'a law supersedes civil law in a number of areas.
 
Suffrage: NA years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: Chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); Note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); Note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government Cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; deals with executive matters; note - there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the succession to the throne if the need arises elections: none; the monarch is hereditary Legislative Branch: Legislative Council met on 25 September 2004 for first time in 20 years with 21 members appointed by the Sultan; passed constitutional amendments calling for a 45-seat council with 15 elected members; Sultan dissolved council on 1 September 2005 and appointed a new council with 29 members as of 2 September 2005 Elections: last held in March 1962 note: in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive body by decree of the monarch; an elected Legislative Council is being considered as part of constitutional reform, but elections are unlikely for several years Judicial Branch: Supreme Court - chief justice and judges are sworn in by monarch for three-year terms; Judicial Committee of Privy Council in London is final court of appeal for civil cases; Shariah courts deal with Islamic laws (2006)
 
Party Leaders: Brunei Solidarity National Party (PPKB) [Haji Mohd HATTA bin Haji Zainal Abidin]; National Development Party (NDP) [YASSIN Affendi]; People's Awareness Party (PAKAR) [Awang Haji MAIDIN bin Haji Ahmad] note: parties are small and have limited activity (2005)
 
International Disputes: In 2003 Brunei and Malaysia ceased gas and oil exploration in their disputed offshore and deepwater seabeds and negotiations have stalemated prompting consideration of international legal adjudication; Malaysia's land boundary with Brunei around Limbang is in dispute; Brunei established an exclusive economic fishing zone encompassing Louisa Reef in southern Spratly Islands in 1984 but makes no public territorial claim to the offshore reefs; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions in the Spratly Islands but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants
 
Illicit Drugs: Drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty. 
 
 
  BRUNEIAN GEOGRAPHY
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Location of Brunei: Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia
 
Continent: Asia Land Area Total: 5,770 sq km 
Region: South East Asia Land Area Land: 500 sq km
Capitol City: Bandar Seri Begawan Land Area Water: 5,270 sq km
      
Latitude: 004 30 N Border Boundary Land: 381 km
Longitude: 114 40 E Border Boundary Coastline: 161 km 
  
Arable Land: 1.00 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 1.00 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 1,850 m Location: Bukit Pagon
Lowest Elevation: 0 m Location: South China Sea
  
Largest City in Brunei: Bandar Seri Begawan Bandar Seri Begawan Largest City Population: 85,000
  
Threatened Species: 0
 
Environmental Issues: Seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia.
 
Environmental Agreements: Party to: Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
Irrigated Land: 10
 
Bordering Countries: Malaysia 381 km
 
Natural Resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber
 
Geographical Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west
 
Comparative Area of Brunei: slightly smaller than Delaware
 
Brunei's Geography: Close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia
 

  BRUNEIAN CLIMATE
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General Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy
 
Natural Hazards: Typhoons, Earthquakes, and severe Flooding are very rare
 
 
  BRUNEIAN ECONOMY
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Economic Overview: This small, well-to-do economy encompasses a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures, and village tradition. Crude oil and natural gas production account for nearly half of GDP and more than 90% of government revenues. Per capita GDP is far above most other Third World countries, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. The government provides for all medical services and free education through the university level and subsidizes rice and housing. Brunei's leaders are concerned that steadily increased integration in the world economy will undermine internal social cohesion, although it became a more prominent player by serving as chairman for the 2000 APEC (Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation) forum. Plans for the future include upgrading the labor force, reducing unemployment, strengthening the banking and tourist sectors, and, in general, further widening the economic base beyond oil and gas.
 
 
GDP: $6,842,000,000 USD Currency: Bruneian dollar
GDP per Capita: $23,600 USD Currency Code: BND
GDP Growth Rate: 1.70 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: Bruneian dollars per US dollar - 1.6644 (2005), 1.6902 (2004), 1.7422 (2003), 1.7906 (2002), 1.7917 (2001)
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 3.60 % GDP of Industry: 56.10 %
GDP of Services: 40.30 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 0.90 % Population in Poverty: 0.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 4.80 % Tourism: 964,000.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 0.00 % Budget Revenue in USD: $3,765,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 0.00 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $4,815,000,000 USD
   
Electricity Production: 2,906,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 0 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 2,726,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 0 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 100.00% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 0.00% Other Electricity Production: 0.00%
   
Oil Production: 2,008,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 11,400,000,000 cu m
Oil Consumption: 10,770 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 1,730,000,000 cu m
Oil Exports: 192,700 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 9,000,000,000 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 1,255,000,000 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 390,800,000,000 cu m
   
External Debt: $0 USD Received in economic aid: $4,300,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
   
Agricultural Products: rice, vegetables, fruits, chickens, water buffalo
 
Primary Industries: petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction
 
Industrial Growth Rate: 7.30 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $1,641,000,000 USD - machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals
 
Import Partners: Singapore 33.1%, Malaysia 24.2%, Japan 7%, UK 5.3%, Thailand 4.6%, South Korea 4.1%
 
Export Amount in USD: $4,514,000,000 USD - crude oil, natural gas, refined products
 
Export Partners: Japan 36.3%, Indonesia 19.1%, South Korea 12.5%, US 9.4%, Australia 9.2%
 
    
GINI Index: 0.00%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 146,300
 
Labor Force by Occupations: Includes foreign workers and military personnel; Temporary residents make up about 40% of labor force.
 
  
  BRUNEIAN COMMUNICATIONS
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Radio Broadcast Stations: 3 Number of People with Radios: 329,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 2 Number of People with Televisions: 201,900
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 90,000 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 137,000
 
Internet Service Providers: 27 Internet Users: 56,000
 
Internet Country Code: .bn Newspapers: 69
Two Letter Country Code: BX Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: +673 Electricity Voltage: Volts
  
Telephone Systems: General assessment: service throughout the country is excellent; international service is good to East Asia, Europe, and the US Domestic: every service available International: country code - 673; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean); digital submarine cable links to Malaysia, the Philippines, and Singapore (2001)
 
  
  BRUNEIAN TRANSPORTATION
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Highways: 2,338 km Railways: 0 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 1,104 km Waterways: 209 km
Airports: 1 Heliports: 3
 
Motor Vehicles: 607 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 5,404,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 0.02 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: Total: 8 ships (1000 GRT or over) 465,937 GRT/413,393 DWT By type: Liquefied gas 8 Foreign-owned: 8 (UK 8) (2006)
 
Ports and Harbors: Lumut, Muara, Seria
 
  
  BRUNEIAN PEOPLE
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Population: 379,444 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 18.79 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 62.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 3.45 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 1.87% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 2.28 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 54,411 Population Female 0-14: 52,134
Population Male 15-64: 138,129 Population Female 15-64: 123,017
Population Male 65+: 5,584 Population Female 65+: 6,169
 
Population 0-14: 28.10% Literacy Rate: 93.90%
Population 15-64: 68.80% Literacy rate of Males: 96.30%
Population 65+: 3.10% Literacy rate of Females: 91.40%
 
Population that is Male: 53.00 % Population that is Female: 47.00%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 75.01 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 13.95 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 72.57 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 77.59 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.10% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 0
Number of people who died of AIDS: 0
   
Disease Risk:
 
Diseases:
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: 3.31
 
Nationality: BRUNEIAN
 
Ethnic Groups: Malay 67%, Chinese 15%, indigenous 6%, other 12% 
 
  
Primary Language: Malay
 
Other Languages: English, Chinese
 
 
Primary Religion: Muslim
 
Other Religions: Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%, indigenous beliefs and other 10%
 
  
  BRUNEIAN MILITARY
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Branches: Royal Brunei Armed Forces: Royal Brunei Land Forces, Royal Brunei Navy, Royal Brunei Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Brunei)
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years of age years
 
Manpower Available: 196,909 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 162,481 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 6,820 People per year
 
Expenditures: $290,700,000 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 5.10
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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