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Burundi Facts

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 BURUNDIAN POLITICAL
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Background: Burundi's first democratically elected president was assassinated in October 1993 after only 100 days in office, triggering widespread ethnic violence between Hutu and Tutsi factions. Over 200,000 Burundians perished during the conflict that spanned almost a dozen years. Hundreds of thousands of Burundians were internally displaced or became refugees in neighboring countries. An internationally brokered power-sharing agreement between the Tutsi-dominated government and the Hutu rebels in 2003 paved the way for a transition process that led to an integrated defense force, established a new constitution in 2005, and elected a majority Hutu government in 2005. The new government, led by President Pierre NKURUNZIZA, faces many challenges, particularly from the country's last rebel group who remains outside of the peace process and continue attacks in the western provinces of Burundi.
 
 
Common Name: Burundi Local Official Name: Burundi
Abbreviated Name: Republic of Burundi Official Name: Republika y'u Burundi
Official Script Name: Burundi Local Common Name: Burundi
Former Name: Urundi Territory of: NA
 
Head of State: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA
 
Government Type: republic
 
Independence: 1962 July 1 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administ)
 
Constitution: 2005 February 28 (ratified by popular referendum)
 
National Holiday: Independence Day, 1 July
 
International Organization Participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, CEPGL, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO (subscriber), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
 
Administrative Divisions: 16 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Mwaro, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
 
Suffrage: NA years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA (since 26 August 2005); First Vice President Martin NDUWIMANA - Tutsi (since 29 August 2005); Second Vice President Alice NZOMUKUNDA - Hutu (since 29 August 2005) head of government: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA (since 26 August 2005); First Vice President Martin NDUWIMANA - Tutsi (since 29 August 2005); Second Vice paresident Alice NZOMUKUNDA - Hutu (since 29 August 2005) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president elections: the president is elected by popular vote to a five-year term renewable one time; note - the constitution adopted in February 2005 permits the post-transition president to be elected by a two-thirds majority of the parliament; vice presidents nominated by the president, endorsed by parliament election results: Pierre NKURUNZIZA was elected president by the parliament by a vote of 151 to 9; note - the constitution adopted in February 2005 permits the post-transition president to be elected by a two-thirds majority of the legislature Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlement, consists of a National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (minimum 100 seats - 60% Hutu and 40% Tutsi with at least 30% being women; additional seats appointed by a National Independent Electoral Commission to ensure ethnic representation; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and a Senate (54 seats; 34 by indirect vote to serve five year terms, with remaining seats assigned to ethnic groups and former chiefs of state) elections: National Assembly - last held 4 July 2005 (next to be held in 2010); Senate - last held 29 July 2005 (next to be held in 2010) election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CNDD-FDD 58.6%, FRODEBU 21.7%, UPRONA 7.2%, CNDD 4.1%, MRC-Rurenzangemero 2.1%, others 6.2%; seats by party - CNDD-FDD 59, FRODEBU 25, UPRONA 10, CNDD 4, MRC-Rurenzangemero 2; Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CNDD-FDD 30, FRODEBU 3, CNDD 1 Judicial Branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court; Courts of Appeal (there are three in separate locations); Tribunals of First Instance (17 at the province level and 123 small local tribunals)
 
Party Leaders: the three national, mainstream, governing parties are: Burundi Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Leonce NGENDAKUMANA, president]; National Council for the Defense of Democracy, Front for the Defense of Democracy or CNDD-FDD [Hussein RADJABU, president]; Unity for National Progress or UPRONA [Aloys RUBUKA, president] note: a multiparty system was introduced after 1998, included are: National Council for the Defense of Democracy or CNDD; National Resistance Movement for the Rehabilitation of the Citizen or MRC-Rurenzangemero [Epitace BANYAGANAKANDI]; Party for National Redress or PARENA [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA]
 
International Disputes: Tutsi, Hutu, other conflicting ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces continue fighting in the Great Lakes region, transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda in an effort to gain control over populated and natural resource areas; government heads pledge to end conflict, but localized violence continues despite the presence of about 6,000 peacekeepers from the UN Operation in Burundi (ONUB) since 2004; although some 150,000 Burundian refugees have been repatriated, as of February 2005, Burundian refugees still reside in camps in western Tanzania as well as the Democratic Republic of the Congo
 
Illicit Drugs: NA 
 
 
 BURUNDIAN GEOGRAPHY
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Location of Burundi: Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo
 
Continent: Africa Land Area Total: 27,830 sq km 
Region: Central African Land Area Land: 25,650 sq km
Capitol City: Bujumbura Land Area Water: 2,180 sq km
      
Latitude: 003 30 S Border Boundary Land: 974 km
Longitude: 030 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 0 km 
  
Arable Land: 35.57 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 13.12 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 2,670 m Location: Mount Heha
Lowest Elevation: 772 m Location: Lake Tanganyika
  
Largest City in Burundi: Bujumbura Bujumbura Largest City Population: 321,000
  
Threatened Species: 17
 
Environmental Issues: soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
 
Environmental Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban
 
Irrigated Land: 210
 
Bordering Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 233 km, Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km
 
Natural Resources: nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum, vanadium, arable land, hydropower, niobium, tantalum, gold, tin, tungsten, kaolin, limestone
 
Geographical Terrain: hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains
 
Comparative Area of Burundi: slightly smaller than Maryland
 
Burundi's Geography: landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed; the Kagera, which drains into Lake Victoria, is the most remote headstream of the White Nile
 

 BURUNDIAN CLIMATE
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General Climate: equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; wet seasons from February to May and September to November, and dry seasons from June to August and December to January
 
Natural Hazards: flooding, landslides, drought
 
 
 BURUNDIAN ECONOMY
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Economic Overview: Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country with an underdeveloped manufacturing sector. The economy is predominantly agricultural with more than 90% of the population dependent on subsistence agriculture. Economic growth depends on coffee and tea exports, which account for 90% of foreign exchange earnings. The ability to pay for imports, therefore, rests primarily on weather conditions and international coffee and tea prices. The Tutsi minority, 14% of the population, dominates the government and the coffee trade at the expense of the Hutu majority, 85% of the population. An ethnic-based war that lasted for over a decade resulted in more than 200,000 deaths, forced more than 48,000 refugees into Tanzania, and displaced 140,000 others internally. Only one in two children go to school, and approximately one in 10 adults has HIV/AIDS. Food, medicine, and electricity remain in short supply. Political stability and the end of the civil war have improved aid flows and economic activity has increased, but underlying weaknesses - a high poverty rate, poor education rates, a weak legal system, and low administrative capacity - risk undermining planned economic reforms.
 
 
GDP: $5,654,000,000 USD Currency: Burundi franc
GDP per Capita: $700 USD Currency Code: BIF
GDP Growth Rate: 1.10 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: Burundi francs per US dollar - 1,138 (2005), 1,100.91 (2004), 1,082.62 (2003), 930.75 (2002), 830.35 (2001)
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 45.60 % GDP of Industry: 20.80 %
GDP of Services: 33.60 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 14.00 % Population in Poverty: 68.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 0.00 % Tourism: 26,000.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 1.80 % Budget Revenue in USD: $215,400,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 32.90 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $278,000,000 USD
   
Electricity Production: 141,300,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 0 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 141,400,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 10,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 0.68% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 99.32% Other Electricity Production: 0.00%
   
Oil Production: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 0 cu m
Oil Consumption: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 0 cu m
Oil Exports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 0 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 0 cu m
   
External Debt: $1,200,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $105,500,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
   
Agricultural Products: coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc (tapioca); beef, milk, hides
 
Primary Industries: light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing
 
Industrial Growth Rate: 18.00 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $200,000,000 USD - capital goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs
 
Import Partners: Kenya 13.6%, Tanzania 11.1%, US 8.8%, Belgium 8.5%, France 8.3%, Italy 5.9%, Uganda 5.6%, Japan 4.6%, Germany 4.4%
 
Export Amount in USD: $52,000,000 USD - coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides
 
Export Partners: Germany 20.6%, Belgium 8.6%, Pakistan 7%, US 5.9%, Rwanda 5.9%
 
    
GINI Index: 33.30%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 2,990,000
 
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture: 93.6% industry: 2.3% services: 4.1%
 
  
 BURUNDIAN COMMUNICATIONS
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Radio Broadcast Stations: 5 Number of People with Radios: 440,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 1 Number of People with Televisions: 25,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 23,900 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 64,000
 
Internet Service Providers: 155 Internet Users: 25,000
 
Internet Country Code: .bi Newspapers: 3
Two Letter Country Code: BY Weights and Measures: metric
Phone Country Code: 257 Electricity Voltage: 220 Volts
  
Telephone Systems: general assessment: primitive system domestic: sparse system of open-wire, radiotelephone communications, and low-capacity microwave radio relay international: country code - 257; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
 
  
 BURUNDIAN TRANSPORTATION
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Highways: 1,028 km Railways: 0 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 0 km Waterways: 0 km
Airports: 1 Heliports: 0
 
Motor Vehicles: 3 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 224,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 4.20 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: NA
 
Ports and Harbors: Bujumbura
 
  
 BURUNDIAN PEOPLE
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Population: 8,090,068 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 42.22 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 233.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 13.46 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 3.70% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 6.55 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 1,884,825 Population Female 0-14: 1,863,200
Population Male 15-64: 2,051,451 Population Female 15-64: 2,082,017
Population Male 65+: 83,432 Population Female 65+: 125,143
 
Population 0-14: 46.30% Literacy Rate: 51.60%
Population 15-64: 51.10% Literacy rate of Males: 58.50%
Population 65+: 2.60% Literacy rate of Females: 45.20%
 
Population that is Male: 51.50 % Population that is Female: 48.50%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 50.81 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 63.13 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 50.07 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 51.58 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 6.00% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 250,000
Number of people who died of AIDS: 25,000
   
Disease Risk:
 
Diseases:
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: 8.22
 
Nationality: BURUNDIAN
 
Ethnic Groups: Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000 
 
  
Primary Language: Kirundi
 
Other Languages: Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)
 
 
Primary Religion: Christian
 
Other Religions: Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%), indigenous beliefs 23%, Muslim 10%
 
  
 BURUNDIAN MILITARY
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Branches: National Defense Force (Forces de Defense Nationales, FDN): Army (includes Naval Detachment and Air Wing), National Gendarmerie (being disbanded)
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 16 years of age years
 
Manpower Available: 3,333,221 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 1,888,383 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 182,016 People per year
 
Expenditures: $43,900,000 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 5.60
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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