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Cambodia Facts

Cambodia Facts | Kingdom of Cambodia Information | Cambodia Statistics | Khmer Republic, Kampuchea Republic

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Background: Most Cambodians consider themselves to be Khmers, descendants of the Angkor Empire that extended over much of Southeast Asia and reached its zenith between the 10th and 13th centuries. Attacks by the Thai and Cham (from present-day Vietnam) weakened the empire ushering in a long period of decline. The king placed the country under French protection in 1863. Cambodia became part of French Indochina in 1887. Following Japanese occupation in World War II, Cambodia gained full independence from France in 1953. In April 1975, after a five-year struggle, Communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh and evacuated all cities and towns. At least 1.5 million Cambodians died from execution, forced hardships, or starvation during the Khmer Rouge regime under POL POT. A December 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside, began a 10-year Vietnamese occupation, and touched off almost 13 years of civil war. The 1991 Paris Peace Accords mandated democratic elections and a ceasefire, which was not fully respected by the Khmer Rouge. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy under a coalition government. Factional fighting in 1997 ended the first coalition government, but a second round of national elections in 1998 led to the formation of another coalition government and renewed political stability. The remaining elements of the Khmer Rouge surrendered in early 1999. Some of the remaining leaders are awaiting trial by a UN-sponsored tribunal for crimes against humanity. Elections in July 2003 were relatively peaceful, but it took one year of negotiations between contending political parties before a coalition government was formed.
Common Name: Cambodia Local Official Name: Kampuchea
Abbreviated Name: Kingdom of Cambodia Official Name: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea
Official Script Name: Cambodia Local Common Name: Cambodia
Former Name: Khmer Republic, Kampuchea Republic Territory of: NA
Head of State: King Norodom SIHANOUK
Government Type: Multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy established in September 1993.
Independence: 1953 November 9 (from France)
Constitution: 1993 September 21 (Promulgated)
National Holiday: Independence Day, 9 November
Administrative Divisions: 20 provinces (khaitt, singular and plural) and 4 municipalities* (krong, singular and plural) Provinces: Banteay Mean Cheay, Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Krachen, Mondol Kiri, Otdar Mean Cheay, Pouthisat, Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanah Kiri, Siem Reab, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev Municipalities: Keb, Pailin, Phnum Penh, Preah Seihanu
Dependent Areas: NA
Legal System: Primarily a civil law mixture of French-influenced codes from the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) period, royal decrees, and acts of the legislature, with influences of customary law and remnants of communist legal theory; increa
Suffrage: 18 years of age years
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: King Norodom SIHANOUK (reinstated 24 September 1993) head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 30 November 1998) and Deputy Prime Ministers SAR KHENG (since NA) and TOL LAH (since NA) Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch Elections: none; the monarch is chosen by a Royal Throne Council; prime minister appointed by the monarch after a vote of confidence by the National Assembly Legislative Branch: bicameral, consists of the National Assembly (123 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Senate (61 seats; 2 members appointed by the monarch, 2 elected by the National Assembly, and 57 elected by parliamentarians and commune councils; members serve five-year terms) Elections: National Assembly - last held 27 July 2003 (next to be held in July 2008); Senate - last held 22 January 2006 (next to be held in January 2011) election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CPP 47%, SRP 22%, FUNCINPEC 21%, other 10%; seats by party - CPP 73, FUNCINPEC 26, SRP 24; Senate - percent of vote by party - CPP 69%, FUNCINPEC 21%, SRP 10%; seats by party - CPP 45, FUNCINPEC 10, SRP 2 (January 2006) Judicial Branch: Supreme Council of the Magistracy (provided for in the constitution and formed in December 1997); Supreme Court (and lower courts) exercises judicial authority
Party Leaders: Cambodian Pracheachon Party (Cambodian People's Party) or CPP [CHEA SIM]; National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia or FUNCINPEC [NHEK BUNCHHAY]; Sam Rangsi Party or SRP [SAM RANGSI]
International Disputes: Southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; Cambodia and Thailand dispute sections of boundary with missing boundary markers and Thai encroachments into Cambodian territory; maritime boundary with Vietnam is hampered by unresolved dispute over offshore islands; Cambodia accuses Thailand of obstructing access to Preah Vihear temple ruins awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962; in 2004, Cambodian-Laotian and Laotian-Vietnamese boundary commissions re-erected missing markers completing most of their demarcations.
Illicit Drugs: Narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving some in the government, military, and police; Possible small-scale heroin and methamphetamine production; vulnerable to money laundering due to its cash-based economy and porous borders. 
  Cambodia Facts |  Kingdom of Cambodia Information | Cambodia Statistics  
Location of Cambodia: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos
Continent: Asia Land Area Total: 181,040 sq km 
Region: South East Asia Land Area Land: 176,520 sq km
Capitol City: Phnom Penh Land Area Water: 4,520 sq km
Latitude: 013 00 N Border Boundary Land: 2,572 km
Longitude: 105 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 443 km 
Arable Land: 20.44 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 0.59 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
Highest Elevation: 1,810 m Location: Phnum Aoral
Lowest Elevation: 0 m Location: Gulf of Thailand
Largest City in Cambodia: Phnom Penh Phnom Penh Largest City Population: 938,000
Threatened Species: 0
Environmental Issues: Illegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand have resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil erosion; in rural areas, most of the population does not have access to potable water; declining fish stocks because of illegal fishing and overfishing.
Environmental Agreements: Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Irrigated Land: 2,700
Bordering Countries: Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km
Natural Resources: timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential
Geographical Terrain: mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north
Comparative Area of Cambodia: slightly smaller than Oklahoma
Cambodia's Geography: A land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap

  Cambodia Facts |  Kingdom of Cambodia Information | Cambodia Statistics  
General Climate: tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation
Natural Hazards: monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts
  Cambodia Facts |  Kingdom of Cambodia Information | Cambodia Statistics  
Economic Overview: In 1999, the first full year of peace in 30 years, the government made progress on economic reforms. The US and Cambodia signed a Bilateral Textile Agreement, which gave Cambodia a guaranteed quota of US textile imports and established a bonus for improving working conditions and enforcing Cambodian labor laws and international labor standards in the industry. From 2001 to 2004, the economy grew at an average rate of 6.4%, driven largely by an expansion in the garment sector and tourism. With the January 2005 expiration of a WTO Agreement on Textiles and Clothing, Cambodia-based textile producers were forced to compete directly with lower-priced producing countries such as China and India. Although initial 2005 GDP growth estimates were less than 3%, better-than-expected garment sector performance led the IMF to forecast 6% growth in 2005. Faced with the possibility that its vibrant garment industry, with more than 200,000 jobs, could be in serious danger, the Cambodian government has committed itself to a policy of continued support for high labor standards in an attempt to maintain favor with buyers. The tourism industry continues to grow rapidly, with foreign visitors surpassing 1 million for the year by September 2005. In 2005, exploitable oil and natural gas deposits were found beneath Cambodia's territorial waters, representing a new revenue stream for the government once commercial extraction begins in the coming years. The long-term development of the economy remains a daunting challenge. The Cambodian government continues to work with bilateral and multilateral donors, including the World Bank and IMF, to address the country's many pressing needs. In December 2004, official donors pledged $504 million in aid for 2005 on the condition that the Cambodian government implement steps to reduce corruption. The major economic challenge for Cambodia over the next decade will be fashioning an economic environment in which the private sector can create enough jobs to handle Cambodia's demographic imbalance. More than 50% of the population is 20 years or younger. The population lacks education and productive skills, particularly in the poverty-ridden countryside, which suffers from an almost total lack of basic infrastructure. Fully 75% of the population remains engaged in subsistence farming.
GDP: $30,650,000,000 USD Currency: riel
GDP per Capita: $2,200 USD Currency Code: KHR
GDP Growth Rate: 6.00 %
Currency Exchange Rate History: Riels per US dollar - 4,092.5 (2005), 4,016.25 (2004), 3,973.33 (2003), 3,912.08 (2002), 3,916.33 (2001)
GDP of Agriculture: 35.00 % GDP of Industry: 30.00 %
GDP of Services: 35.00 %  
Inflation Rate: 5.80 % Population in Poverty: 40.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 2.50 % Tourism: 263,000.00 visitors each year
Consumption by lowest 10%: 2.90 % Budget Revenue in USD: $559,400,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 33.80 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $772,000,000 USD
Electricity Production: 123,700,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 0 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 115,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 0 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 62.12% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 37.88% Other Electricity Production: 0.00%
Oil Production: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 0 cu m
Oil Consumption: 3,700 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 0 cu m
Oil Exports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 0 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 0 cu m
External Debt: $800,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $504,000,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
Agricultural Products: rice, rubber, corn, vegetables, cashews, tapioca
Primary Industries: tourism, garments, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles
Industrial Growth Rate: 22.00 %
Import Amount in USD: $3,538,000,000 USD - petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction materials, machinery, motor vehicles, pharmaceutical products
Import Partners: Hong Kong 16.1%, China 13.6%, France 12.1%, Thailand 11.2%, Taiwan 10.2%, South Korea 7.5%, Vietnam 7.1%, Singapore 4.9%, Japan 4.1%
Export Amount in USD: $2,663,000,000 USD - clothing, timber, rubber, rice, fish, tobacco, footwear
Export Partners: US 48.6%, Hong Kong 24.4%, Germany 5.6%, Canada 4.6%
GINI Index: 40.00%
Labor Force Number of People: 7,000,000
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture 75%
  Cambodia Facts |  Kingdom of Cambodia Information | Cambodia Statistics  
Radio Broadcast Stations: 19 Number of People with Radios: 1,340,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 11 Number of People with Televisions: 94,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 36,400 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 498,400
Internet Service Providers: 1,315 Internet Users: 41,000
Internet Country Code: .kh Newspapers: 2
Two Letter Country Code: CB Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: +855 Electricity Voltage: Volts
Telephone Systems: General assessment: adequate landline and/or cellular service in Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; mobile phone coverage is rapidly expanding in rural areas Domestic: NA International: country code - 855; adequate but expensive landline and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region)
  Cambodia Facts |  Kingdom of Cambodia Information | Cambodia Statistics  


Highways: 4,165 km Railways: 602 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 0 km Waterways: 3,700 km
Airports: 6 Heliports: 2
Motor Vehicles: 7 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 531,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 0.00 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
Merchant Marines: Total: 544 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,777,907 GRT/2,529,708 DWT By type: bulk carrier 41, cargo 443, chemical tanker 11, container 10, livestock carrier 3, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 9, refrigerated cargo 19, roll on/roll off 2, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 1 Foreign-owned: 407 (Bulgaria 1, Canada 6, China 128, Cyprus 12, Egypt 8, Gabon 1, Greece 8, Hong Kong 15, Indonesia 1, Japan 4, South Korea 23, Latvia 2, Lebanon 6, Nigeria 2, Norway 1, Philippines 1, Russia 105, Singapore 4, Spain 1, Syria 20, Taiwan 2, Turkey 26, UAE 1, Ukraine 17, US 8, Yemen 3, unknown 1)
Ports and Harbors: Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville), Kampot, Krong Kaoh Kong, Phnom Penh
  Cambodia Facts |  Kingdom of Cambodia Information | Cambodia Statistics  
Population: 13,881,427 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 26.90 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 78.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 9.06 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 1.78% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 3.37 babies born per woman
Population Male 0-14: 2,497,595 Population Female 0-14: 2,447,754
Population Male 15-64: 4,094,946 Population Female 15-64: 4,370,159
Population Male 65+: 180,432 Population Female 65+: 290,541
Population 0-14: 35.60% Literacy Rate: 73.60%
Population 15-64: 61.00% Literacy rate of Males: 84.70%
Population 65+: 3.40% Literacy rate of Females: 64.10%
Population that is Male: 52.50 % Population that is Female: 47.50%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 59.29 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 68.78 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 57.35 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 61.32 years
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 2.26% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 170,000
Number of people who died of AIDS: 15,000
Disease Risk: High
Diseases: Food or Waterborne Diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever Vectorborne Diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Japanese encephalitis are high risks in some locations Note: at present, H5N1 avian influenza poses a minimal risk; during outbreaks among birds, rare cases could occur among US citizens who have close contact with infected birds or poultry
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: 0.00
Nationality: CAMBODIAN
Ethnic Groups: Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4% 
Primary Language: Khmer
Other Languages: French, English
Primary Religion: Theravada Buddhist
Other Religions: Other 5%
  Cambodia Facts |  Kingdom of Cambodia Information | Cambodia Statistics  
Branches: Royal Cambodian Armed Forces: Royal Cambodian Army, Royal Khmer Navy, Royal Cambodian Air Force
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years of age years
Manpower Available: 6,110,972 People
Manpower Fit to Serve: 4,003,752 People
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 348,285 People per year
Expenditures: $112,000,000 USD per year
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 3.00
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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