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 CANADIAN POLITICAL
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Background: A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across an unfortified border. Canada's paramount political problem is meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care and education services after a decade of budget cuts. Canada also faces questions about integrity in government following revelations regarding a corruption scandal in the federal government that has helped revive the fortunes of separatists in predominantly francophone Quebec.
 
 
Common Name: Canada Local Official Name: Canada
Abbreviated Name: Canada Official Name: Canada
Official Script Name: Canada Local Common Name: Canada
Former Name: Canada Territory of: Canada
 
Head of State: Queen ELIZABETH II
 
Government Type: constitutional monarchy that is also a parliamentary democracy and a federation
 
Independence: 1867 July 1 (union of British North American colonies); 1931 December 11 (independence recognized)
 
Constitution: made up of unwritten and written acts, customs, judicial decisions, and traditions; the written part of the constitution consists of the Constitution Act of 29 March 1867, which created a federation of four provinces, and the Constitution Act of 17 April
 
National Holiday: Canada Day, 1 July
 
International Organization Participation: ACCT, AfDB, APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ESA (cooperating state), FAO, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAFTA, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SECI (observer), UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNMOVIC, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
 
Administrative Divisions: 10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
 
Suffrage: 18 years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Michaelle JEAN (since 27 September 2005) head of government: Prime Minister Stephen HARPER (since 6 February 2006) cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister usually from among the members of his own party sitting in Parliament elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House of Commons is automatically designated prime minister by the governor general Legislative Branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (members appointed by the governor general with the advice of the prime minister and serve until reaching 75 years of age; its normal limit is 105 senators) and the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (308 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to serve for up to five-year terms) elections: House of Commons - last held 23 January 2006 (next to be held in 2011) election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party - Conservative Party 36.3%, Liberal Party 30.2%, New Democratic Party 17.5%, Bloc Quebecois 10.5%, Greens 4.5%, other 1%; seats by party - Conservative Party 124, Liberal Party 103, New Democratic Party 29, Bloc Quebecois 51, other 1 Judicial Branch: Supreme Court of Canada (judges are appointed by the prime minister through the governor general); Federal Court of Canada; Federal Court of Appeal; Provincial Courts (these are named variously Court of Appeal, Court of Queens Bench, Superior Court, Supreme Court, and Court of Justice)
 
Party Leaders: Bloc Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE]; Conservative Party of Canada (a merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party) [Stephen HARPER]; Green Party [Elizabeth MAY]; Liberal Party [Bill GRAHAM]; New Democratic Party [Jack LAYTON]
 
International Disputes: managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and around the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; working toward greater cooperation with US in monitoring people and commodities crossing the border; uncontested sovereignty dispute with Denmark over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland
 
Illicit Drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market and export to US; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; transit point for ecstasy entering the US market; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering because of its mature financial services sector 
 
 
 CANADIAN GEOGRAPHY
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Location of Canada: Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the conterminous US
 
Continent: North America Land Area Total: 9,984,670 sq km 
Region: Northern American Land Area Land: 9,093,507 sq km
Capitol City: Ottawa Land Area Water: 891,163 sq km
      
Latitude: 060 00 N Border Boundary Land: 8,893 km
Longitude: 095 00 W Border Boundary Coastline: 202,080 km 
  
Arable Land: 4.57 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 0.65 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 5,959 m Location: Mount Logan
Lowest Elevation: 0 m Location: Atlantic Ocean
  
Largest City in Canada: Toronto Toronto Largest City Population: 4,590,000
  
Threatened Species: 64
 
Environmental Issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities
 
Environmental Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation
 
Irrigated Land: 7,850
 
Bordering Countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)
 
Natural Resources: iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower
 
Geographical Terrain: mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast
 
Comparative Area of Canada: slightly larger than the US
 
Canada's Geography: second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 85% of the population is concentrated within 300 km of the US/Canada border
 

 CANADIAN CLIMATE
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General Climate: varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north
 
Natural Hazards: continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains
 
 
 CANADIAN ECONOMY
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Economic Overview: As an affluent, high-tech industrial society in the trillion dollar class, Canada resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and affluent living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which includes Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US. Given its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital plant, Canada enjoys solid economic prospects. Top-notch fiscal management has produced consecutive balanced budgets since 1997, although public debate continues over how to manage the rising cost of the publicly funded healthcare system. Exports account for roughly a third of GDP. Canada enjoys a substantial trade surplus with its principal trading partner, the US, which absorbs more than 85% of Canadian exports. Canada is the US' largest foreign supplier of energy, including oil, gas, uranium, and electric power.
 
 
GDP: $1,111,000,000,000 USD Currency: Canadian dollar
GDP per Capita: $33,900 USD Currency Code: CAD
GDP Growth Rate: 2.90 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: Canadian dollars per US dollar - 1.2118 (2005), 1.301 (2004), 1.4011 (2003), 1.5693 (2002), 1.5488 (2001)
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 2.20 % GDP of Industry: 29.40 %
GDP of Services: 68.40 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 2.20 % Population in Poverty: 0.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 6.80 % Tourism: 19,465,000.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 2.80 % Budget Revenue in USD: $159,600,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 23.80 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $152,600,000,000 USD
   
Electricity Production: 566,300,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 22,000,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 520,900,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 33,000,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 25.30% Nuclear Electricity Production: 11.92%
Hydro Electricity Production: 61.22% Other Electricity Production: 1.56%
   
Oil Production: 2,400,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 165,800,000,000 cu m
Oil Consumption: 2,300,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 90,950,000,000 cu m
Oil Exports: 1,600,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 91,520,000,000 cu m
Oil Imports: 963,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 8,730,000,000 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 178,900,000,000 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 1,673,000,000,000 cu m
   
External Debt: $439,800,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $0 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $2,600,000,000 USD
   
Agricultural Products: wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish
 
Primary Industries: transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum and natural gas
 
Industrial Growth Rate: 2.60 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $317,700,000,000 USD - machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods
 
Import Partners: US 56.7%, China 7.8%, Mexico 3.8%
 
Export Amount in USD: $364,800,000,000 USD - motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum
 
Export Partners: US 84.2%, Japan 2.1%, UK 1.8%
 
    
GINI Index: 33.10%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 16,300,000
 
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture 2%, manufacturing 14%, construction 5%, services 75%, other 3%
 
  
 CANADIAN COMMUNICATIONS
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Radio Broadcast Stations: 833 Number of People with Radios: 32,300,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 80 Number of People with Televisions: 21,500,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 18,276,000 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 16,600,000
 
Internet Service Providers: 3,934,223 Internet Users: 21,900,000
 
Internet Country Code: .ca Newspapers: 159
Two Letter Country Code: CA Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: 1 Electricity Voltage: 120 Volts
  
Telephone Systems: general assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations international: country code - 1-xxx; 5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)
 
  
 CANADIAN TRANSPORTATION
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Highways: 415,600 km Railways: 48,467 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 98,544 km Waterways: 631 km
Airports: 509 Heliports: 319
 
Motor Vehicles: 557 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 529,431,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 16.20 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: total: 173 ships (1000 GRT or over) 2,129,243 GRT/2,716,340 DWT by type: bulk carrier 62, cargo 10, chemical tanker 9, container 2, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 63, petroleum tanker 13, roll on/roll off 8 foreign-owned: 7 (Germany 3, Netherlands 1, Norway 1, US 2) registered in other countries: 111 (Australia 1, Bahamas 18, Barbados 8, Cambodia 6, Cyprus 2, Denmark 1, Honduras 1, Hong Kong 28, Liberia 2, Malta 18, Marshall Islands 6, Panama 4, Russia 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 6, US 4, Vanuatu 5)
 
Ports and Harbors: Fraser River Port, Halifax, Montreal, Port Cartier, Quebec, Saint John's (Newfoundland), Sept Isles, Vancouver
 
  
 CANADIAN PEOPLE
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Population: 33,098,932 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 10.78 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 3.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 7.80 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 0.80% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 1.61 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 2,992,811 Population Female 0-14: 2,848,388
Population Male 15-64: 11,482,452 Population Female 15-64: 11,368,286
Population Male 65+: 1,883,008 Population Female 65+: 2,523,987
 
Population 0-14: 17.60% Literacy Rate: 99.00%
Population 15-64: 69.00% Literacy rate of Males: 99.00%
Population 65+: 13.30% Literacy rate of Females: 99.00%
 
Population that is Male: 49.00 % Population that is Female: 51.00%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 80.22 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 4.69 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 76.86 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 83.74 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.30% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 56,000
Number of people who died of AIDS: 1,500
   
Disease Risk:
 
Diseases:
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: 5.85
 
Nationality: CANADIAN
 
Ethnic Groups: British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%, Amerindian 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%, mixed background 26% 
 
  
Primary Language: English
 
Other Languages: English 59.3% (official), French 23.2% (official), other 17.5%
 
 
Primary Religion: Roman Catholic
 
Other Religions: Roman Catholic 42.6%, Protestant 23.3% (including United Church 9.5%, Anglican 6.8%, Baptist 2.4%, Lutheran 2%), other Christian 4.4%, Muslim 1.9%, other and unspecified 11.8%, none 16%
 
  
 CANADIAN MILITARY
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Branches: Canadian Forces: Land Forces Command, Maritime Command, Air Command, Canada Command (homeland security)
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 16 years
 
Manpower Available: 16,251,449 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 13,321,358 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 436,721 People per year
 
Expenditures: $0 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 1.10
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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