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 CHINESE POLITICAL
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Background: For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically and the room for personal choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight.
 
 
Common Name: China Local Official Name: Zhongguo
Abbreviated Name: People's Republic of China Official Name: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
Official Script Name: China Local Common Name: PRC
Former Name: China Territory of: NA
 
Head of State: President HU Jintao
 
Government Type: Communist state
 
Independence: 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty 221
 
Constitution: 1982 December 4
 
National Holiday: Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China, 1 October
 
International Organization Participation: AfDB, APEC, APT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BCIE, BIS, CDB, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), ONUB, OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SCO, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOVIC, UNOCI, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
 
Administrative Divisions: 23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities (shi, singular and plural) provinces: Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang; (see note on Taiwan) autonomous regions: Guangxi, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Xinjiang, Xizang (Tibet) municipalities: Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin Note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entries for the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: based on civil law system; derived from Soviet and continental civil code legal principles; legislature retains power to interpret statutes; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
 
Suffrage: 18 years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: Chief of state: President HU Jintao (since 15 March 2003) and Vice President ZENG Qinghong (since 15 March 2003) head of government: Premier WEN Jiabao (since 16 March 2003); Executive Vice Premier HUANG Ju (since 17 March 2003), Vice Premiers WU Yi (17 March 2003), ZENG Peiyan (since 17 March 2003), and HUI Liangyu (since 17 March 2003) Cabinet: State Council appointed by the National People's Congress (NPC) Elections: president and vice president elected by the National People's Congress for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held 15-17 March 2003 (next to be held mid-March 2008); premier nominated by the president, confirmed by the National People's Congress Election results: HU Jintao elected president by the 10th National People's Congress with a total of 2,937 votes (four delegates voted against him, four abstained, and 38 did not vote); ZENG Qinghong elected vice president by the 10th National People's Congress with a total of 2,578 votes (177 delegates voted against him, 190 abstained, and 38 did not vote); two seats were vacant Legislative Branch: Unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,985 seats; members elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses to serve five-year terms) Elections: last held December 2002-February 2003 (next to be held late 2007-February 2008) Election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - NA Judicial Branch: Supreme People's Court (judges appointed by the National People's Congress); Local Peoples Courts (comprise higher, intermediate, and local courts); Special Peoples Courts (primarily military, maritime, and railway transport courts)
 
Party Leaders: Chinese Communist Party or CCP [HU Jintao]; eight registered small parties controlled by CCP
 
International Disputes: in 2005, China and India began drafting principles to resolve all aspects of their extensive boundary and territorial disputes together with a security and foreign policy dialogue to consolidate discussions related to the boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, and other matters; recent talks and confidence-building measures have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; about 90,000 ethnic Tibetan exiles reside primarily in India as well as Nepal and Bhutan; China asserts sovereignty over the Spratly Islands together with Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions in the Spratlys but is not the legally binding "code of conduct" sought by some parties; Vietnam and China continue to expand construction of facilities in the Spratlys and in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord on marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; China occupies some of the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; China and Taiwan have become more vocal in rejecting both Japan's claims to the uninhabited islands of Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) and Japan's unilaterally declared equidistance line in the East China Sea, the site of intensive hydrocarbon prospecting; certain islands in the Yalu and Tumen rivers are in an uncontested dispute with North Korea and a section of boundary around Mount Paektu is considered indefinite; China seeks to stem illegal migration of tens of thousands of North Koreans; China and Russia prepare to demarcate the boundary agreed to in October 2004 between the long-disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri; demarcation of the China-Vietnam boundary proceeds slowly and although the maritime boundary delimitation and fisheries agreements were ratified in June 2004, implementation has been delayed; environmentalists in Burma and Thailand remain concerned about China's construction of hydroelectric dams upstream on the Nujiang/Salween River in Yunnan Province.
 
Illicit Drugs: Major transshipment point for heroin produced in the Golden Triangle; growing domestic drug abuse problem; source country for chemical precursors and methamphetamine. 
 
 
 CHINESE GEOGRAPHY
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Location of China: Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam
 
Continent: Asia Land Area Total: 9,596,960 sq km 
Region: North East Asia Land Area Land: 9,326,410 sq km
Capitol City: Beijing Land Area Water: 270,550 sq km
      
Latitude: 035 00 N Border Boundary Land: 22,147 km
Longitude: 0105 00 Border Boundary Coastline: 14,500 km 
  
Arable Land: 14.86 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 1.27 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 8,850 m Location: Mount Everest
Lowest Elevation: -154 m Location: Turpan Pendi
  
Largest City in China: Shanghai Shanghai Largest City Population: 12,902,000
  
Threatened Species: 422
 
Environmental Issues: air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; water shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in endangered species
 
Environmental Agreements: Party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
Irrigated Land: 545,960
 
Bordering Countries: Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km, Hong Kong 30 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Macau 0.34 km, Mongolia 4,677 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605 km, R
 
Natural Resources: coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)
 
Geographical Terrain: mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east
 
Comparative Area of China: slightly smaller than the US
 
China's Geography: World's fourth largest country (after Russia, Canada, and US); Mount Everest on the border with Nepal is the world's tallest peak.
 

 CHINESE CLIMATE
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General Climate: extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north
 
Natural Hazards: frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence.
 
 
 CHINESE ECONOMY
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Economic Overview: China's economy during the last quarter century has changed from a centrally planned system that was largely closed to international trade to a more market-oriented economy that has a rapidly growing private sector and is a major player in the global economy. Reforms started in the late 1970s with the phasing out of collectivized agriculture, and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy for state enterprises, the foundation of a diversified banking system, the development of stock markets, the rapid growth of the non-state sector, and the opening to foreign trade and investment. China has generally implemented reforms in a gradualist or piecemeal fashion. The process continues with key moves in 2005 including the sale of equity in China's largest state banks to foreign investors and refinements in foreign exchange and bond markets. The restructuring of the economy and resulting efficiency gains have contributed to a more than tenfold increase in GDP since 1978. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis, China in 2005 stood as the second-largest economy in the world after the US, although in per capita terms the country is still lower middle-income and 150 million Chinese fall below international poverty lines. Economic development has generally been more rapid in coastal provinces than in the interior, and there are large disparities in per capita income between regions. The government has struggled to: (a) sustain adequate job growth for tens of millions of workers laid off from state-owned enterprises, migrants, and new entrants to the work force; (b) reduce corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) contain environmental damage and social strife related to the economy's rapid transformation. From 100 to 150 million surplus rural workers are adrift between the villages and the cities, many subsisting through part-time, low-paying jobs. One demographic consequence of the "one child" policy is that China is now one of the most rapidly aging countries in the world. Another long-term threat to growth is the deterioration in the environment - notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table, especially in the north. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. China has benefited from a huge expansion in computer Internet use, with more than 100 million users at the end of 2005. Foreign investment remains a strong element in China's remarkable expansion in world trade and has been an important factor in the growth of urban jobs. In July 2005, China revalued its currency by 2.1% against the US dollar and moved to an exchange rate system that references a basket of currencies. Reports of shortages of electric power in the summer of 2005 in southern China receded by September-October and did not have a substantial impact on China's economy. More power generating capacity is scheduled to come on line in 2006 as large scale investments are completed. Thirteen years in construction at a cost of $24 billion, the immense Three Gorges Dam across the Yangtze River will be essentially completed in 2006 and will revolutionize electrification and flood control in the area. The Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party in October 2005 approved the draft 11th Five-Year Plan and the National People's Congress is expected to give final approval in March 2006. The plan calls for a 20% reduction in energy consumption per unit of GDP by 2010 and an estimated 45% increase in GDP by 2010. The plan states that conserving resources and protecting the environment are basic goals, but it lacks details on the policies and reforms necessary to achieve these goals.
 
 
GDP: $8,859,000,000,000 USD Currency: yuan
GDP per Capita: $6,800 USD Currency Code: CNY
GDP Growth Rate: 9.90 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: yuan per US dollar - 8.1943 (2005), 8.2768 (2004), 8.277 (2003), 8.277 (2002), 8.2771
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 12.50 % GDP of Industry: 47.30 %
GDP of Services: 40.30 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 1.80 % Population in Poverty: 10.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 9.00 % Tourism: 27,047,000.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 2.40 % Budget Revenue in USD: $392,100,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 30.40 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $424,300,000,000 USD
   
Electricity Production: 2,190,000,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 10,600,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 2,170,000,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 1,546,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 81.83% Nuclear Electricity Production: 1.22%
Hydro Electricity Production: 16.83% Other Electricity Production: 0.12%
   
Oil Production: 3,504,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 35,020,000,000 cu m
Oil Consumption: 6,391,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 33,440,000,000 cu m
Oil Exports: 340,300 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 2,790,000,000 cu m
Oil Imports: 3,226,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 0 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 2,530,000,000,000 cu m
   
External Debt: $252,800,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $0 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
   
Agricultural Products: rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, apples, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish
 
Primary Industries: mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products, including footwear, toys, and electronics; food processing; transpor
 
Industrial Growth Rate: 29.50 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $631,800,000,000 USD - machinery and equipment, oil and mineral fuels, plastics, optical and medical equipment, organic chemicals, iron and steel
 
Import Partners: Japan 15.2%, South Korea 11.6%, Taiwan 11.2%, US 7.4%, Germany 4.6%
 
Export Amount in USD: $752,200,000,000 USD - machinery and equipment; textiles and clothing, footwear, toys and sporting goods; mineral fuels
 
Export Partners: US 21.4%, Hong Kong 16.3%, Japan 11%, South Korea 4.6%, Germany 4.3%
 
    
GINI Index: 44.00%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 2,147,483,647
 
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture 49%, industry 22%, services 29%
 
  
 CHINESE COMMUNICATIONS
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Radio Broadcast Stations: 673 Number of People with Radios: 417,000,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 3,240 Number of People with Televisions: 400,000,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 2,147,483,647 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 2,147,483,647
 
Internet Service Providers: 3 Internet Users: 111,000,000
 
Internet Country Code: .cn Newspapers: 42
Two Letter Country Code: CN Weights and Measures: Metric
Phone Country Code: +86 Electricity Voltage: 240 Volts
  
Telephone Systems: General assessment: domestic and international services are increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns Domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been Installed; a domestic satellite system with 55 earth stations is in place international: country code - 86; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean regions); several international fiber-optic links to Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, Russia, and Germany (2000)
 
  
 CHINESE TRANSPORTATION
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Highways: 1,447,682 km Railways: 74,408 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 33,648 km Waterways: 123,964 km
Airports: 403 Heliports: 32
 
Motor Vehicles: 10 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 2,147,483,647 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 4.20 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: total: 1,723 ships (1000 GRT or over) 21,405,633 GRT/32,411,260 DWT by type: barge carrier 2, bulk carrier 387, cargo 695, chemical tanker 45, combination ore/oil 1, container 152, liquefied gas 31, passenger 8, passenger/cargo 83, petroleum tanker 261, refrigerated cargo 30, roll on/roll off 8, specialized tanker 6, vehicle carrier 14 foreign-owned: 13 (Hong Kong 7, Japan 3, South Korea 2, Norway 1) registered in other countries: 1,191 (Bahamas 3, Bangladesh 1, Belize 103, Bolivia 1, Cambodia 128, Cyprus 11, Georgia 2, Honduras 3, Hong Kong 274, India 2, North Korea 1, Liberia 35, Malaysia 1, Malta 14, Mongolia 4, Norway 3, Panama 420, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 103, Sierra Leone 2, Singapore 23, Thailand 1, Tuvalu 23, unknown 33)
 
Ports and Harbors: Dalian, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai
 
  
 CHINESE PEOPLE
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Population: 1,313,973,713 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 13.25 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 136.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 6.97 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 0.59% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 1.73 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 145,461,833 Population Female 0-14: 128,445,739
Population Male 15-64: 482,439,115 Population Female 15-64: 455,960,489
Population Male 65+: 48,562,635 Population Female 65+: 53,103,902
 
Population 0-14: 20.80% Literacy Rate: 90.90%
Population 15-64: 71.40% Literacy rate of Males: 95.10%
Population 65+: 7.70% Literacy rate of Females: 86.50%
 
Population that is Male: 56.00 % Population that is Female: 44.00%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 72.58 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 23.12 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 70.89 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 74.46 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.10% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 840,000
Number of people who died of AIDS: 44,000
   
Disease Risk:
 
Diseases:
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: -0.39
 
Nationality: CHINESE
 
Ethnic Groups: Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1% 
 
  
Primary Language: Standard Chinese
 
Other Languages: Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)
 
 
Primary Religion: Daoist (Taoist)
 
Other Religions: Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Christian 3%-4%, Muslim 1%-2% note: officially atheist (2002 est.)
 
  
 CHINESE MILITARY
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Branches: People's Liberation Army (PLA): Ground Forces, Navy (includes marines and naval aviation), Air Force (includes airborne forces), and II Artillery Corps (strategic missile force); People's Armed Police (PAP); Reserve and Militia Forces.
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years
 
Manpower Available: 667,657,509 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 550,265,789 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 25,484,582 People per year
 
Expenditures: $81,480,000,000 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 4.30
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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