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Colombia Facts

Colombia Facts | Republic of Colombia Information | Columbia Statistics | Colombia

Colombia Facts |  Republic of Colombia Information | Columbia Statistics Colombia Facts |  Republic of Colombia Information | Columbia Statistics
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Colombia Facts |  Republic of Colombia Information | Columbia Statistics Colombia Facts |  Republic of Colombia Information | Columbia Statistics
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  Colombia Facts |  Republic of Colombia Information | Columbia Statistics  
Background: Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others are Ecuador and Venezuela). A 40-year conflict between government forces and anti-government insurgent groups and illegal paramilitary groups - both heavily funded by the drug trade - escalated during the 1990s. The insurgents lack the military or popular support necessary to overthrow the government, and violence has been decreasing since about 2002, but insurgents continue attacks against civilians and large swaths of the countryside are under guerrilla influence. Paramilitary groups challenge the insurgents for control of territory and the drug trade. Most paramilitary members have demobilized since 2002 in an ongoing peace process, although their commitment to ceasing illicit activity is unclear. The Colombian Government has stepped up efforts to reassert government control throughout the country, and now has a presence in every one of its municipalities. However, neighboring countries worry about the violence spilling over their borders.
Common Name: Colombia Local Official Name: Colombia
Abbreviated Name: Republic of Colombia Official Name: Republica de Colombia
Official Script Name: Columbia Local Common Name: Colombia
Former Name: Colombia Territory of: NA
Head of State: President Alvaro Uribe Velez
Government Type: republic; executive branch dominates government structure
Independence: 1810 July 20 (from Spain)
Constitution: 1991 July 5
National Holiday: Independence Day, 20 July
International Organization Participation: BCIE, CAN, CDB, CSN, FAO, G-3, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Administrative Divisions: 32 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Distrito Capital de Bogota*, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y Providencia, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada
Dependent Areas: NA
Legal System: based on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled after US procedures was enacted in 1992-93; judicial review of executive and legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 18 years
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branches: chief of state: President Alvaro URIBE Velez (since 7 August 2002); Vice President Francisco SANTOS (since 7 August 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Alvaro URIBE Velez (since 7 August 2002); Vice President Francisco SANTOS (since 7 August 2002) cabinet: Cabinet consists of a coalition of the two dominant parties - the PL and PSC - and independents elections: president and vice president elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 28 May 2006 (next to be held in May 2010) election results: President Alvaro URIBE Velez reelected president; percent of vote - Alvaro URIBE Velez 62%, Carlos GAVIRIA Diaz 22%, Horacio SERPA Uribe 12%, other 4% Legislative Branches: bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the Senate or Senado (102 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (166 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: Senate - last held 12 March 2006 (next to be held in March 2010); House of Representatives - last held 12 March 2006 (next to be held in March 2010) election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PSUN 20, PC 18, PL 17, CR 15, PDI 11, other parties 21; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PL 36, PSUN 30, PC 29, CR 20, PDA 42, other parties 42 Judicial Branches: four roughly coequal, supreme judicial organs; Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (highest court of criminal law; judges are selected by their peers from the nominees of the Superior Judicial Council for eight-year terms); Council of State (highest court of administrative law; judges are selected from the nominees of the Superior Judicial Council for eight-year terms); Constitutional Court (guards integrity and supremacy of the constitution; rules on constitutionality of laws, amendments to the constitution, and international treaties); Superior Judicial Council (administers and disciplines the civilian judiciary; resolves jurisdictional conflicts arising between other courts; members are elected by three sister courts and Congress for eight-year terms)
Party Leaders: Clandestine Communist Party of Colombia or PCC [Jaime CAICEDO]; Colombian Conservative Party or PC [Carlos HOLGUIN Sardi]; Alternative Democratic Pole or PDA [Samuel MORENO Rojas]; Liberal Party or PL [Cesar GAVIRIA]; Social National Unity Party or PSUN [Juan Manuel SANTOS] note: Colombia has about 60 formally recognized political parties, most of which do not have a presence in either house of Congress
International Disputes: Nicaragua filed a claim against Honduras in 1999 and against Colombia in 2001 at the ICJ over disputed maritime boundary involving 50,000 sq km in the Caribbean Sea, including the Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank; dispute with Venezuela over maritime boundary and Los Monjes Islands near the Gulf of Venezuela; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics, guerrilla, and paramilitary activities penetrate all of its neighbors' borders and have created a serious refugee crisis with over 300,000 persons having fled the country, mostly into neighboring states
Illicit Drugs: illicit producer of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis; world's leading coca cultivator (cultivation of coca in 2004 was 114,100 hectares, virtually unchanged from 2003, but down one-third from its peak of 169,800 ha); producing a potential of 430 mt of pure cocaine; the world's largest producer of coca derivatives; supplying most of the US market and the great majority of cocaine to other international drug markets; important supplier of heroin to the US market; opium poppy cultivation fell 50% between 2003 and 2004 to 2,100 hectares yielding a potential 3.8 metric tons of pure heroin, mostly for the US market; in 2004, aerial eradication treated over 130,000 hectares of coca but aggressive replanting on the part of growers means Colombia remains a key producer; a significant portion of non-US narcotics proceeds are either laundered or invested in Colombia through the black market peso exchange 
  Colombia Facts |  Republic of Colombia Information | Columbia Statistics  
Location of Colombia: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama
Continent: South America Land Area Total: 1 sq km 
Region: Southern American Land Area Land: 1,038,700 sq km
Capitol City: Bogota Land Area Water: 100,210 sq km
Latitude: 4° 39 Border Boundary Land: 6,004 km
Longitude: 74° 3 Border Boundary Coastline: 3,208 km 
Arable Land: 2.00 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 0.00 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
Highest Elevation: 5,775 m Location: Pico Cristobal Colon
Lowest Elevation: 0 m Location: Pacific Ocean
Largest City in Colombia: Bogot Bogot Largest City Population: 6,158,000
Threatened Species: 376
Environmental Issues: deforestation; soil and water quality damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle emissions
Environmental Agreements: party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Irrigated Land: 8,500
Bordering Countries: Colombia is bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the North by the Atlantic Ocean, through the Caribbean Sea; to the north-west by Panama; and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. Besides the countries in South Am
Natural Resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower
Geographical Terrain: flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains
Comparative Area of Colombia: Twice the size of France or slightly less than twice the size of Texas.
Colombia's Geography: only South American country with coastlines on both North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea

  Colombia Facts |  Republic of Colombia Information | Columbia Statistics  
General Climate: The climate of Colombia is determined by its proximity to the Earth's Equator predominating a tropical and isothermal climate, presenting variations within five natural regions and depending on the altitude; determined by mountain climate, temperature, humidity, winds; influenced by the trade winds and precipitation which is influenced by the Intertropical Convergence Zone.
Natural Hazards: highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts
  Colombia Facts |  Republic of Colombia Information | Columbia Statistics  
Economic Overview: Colombia's economy has been on a recovery trend during the past two years despite a serious armed conflict. The economy continues to improve thanks to austere government budgets, focused efforts to reduce public debt levels, an export-oriented growth strategy, and an improved security situation in the country. Ongoing economic problems facing President URIBE range from reforming the pension system to reducing high unemployment. New exploration is needed to offset declining oil production. On the positive side, several international financial institutions have praised the economic reforms introduced by URIBE, which succeeded in reducing the public-sector deficit below 1.5% of GDP. The government's economic policy and democratic security strategy have engendered a growing sense of confidence in the economy, particularly within the business sector. Coffee prices have recovered from previous lows as the Colombian coffee industry pursues greater market shares in developed countries such as the United States.
GDP: $341,100,000,000 USD Currency: Colombian peso
GDP per Capita: $53 USD Currency Code: COP
GDP Growth Rate: 5.20 %
Currency Exchange Rate History: Colombian pesos per US dollar - 2,320.75 (2005), 2,628.61 (2004), 2,877.65 (2003), 2,504.24 (2002), 2,299.63 (2001)
GDP of Agriculture: 12.50 % GDP of Industry: 34.20 %
GDP of Services: 53.30 %  
Inflation Rate: 5.00 % Population in Poverty: 49.20 %
Unemployment Rate: 11.80 % Tourism: 546,000.00 visitors each year
Consumption by lowest 10%: 7.90 % Budget Revenue in USD: $46,820,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 34.30 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $48,770,000,000 USD
Electricity Production: 50,430,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 1,082,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 48,830,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 48,400,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 25.93% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 73.09% Other Electricity Production: 0.98%
Oil Production: 512,400 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 6,080,000,000 cu m
Oil Consumption: 270,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 6,080,000,000 cu m
Oil Exports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 1,492,000,000 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 127,600,000,000 cu m
External Debt: $32,350,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $0 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
Agricultural Products: coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest products; shrimp
Primary Industries: textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds
Industrial Growth Rate: 3.70 %
Import Amount in USD: $18,000,000,000 USD - industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, paper products, fuels, electricity
Import Partners: US 28.5%, Mexico 8.3%, China 7.6%, Brazil 6.5%, Venezuela 5.7%
Export Amount in USD: $19,300,000,000 USD - petroleum, coffee, coal, apparel, bananas, cut flowers
Export Partners: US 41.8%, Venezuela 9.9%, Ecuador 6.3%
GINI Index: 53.80%
Labor Force Number of People: 20,520,000
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture: 22.7%, industry: 18.7%, services: 58.5%
  Colombia Facts |  Republic of Colombia Information | Columbia Statistics  
Radio Broadcast Stations: 515 Number of People with Radios: 21,000,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 60 Number of People with Televisions: 4,590,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 7,678,800 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 21,850,000
Internet Service Providers: 581,877 Internet Users: 4,739,000
Internet Country Code: .co Newspapers: 46
Two Letter Country Code: CO Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: 57 Electricity Voltage: 110 Volts
Telephone Systems: general assessment: modern system in many respects domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system; domestic satellite system with 41 earth stations; fiber-optic network linking 50 cities international: country code - 57; satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat; 3 fully digitalized international switching centers; 8 submarine cables
  Colombia Facts |  Republic of Colombia Information | Columbia Statistics  


Highways: 26,000 km Railways: 3,304 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 13,658 km Waterways: 18,000 km
Airports: 101 Heliports: 2
Motor Vehicles: 28 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 67,972,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 1.70 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
Merchant Marines: total: 17 ships (1000 GRT or over) 42,413 GRT/58,737 DWT by type: cargo 13, liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 3 registered in other countries: 7 (Antigua and Barbuda 2, Panama 5)
Ports and Harbors: Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Muelles El Bosque, Puerto Bolivar, Santa Marta, Turbo
  Colombia Facts |  Republic of Colombia Information | Columbia Statistics  
Population: 43,593,035 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 20.48 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 39.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 5.58 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 1.46% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 2.54 babies born per woman
Population Male 0-14: 6,683,079 Population Female 0-14: 6,528,563
Population Male 15-64: 13,689,384 Population Female 15-64: 14,416,439
Population Male 65+: 996,022 Population Female 65+: 1,279,548
Population 0-14: 30.30% Literacy Rate: 92.50%
Population 15-64: 64.50% Literacy rate of Males: 92.40%
Population 65+: 5.20% Literacy rate of Females: 92.60%
Population that is Male: 48.00 % Population that is Female: 52.00%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 71.99 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 20.35 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 68.15 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 75.96 years
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.70% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 190,000
Number of people who died of AIDS: 3,600
Disease Risk:
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: -0.30
Nationality: COLOMBIAN
Ethnic Groups: mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1% 
Primary Language: Spanish
Other Languages: Spanish
Primary Religion: Roman Catholic
Other Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, other 10%
  Colombia Facts |  Republic of Colombia Information | Columbia Statistics  
Branches: Army (Ejercito Nacional), National Navy (Armada Nacional, includes naval aviation, marines, and coast guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Colombiana)
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years
Manpower Available: 20,774,018 People
Manpower Fit to Serve: 15,780,693 People
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 772,881 People per year
Expenditures: $0 USD per year
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 3.40
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
  Colombia Facts |  Republic of Colombia Information | Columbia Statistics  
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