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 CZECH POLITICAL
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Background: Following the First World War, the closely related Czechs and Slovaks of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire merged to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar years, the new country's leaders were frequently preoccupied with meeting the demands of other ethnic minorities within the republic, most notably the Sudeten Germans and the Ruthenians (Ukrainians). After World War II, a truncated Czechoslovakia fell within the Soviet sphere of influence. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize Communist party rule and create "socialism with a human face." Anti-Soviet demonstrations the following year ushered in a period of harsh repression. With the collapse of Soviet authority in 1989, Czechoslovakia regained its freedom through a peaceful "Velvet Revolution." On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a "velvet divorce" into its two national components, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004.
 
 
Common Name: Czech Republic Local Official Name: Ceska Republika
Abbreviated Name: Czech Republic Official Name: Ceska Republika
Official Script Name: Czech Republic Local Common Name: Czech Republic
Former Name: Czech Republic Territory of: NA
 
Head of State: President Vaclav Klaus
 
Government Type: parliamentary democracy
 
Independence: 1993 January 1 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)
 
Constitution: 1992 December 16 (ratified) effective 1993 January 1
 
National Holiday: Czech Founding Day, 28 October
 
International Organization Participation: ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BIS, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU (new member), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
 
Administrative Divisions: 13 regions (kraje, singular - kraj) and 1 capital city* (hlavni mesto); Jihocesky Kraj, Jihomoravsky Kraj, Karlovarsky Kraj, Kralovehradecky Kraj, Liberecky Kraj, Moravskoslezsky Kraj, Olomoucky Kraj, Pardubicky Kraj, Plzensky Kraj, Praha (Prague)*, Stredocesky Kraj, Ustecky Kraj, Vysocina, Zlinsky Kraj
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to bring it in line with Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
 
Suffrage: 18 years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch; chief of state: President Vaclav KLAUS (since 7 March 2003) note: the Czech Republic's first president Vaclav HAVEL stepped down from office on 2 February 2003 having served exactly 10 years; parliament finally elected a successor on 28 February 2003 after two inconclusive elections in January 2003 head of government: Prime Minister Mirek TOPOLANEK (since 4 September 2006), Deputy Prime Minister Petr NECAS (since 4 September 2006) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); last successful election held 28 February 2003 (after earlier elections held 15 and 24 January 2003 were inconclusive; next election to be held January 2008); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Vaclav KLAUS elected president on 28 February 2003; Vaclav KLAUS 142 votes, Jan SOKOL 124 votes (third round; combined votes of both chambers of parliament) Legislative Branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms; one-third elected every two years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Poslanecka Snemovna (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: Senate - last held in two rounds 5-6 November and 12-13 November 2004 (next to be held November 2006); Chamber of Deputies - last held 2-3 June 2006 (next to be held by June 2010) election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ODS 37, KDU-CSL 14, Open Democracy 13, CSSD 7, Caucus Open Democracy 7, independents 3; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - ODS 35.4%, CSSD 32.3%, KSCM 12.8%, KDU-CSL 7.2%, Greens 6.3%, other 6%; seats by party - ODS 81, CSSD 74, KSCM 26, KDU-CSL 13, Greens 6 Judicial Branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; chairman and deputy chairmen are appointed by the president for a 10-year term
 
Party Leaders: Association of Independent Candidates or SNK [Josef ZIELENIEC, chairman]; Caucus Open Democracy; Christian Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Miroslav KALOUSEK, chairman]; Civic Democratic Alliance or ODA [Jirina NOVAKOVA, chairwoman]; Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Mirek TOPOLANEK, chairman]; Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Vojtech FILIP, chairman]; Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Bohuslav SOBOTKA, acting chairman]; European Democrats [Jan KASL]; Freedom Union-Democratic Union or US-DEU [Pavel NEMEC, chairman]; Green Party [Martin BURSIK, chairman]; Independent Democrats (NEZDEM) [Vladimir ZELEZNY, chairman]; Open Democracy; Party of Open Society (SOS) [Pavel NOVACEK, chairman]; Path of Change [Jiri LOBKOWITZ, chairman]
 
International Disputes: Liechtenstein's royal family claims restitution for 1,600 sq km of land in the Czech Republic confiscated in 1918; individual Sudeten German claims for restitution of property confiscated in connection with their expulsion after World War II; Austria has minor dispute with Czech Republic over the Temelin nuclear power plant and post-World War II treatment of German-speaking minorities
 
Illicit Drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and minor transit point for Latin American cocaine to Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for local and regional markets 
 
 
 CZECH GEOGRAPHY
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Location of Czech Republic: Central Europe, southeast of Germany
 
Continent: Europe Land Area Total: 78,866 sq km 
Region: Eastern Europe Land Area Land: 77,276 sq km
Capitol City: Prague Land Area Water: 1,590 sq km
      
Latitude: 049 45 N Border Boundary Land: 1,881 km
Longitude: 015 30 E Border Boundary Coastline: 0 km 
  
Arable Land: 38.82 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 3.00 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 1,602 m Location: Snezka
Lowest Elevation: 115 m Location: Elbe River
  
Largest City in Czech Republic: Prague Prague Largest City Population: 1,225,000
  
Threatened Species: 40
 
Environmental Issues: air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests; efforts to bring industry up to EU code should improve domestic pollution
 
Environmental Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
Irrigated Land: 240
 
Bordering Countries: Austria 362 km, Germany 646 km, Poland 658 km, Slovakia 215 km
 
Natural Resources: hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite, timber
 
Geographical Terrain: Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country
 
Comparative Area of Czech Republic: slightly smaller than South Carolina
 
Czech Republic's Geography: landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe
 

 CZECH CLIMATE
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General Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
 
Natural Hazards: flooding
 
 
 CZECH ECONOMY
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Economic Overview: The Czech Republic is one of the most stable and prosperous of the post-Communist states of Central and Eastern Europe. Growth in 2000-05 was supported by exports to the EU, primarily to Germany, and a strong recovery of foreign and domestic investment. Domestic demand is playing an ever more important role in underpinning growth as interest rates drop and the availability of credit cards and mortgages increases. Current account deficits of around 5% of GDP are beginning to decline as demand for Czech products in the European Union increases. Inflation is under control. Recent accession to the EU gives further impetus and direction to structural reform. In early 2004 the government passed increases in the Value Added Tax (VAT) and tightened eligibility for social benefits with the intention to bring the public finance gap down to 4% of GDP by 2006, but more difficult pension and healthcare reforms will have to wait until after the next elections. Privatization of the state-owned telecommunications firm Cesky Telecom took place in 2005. Intensified restructuring among large enterprises, improvements in the financial sector, and effective use of available EU funds should strengthen output growth.
 
 
GDP: $199,400,000,000 USD Currency: Czech koruna
GDP per Capita: $19,500 USD Currency Code: CZK
GDP Growth Rate: 6.00 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: koruny per US dollar - 36.325 (January 2002), 38.035 (2001), 38.598 (2000), 34.569 (1999), 32.281 (1998), 31.698 (1997)
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 3.40 % GDP of Industry: 39.30 %
GDP of Services: 57.30 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 1.90 % Population in Poverty: 0.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 8.50 % Tourism: 5,610,000.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 4.30 % Budget Revenue in USD: $16,700,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 22.40 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $18,000,000,000 USD
   
Electricity Production: 69,589,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 18,740,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 54,701,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 8,725,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 77.57% Nuclear Electricity Production: 18.55%
Hydro Electricity Production: 2.50% Other Electricity Production: 1.20%
   
Oil Production: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 0 cu m
Oil Consumption: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 0 cu m
Oil Exports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 0 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 0 cu m
   
External Debt: $24,600,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $0 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
   
Agricultural Products: wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, poultry
 
Primary Industries: metallurgy, machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, glass, armaments
 
Industrial Growth Rate: 7.20 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $37,400,000,000 USD - machinery and transport equipment 40%, intermediate manufactures 21%, raw materials and fuels 13%, chemicals 11%
 
Import Partners: Germany 26.7%, Russia 6.4%, Slovakia 6.0%, Italy 5.2%, Austria 4.9%
 
Export Amount in USD: $32,700,000,000 USD - machinery and transport equipment 44%, intermediate manufactures 25%, chemicals 7%, raw materials and fuel 7%
 
Export Partners: Germany 40.4%, Slovakia 7.7%, Austria 6.0%, Poland 5.4%, UK 4.3%
 
    
GINI Index: 25.40%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 5,203,000
 
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture 5%, industry 40%, services 55%
 
  
 CZECH COMMUNICATIONS
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Radio Broadcast Stations: 352 Number of People with Radios: 3,159,134
Television Broadcast Stations: 150 Number of People with Televisions: 3,405,834
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 3,869,000 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 4,346,000
 
Internet Service Providers: 300 Internet Users: 1,100,000
 
Internet Country Code: .cz Newspapers: 254
Two Letter Country Code: CZ Weights and Measures: metric
Phone Country Code: +420 Electricity Voltage: 230 Volts
  
Telephone Systems: general assessment: privatization and modernization of the Czech telecommunication system got a late start but is advancing steadily; growth in the use of mobile cellular telephones is particularly vigorous domestic: 86% of exchanges now digital; existing copper subscriber systems now being enhanced with Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) equipment to accommodate Internet and other digital signals; trunk systems include fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar
 
  
 CZECH TRANSPORTATION
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Highways: 55,432 km Railways: 9,444 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 3,550 km Waterways: 303 km
Airports: 44 Heliports: 1
 
Motor Vehicles: 417 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 128,268,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 11.90 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: NA
 
Ports and Harbors: Decin, Prague, Usti nad Labem
 
  
 CZECH PEOPLE
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Population: 10,235,455 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 9.02 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 130.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 10.59 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: -0.06% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 1.21 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 755,098 Population Female 0-14: 714,703
Population Male 15-64: 3,656,021 Population Female 15-64: 3,629,036
Population Male 65+: 576,264 Population Female 65+: 904,333
 
Population 0-14: 14.40% Literacy Rate: 99.00%
Population 15-64: 71.20% Literacy rate of Males: 99.00%
Population 65+: 14.50% Literacy rate of Females: 99.00%
 
Population that is Male: 47.50 % Population that is Female: 52.50%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 76.22 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 3.89 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 72.94 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 79.69 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.10% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 2,500
Number of people who died of AIDS: 0
   
Disease Risk:
 
Diseases:
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: 0.97
 
Nationality: CZECH
 
Ethnic Groups: Czech 90.4%, Moravian 3.7%, Slovak 1.9%, other 4% 
 
  
Primary Language: Czech
 
Other Languages: Czech
 
 
Primary Religion: atheist
 
Other Religions: Roman Catholic 26.8%, Protestant 2.1%, other 3.3%, unspecified 8.8%, unaffiliated 59%
 
  
 CZECH MILITARY
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Branches: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Territorial Defense Force
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years of age years
 
Manpower Available: 2,637,128 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 2,012,779 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 69,393 People per year
 
Expenditures: $1,190,200,000 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 2.10
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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