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Eritrea Facts

Eritrea Facts | State of Eritrea Information | Eritrea Statistics | Eritrea Autonomous Region in Ethiopia

Eritrea Facts |  State of Eritrea Information | Eritrea Statistics Eritrea Facts |  State of Eritrea Information | Eritrea Statistics
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Eritrea Facts |  State of Eritrea Information | Eritrea Statistics Eritrea Facts |  State of Eritrea Information | Eritrea Statistics
Eritrea Map
 
ERITREAN Flag
 
 ERITREAN POLITICAL
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Background: Eritrea was awarded to Ethiopia in 1952 as part of a federation. Ethiopia's annexation of Eritrea as a province 10 years later sparked a 30-year struggle for independence that ended in 1991 with Eritrean rebels defeating governmental forces; independence was overwhelmingly approved in a 1993 referendum. A two and a half year border war with Ethiopia that erupted in 1998 ended under UN auspices on 12 December 2000. Eritrea currently hosts a UN peacekeeping operation that will monitor the border region until an international commission determines and demarcates the boundary between the two countries.
 
 
Common Name: Eritrea Local Official Name: Ertra
Abbreviated Name: State of Eritrea Official Name: Hagere Ertra
Official Script Name: Eritrea Local Common Name: Eritrea
Former Name: Eritrea Autonomous Region in Ethiopia Territory of: NA
 
Head of State: President Afworki ISAIAS
 
Government Type: transitional government note: following a successful referendum on independence for the Autonomous Region of Eritrea on 23-25 April 1993, a National Assembly, composed entirely of the People's Front for Democracy and Justice or PFDJ, was established as
 
Independence: 1993 May 24 (from Ethiopia)
 
Constitution: the transitional constitution, decreed on 1993 May 19,
 
National Holiday: Independence Day, 24 May
 
International Organization Participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate), IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO
 
Administrative Divisions: 6 regions (regions, singular - region); Central, Anelba, Southern Red Sea, Northern Red Sea, Southern, Gash-Barka
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: primary basis is the Ethiopian legal code of 1957, with revisions; new civil, commercial, and penal codes have not yet been promulgated; also relies on customary and post-independence-enacted laws and, for civil cases involving Muslims, Sharia law
 
Suffrage: 18 years of age years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: President Afworki ISAIAS (since 8 June 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government and is head of the State Council and National Assembly head of government: President Afworki ISAIAS (since 8 June 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government and is head of the State Council and National Assembly cabinet: State Council is the collective executive authority; members appointed by the president elections: president elected by the National Assembly; election last held 8 June 1993 (next election date uncertain as the National Assembly did not hold a presidential election in December 2001 as anticipated) election results: ISAIAS Afworki elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - ISAIAS Afworki 95% Legislative Branch: unicameral National Assembly (150 seats; term limits not established) elections: in May 1997, following the adoption of the new constitution, 75 members of the PFDJ Central Committee (the old Central Committee of the EPLF), 60 members of the 527-member Constituent Assembly which had been established in 1997 to discuss and ratify the new constitution, and 15 representatives of Eritreans living abroad were formed into a Transitional National Assembly to serve as the country's legislative body until countrywide elections to a National Assembly were held; although only 75 of 150 members of the Transitional National Assembly were elected, the constitution stipulates that once past the transition stage, all members of the National Assembly will be elected by secret ballot of all eligible voters; National Assembly elections scheduled for December 2001 were postponed indefinately Judicial Branch: High court, regional, subregional, and village courts; also have military and special courts
 
Party Leaders: People's Front for Democracy and Justice or PFDJ, the only party recognized by the government [Afworki ISAIAS]; note - a National Assembly committee drafted a law on political parties in January 2001, but the full National Assembly had not yet debated or voted on it as of December 2001
 
International Disputes: Eritrea and Ethiopia have expressed general approval of the April 2002 arbitration commission ruling re-delimiting the boundary, the focus of their 1998-2000 war; United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) will monitor activities within the 25-km wide temporary security zone in Eritrea until demarcation and de-mining are complete; Yemen has asserted traditional fishing rights to islands ceded to Eritrea in ICJ ruling
 
Illicit Drugs: NA 
 
 
 ERITREAN GEOGRAPHY
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Location of Eritrea: Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Djibouti and Sudan
 
Continent: Africa Land Area Total: 121,320 sq km 
Region: Eastern African Land Area Land: 121,320 sq km
Capitol City: Asmara (formerly Asmera) Land Area Water: 0 sq km
      
Latitude: 015 00 N Border Boundary Land: 1,626 km
Longitude: 039 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 2,234 km 
  
Arable Land: 4.00 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 0.00 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 3,018 m Location: Soira
Lowest Elevation: -75 m Location: near Kulul within the Denakil depression
  
Largest City in Eritrea: Asmara Asmara Largest City Population: 514,000
  
Threatened Species: 0
 
Environmental Issues: deforestation; desertification; soil erosion; overgrazing; loss of infrastructure from civil warfare
 
Environmental Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
Irrigated Land: 220
 
Bordering Countries: Djibouti 109 km, Ethiopia 912 km, Sudan 605 km
 
Natural Resources: gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, possibly oil and natural gas, fish
 
Geographical Terrain: dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains
 
Comparative Area of Eritrea: slightly larger than Pennsylvania
 
Eritrea's Geography: strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest shipping lanes; Eritrea retained the entire coastline of Ethiopia along the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Ethiopia on 24 May 1993
 

 ERITREAN CLIMATE
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General Climate: hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September except in coastal desert
 
Natural Hazards: frequent droughts; locust swarms
 
 
 ERITREAN ECONOMY
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Economic Overview: Since independence from Ethiopia on 24 May 1993, Eritrea has faced the economic problems of a small, desperately poor country. Like the economies of many African nations, the economy is largely based on subsistence agriculture, with 80% of the population involved in farming and herding. The Ethiopian-Eritrea war in 1998-2000 severely hurt Eritrea's economy. GDP growth in 1999 fell to less than 1%, and GDP decreased by 8.2% in 2000. The May 2000 Ethiopian offensive into northern Eritrea caused some $600 million in property damage and loss, including losses of $225 million in livestock and 55,000 homes. The attack prevented planting of crops in Eritrea's most productive region, causing food production to drop by 62%. Even during the war, Eritrea developed its transportation infrastructure, asphalting new roads, improving its ports, and repairing war damaged roads and bridges. Eritrea's economic future remains mixed. The cessation of Ethiopian trade, which mainly used Eritrean ports before the war, leaves Eritrea with a large economic hole to fill. Eritrea's economic future depends upon its ability to master fundamental social problems like illiteracy, unemployment, and low skills, and to convert the diaspora's money and expertise into economic growth.
 
 
GDP: $3,200,000,000 USD Currency: nakfa
GDP per Capita: $740 USD Currency Code: ERN
GDP Growth Rate: 7.00 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: nakfa (ERN) per US dollar - 9.5 (January 2000), 7.6 (January 1999), 7.2 (March 1998 est.)
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 17.00 % GDP of Industry: 29.00 %
GDP of Services: 54.00 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 15.00 % Population in Poverty: 0.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 0.00 % Tourism: 57,000.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 0.00 % Budget Revenue in USD: $206,400,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 0.00 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $615,700,000 USD
   
Electricity Production: 210,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 0 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 195,300,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 0 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 100.00% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 0.00% Other Electricity Production: 0.00%
   
Oil Production: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 0 cu m
Oil Consumption: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 0 cu m
Oil Exports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 0 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 0 cu m
   
External Debt: $281,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $77,000,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
   
Agricultural Products: sorghum, lentils, vegetables, corn, cotton, tobacco, coffee, sisal; livestock, goats; fish
 
Primary Industries: food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles
 
Industrial Growth Rate: 0.00 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $470,500,000 USD - machinery, petroleum products, food, manufactured goods
 
Import Partners: Italy 17.4%, UAE 16.2%, Germany 5.7%, UK 4.5%, Korea 4.4%
 
Export Amount in USD: $34,800,000 USD - livestock, sorghum, textiles, food, small manufactures
 
Export Partners: Sudan 27.2%, Ethiopia 26.5%, Japan 13.2%, UAE 7.3%, Italy 5.3%
 
    
GINI Index: 0.00%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 0
 
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture 80%, industry and services 20%
 
  
 ERITREAN COMMUNICATIONS
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Radio Broadcast Stations: 4 Number of People with Radios: 345,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 1 Number of People with Televisions: 1,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 30,000 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 0
 
Internet Service Providers: 5 Internet Users: 12,000
 
Internet Country Code: .er Newspapers: 0
Two Letter Country Code: ER Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: +291 Electricity Voltage: Volts
  
Telephone Systems: general assessment: inadequate domestic: very inadequate; most telephones are in Asmara; government is seeking international tenders to improve the system (2002) international: NA; note - international connections exist
 
  
 ERITREAN TRANSPORTATION
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Highways: 810 km Railways: 317 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 0 km Waterways: 0 km
Airports: 4 Heliports: 0
 
Motor Vehicles: 0 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 0 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 0.00 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 19,100 GRT/23,399 DWT ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 2, liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1
 
Ports and Harbors: Assab (Aseb), Massawa (Mits'iwa)
 
  
 ERITREAN PEOPLE
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Population: 4,465,651 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 42.25 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 32.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 11.82 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 3.80% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 5.80 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 958,564 Population Female 0-14: 955,625
Population Male 15-64: 1,192,454 Population Female 15-64: 1,213,313
Population Male 65+: 73,017 Population Female 65+: 72,678
 
Population 0-14: 42.90% Literacy Rate: 25.00%
Population 15-64: 53.90% Literacy rate of Males: 0.00%
Population 65+: 3.20% Literacy rate of Females: 0.00%
 
Population that is Male: 49.50 % Population that is Female: 50.50%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 56.57 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 73.62 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 54.09 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 59.13 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 2.87% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 0
Number of people who died of AIDS: 0
   
Disease Risk:
 
Diseases:
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: 7.61
 
Nationality: ERITREAN
 
Ethnic Groups: ethnic Tigrinya 50%, Tigre and Kunama 40%, Afar 4%, Saho (Red Sea coast dwellers) 3%, other 3% 
 
  
Primary Language: Afar
 
Other Languages: Afar, Amharic, Arabic, Tigre and Kunama, Tigrinya, other Cushitic languages
 
 
Primary Religion: Muslim
 
Other Religions: Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant
 
  
 ERITREAN MILITARY
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Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 0 years
 
Manpower Available: 0 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 0 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 0 People per year
 
Expenditures: $138,300,000 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 19.80
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
 ERITREAN RESOURCES
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