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Estonia Facts

Estonia Facts | Republic of Estonia Information | Estonia Statistics | Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

Estonia Facts |  Republic of Estonia Information | Estonia Statistics Estonia Facts |  Republic of Estonia Information | Estonia Statistics
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 ESTONIAN POLITICAL
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Background: After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian rule, Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940, it regained its freedom in 1991, with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with Western Europe. It joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.
 
 
Common Name: Estonia Local Official Name: Eesti
Abbreviated Name: Republic of Estonia Official Name: Eesti Vabariik
Official Script Name: Estonia Local Common Name: Estonia
Former Name: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic Territory of: NA
 
Head of State: President Toomas Hendrik ILVES
 
Government Type: parliamentary republic
 
Independence: 1991 August 20 (from Soviet Union)
 
Constitution: 1992 June 28(adopted)
 
National Holiday: Independence Day, 24 February
 
International Organization Participation: Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU (new member), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
 
Administrative Divisions: 15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond): Harjumaa (Tallinn), Hiiumaa (Kardla), Ida-Virumaa (Johvi), Jarvamaa (Paide), Jogevamaa (Jogeva), Laanemaa (Haapsalu), Laane-Virumaa (Rakvere), Parnumaa (Parnu), Polvamaa (Polva), Raplamaa (Rapla), Saaremaa (Kuressaare), Tartumaa (Tartu), Valgamaa (Valga), Viljandimaa (Viljandi), Vorumaa (Voru) note: counties have the administrative center name following in parentheses
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
 
Suffrage: 18 years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: President Toomas Hendrik ILVES (since 9 October 2006) head of government: Prime Minister Andrus ANSIP (since 12 April 2005) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, approved by Parliament elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); if a candidate does not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of balloting in the Parliament, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between the two candidates with the largest percentage of votes; election last held 23 September 2006 (next to be held in the fall of 2010); prime minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament election results: Toomas Hendrik ILVES elected president on 23 September 2006 by a 345-member electoral assembly; ILVES received 174 votes to incumbent Arnold RUUTEL's 162; the remaining 9 ballots were either left blank or invalid Legislative Branch: unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 2 March 2003 (next to be held March 2007) election results: percent of vote by party - Center Party of Estonia 25.4%, Res Publica 24.6%, Estonian Reform Party 17.7%, Estonian People's Union 13%, Pro Patria Union (Fatherland League) 7.3% People's Party Moodukad 7%; seats by party - Res Publica 26, Center Party 20, Reform Party 19, Estonian People's Union 13, Pro Patria Union 7, Social Democrats (formerly People's Party Moodukad) 6, non-affiliated (Social Liberals and independents) 10 Judicial Branch: National Court (chairman appointed by Parliament for life)
 
Party Leaders: Center Party of Estonia (Keskerakond) [Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman]; Estonian People's Union (Rahvaliit) [Villu REILJAN, chairman]; Estonian Reform Party (Reformierakond) [Andrus ANSIP]; Estonian United Russian People's Party or EUVRP [Yevgeniy TOMBERG, chairman]; Pro Patria Union (Isamaaliit) [Tonis LUKAS, chairman]; Res Publica [Taavi VESKIMAGI, chairman]; Social Democratic Party (formerly People's Party Moodukad or Moderates) [Ivari PADAR, chairman]; Social Liberals (group of eight parliamentarians, former Center Party members) [Peeter KREITZBERG]
 
International Disputes: in 2005, Russia refuses to sign the 1996 technical border agreement with Estonia when Estonia prepares a unilateral declaration referencing Soviet occupation and territorial losses; Russia demands better accommodation of Russian-speaking population in Estonia; Estonian citizen groups continue to press for realignment of the boundary based on the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty that would bring the now divided ethnic Setu people and parts of the Narva region within Estonia; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Estonia must implement the strict Schengen border rules
 
Illicit Drugs: transshipment point for opiates and cannabis from Southwest Asia and the Caucasus via Russia, cocaine from Latin America to Western Europe and Scandinavia, and synthetic drugs from Western Europe to Scandinavia; increasing domestic drug abuse problem; possible precursor manufacturing and/or trafficking; potential money laundering related to organized crime and drug trafficking is a concern, as is possible use of the gambling sector to launder funds 
 
 
 ESTONIAN GEOGRAPHY
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Location of Estonia: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia
 
Continent: Europe Land Area Total: 45,226 sq km 
Region: Eastern Europe Land Area Land: 43,211 sq km
Capitol City: Tallinn Land Area Water: 2,015 sq km
      
Latitude: 059 00 N Border Boundary Land: 681 km
Longitude: 026 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 3,794 km 
  
Arable Land: 12.05 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 0.35 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 318 m Location: Suur Munamagi
Lowest Elevation: 0 m Location: Baltic Sea
  
Largest City in Estonia: Tallinn Tallinn Largest City Population: 397,000
  
Threatened Species: 13
 
Environmental Issues: air polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; however, the amount of pollutants emitted to the air have fallen steadily, the emissions of 2000 were 80% less than in 1980; the amount of unpurified wastewater discharged to water bodies in 2000 was one twentieth the level of 1980; in connection with the start-up of new water purification plants, the pollution load of wastewater decreased; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas need to be monitored; coastal seawater is polluted in certain locations
 
Environmental Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
Irrigated Land: 40
 
Bordering Countries: Latvia 343 km, Russia 338.6 km
 
Natural Resources: oil shale, peat, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand, dolomite, arable land, sea mud
 
Geographical Terrain: marshy, lowlands; flat in the north, hilly in the south
 
Comparative Area of Estonia: slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined
 
Estonia's Geography: the mainland terrain is flat, boggy, and partly wooded; offshore lie more than 1,500 islands
 

 ESTONIAN CLIMATE
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General Climate: maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers
 
Natural Hazards: sometimes flooding occurs in the spring
 
 
 ESTONIAN ECONOMY
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Economic Overview: Estonia, as a new member of the World Trade Organization and the European Union, has transitioned effectively to a modern market economy with strong ties to the West, including the pegging of its currency to the euro. The economy benefits from strong electronics and telecommunications sectors and is greatly influenced by developments in Finland, Sweden, and Germany, three major trading partners. The current account deficit remains high; however, the state budget is essentially in balance, and public debt is low.
 
 
GDP: $22,290,000,000 USD Currency: Estonian kroon
GDP per Capita: $16,700 USD Currency Code: EEK
GDP Growth Rate: 9.60 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: krooni per US dollar - 12.584 (2005), 12.596 (2004), 13.856 (2003), 16.612 (2002), 17.478 (2001), note - the krooni is pegged to the euro
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 4.00 % GDP of Industry: 29.40 %
GDP of Services: 66.60 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 4.10 % Population in Poverty: 0.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 7.90 % Tourism: 950,000.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 3.00 % Budget Revenue in USD: $5,126,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 29.80 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $5,017,000,000 USD
   
Electricity Production: 7,056,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 1,562,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 7,024,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 200,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 99.77% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 0.06% Other Electricity Production: 0.17%
   
Oil Production: 6,100 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 0 cu m
Oil Consumption: 25,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 1,410,000,000 cu m
Oil Exports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 1,270,000,000 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 0 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 0 cu m
   
External Debt: $11,030,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $108,000,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
   
Agricultural Products: potatoes, vegetables; livestock and dairy products; fish
 
Primary Industries: engineering, electronics, wood and wood products, textile; information technology, telecommunications
 
Industrial Growth Rate: 9.70 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $9,189,000,000 USD - machinery and equipment 33.5%, chemical products 11.6%, textiles 10.3%, foodstuffs 9.4%, transportation equipment 8.9%
 
Import Partners: Finland 19.8%, Germany 13.8%, Russia 9.4%, Sweden 8.8%, Lithuania 6.1%, Latvia 4.7%
 
Export Amount in USD: $7,439,000,000 USD - machinery and equipment 33%, wood and paper 15%, textiles 14%, food products 8%, furniture 7%, metals, chemical products
 
Export Partners: Finland 26.5%, Sweden 12.9%, Latvia 8.8%, Russia 6.5%, Germany 6.2%, Lithuania 4.8%
 
    
GINI Index: 37.20%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 670,000
 
Labor Force by Occupations: industry 20%, agriculture 11%, services 69%
 
  
 ESTONIAN COMMUNICATIONS
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Radio Broadcast Stations: 98 Number of People with Radios: 1,010,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 3 Number of People with Televisions: 605,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 444,000 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 1,255,700
 
Internet Service Providers: 50,440 Internet Users: 670,000
 
Internet Country Code: .ee Newspapers: 174
Two Letter Country Code: EE Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: 372 Electricity Voltage: 230 Volts
  
Telephone Systems: general assessment: foreign investment in the form of joint business ventures greatly improved telephone service; substantial fiber-optic cable systems carry telephone, TV, and radio traffic in the digital mode; Internet services are available throughout most of the country domestic: a wide range of high quality voice, data, and Internet services is available throughout the country international: country code - 372; fiber-optic cables to Finland, Sweden, Latvia, and Russia provide worldwide packet-switched service; two international switches are located in Tallinn
 
  
 ESTONIAN TRANSPORTATION
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Highways: 13,303 km Railways: 958 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 859 km Waterways: 500 km
Airports: 12 Heliports: 1
 
Motor Vehicles: 387 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 19,232,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 1.30 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: total: 35 ships (1000 GRT or over) 388,723 GRT/98,393 DWT by type: cargo 7, passenger/cargo 26, petroleum tanker 2 foreign-owned: 4 (Denmark 2, Norway 2) registered in other countries: 72 (Antigua and Barbuda 12, Bahamas 1, Belize 3, Cyprus 6, Dominica 11, Isle of Man 2, Liberia 1, Malta 4, Norway 1, Panama 3, Russia 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 25, Slovakia 1, Vanuatu 1)
 
Ports and Harbors: Kopli, Kuivastu, Muuga, Tallinn, Virtsu
 
  
 ESTONIAN PEOPLE
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Population: 1,324,333 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 10.04 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 29.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 13.25 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: -0.64% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 1.40 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 103,367 Population Female 0-14: 97,587
Population Male 15-64: 427,043 Population Female 15-64: 468,671
Population Male 65+: 75,347 Population Female 65+: 152,318
 
Population 0-14: 15.20% Literacy Rate: 99.80%
Population 15-64: 67.60% Literacy rate of Males: 99.80%
Population 65+: 17.20% Literacy rate of Females: 99.80%
 
Population that is Male: 42.00 % Population that is Female: 58.00%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 72.04 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 7.73 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 66.58 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 77.83 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 1.10% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 7,800
Number of people who died of AIDS: 0
   
Disease Risk:
 
Diseases:
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: -3.20
 
Nationality: ESTONIAN
 
Ethnic Groups: Estonian 67.9%, Russian 25.6%, Ukrainian 2.1%, Belarusian 1.3%, Finn 0.9%, other 2.2% 
 
  
Primary Language: Estonian
 
Other Languages: Estonian (official) 67.3%, Russian 29.7%, other 2.3%, unknown 0.7%
 
 
Primary Religion: Evangelical Lutheran
 
Other Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 13.6%, Orthodox 12.8%, other Christian (including Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal) 1.4%, unaffiliated 34.1%, other and unspecified 32%, none 6.1%
 
  
 ESTONIAN MILITARY
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Branches: Estonian Defense Forces: Land Force, Navy, Air Force, Volunteer Defense League (Kaitseliit, KL)
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 17 years
 
Manpower Available: 596,657 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 450,733 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 21,751 People per year
 
Expenditures: $155,000,000 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 2.00
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
 ESTONIAN RESOURCES
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Estonia Spa and Resort Directory
 
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