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Ethiopia Facts

Ethiopia Facts | Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Information | Ethiopia Statistics | Abyssinia, Italian East Africa

Ethiopia Facts |  Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Information | Ethiopia Statistics Ethiopia Facts |  Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Information | Ethiopia Statistics
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Ethiopia Facts |  Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Information | Ethiopia Statistics Ethiopia Facts |  Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Information | Ethiopia Statistics
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  Ethiopia Facts |  Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Information | Ethiopia Statistics  
Background: Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule, one exception being the Italian occupation of 1936-41. In 1974 a military junta, the Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was finally toppled by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), in 1991. A constitution was adopted in 1994 and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in 1995. A two and a half year border war with Eritrea ended with a peace treaty on 12 December 2000.
Common Name: Ethiopia Local Official Name: Ityop'iya
Abbreviated Name: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Official Name: Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik
Official Script Name: Ethiopia Local Common Name: FDRE
Former Name: Abyssinia, Italian East Africa Territory of: NA
Head of State: President GIRMA Woldegiorgis
Government Type: federal republic
Independence: oldest independent country in Africa and one of the old
Constitution: ratified 1994 December (effective 1995 August 22)
National Holiday: National Day (defeat of MENGISTU regime), 28 May
International Organization Participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Administrative Divisions: 9 ethnically-based states (kililoch, singular - kilil) and 2 self-governing administrations* (astedaderoch, singular - astedader); Adis Abeba* (Addis Ababa), Afar, Amara, Binshangul Gumuz, Dire Dawa*, Gambela Hizboch, Hareri Hizb, Oromiya, Sumale (Somali), Tigray, YeDebub Biheroch Bihereseboch na Hizboch (Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region)
Dependent Areas: NA
Legal System: currently transitional mix of national and regional courts
Suffrage: 18 years of age years
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: President GIRMA Woldegiorgis (since 8 October 2001) head of government: Prime Minister MELES Zenawi (since NA August 1995) cabinet: Council of Ministers as provided for in the December 1994 constitution; ministers are selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of People's Representatives elections: president elected by the House of People's Representatives for a six-year term; election last held 8 October 2001 (next to be held NA October 2007); prime minister designated by the party in power following legislative elections election results: GIRMA Woldegiorgis elected president; percent of vote by the House of People's Representatives - 100% Legislative Branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Federation or upper chamber (108 seats; members are chosen by state assemblies to serve five-year terms) and the House of People's Representatives or lower chamber (548 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote from single-member districts to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 14 May 2000 (next to be held NA May 2005) note: irregularities and violence at a number of polling stations necessitated the rescheduling of voting in certain constituencies; voting postponed in Somali regional state because of severe drought election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - OPDO 177, ANDM 134, TPLF 38, WGGPDO 27, EPRDF 19, SPDO 18, GNDM 15, KSPDO 10, ANDP 8, GPRDF 7, SOPDM 7, BGPDUF 6, BMPDO 5, KAT 4, other regional political groupings 22, independents 8; note - 43 seats unconfirmed Judicial Branch: Federal Supreme Court (the president and vice president of the Federal Supreme Court are recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; for other federal judges, the prime minister submits to the House of People's Representatives for appointment candidates selected by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council)
Party Leaders: Afar National Democratic Party or ANDP [leader NA]; All-Amhara People's Organization or AAPO [HAILU Shawel]; Amhara National Democratic Movement or ANDM [ADDISU Legesse]; Bench Madji People's Democratic Organization or BMPDO [leader NA]; Benishangul Gumuz People's Democratic Unity Front or BGPDUF [leader NA]; Ethiopian Democratic Party or EDP [ADMASSU Gebeyehu]; Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front or EPRDF [MELES Zenawi] (an alliance of ANDM, OPDO, SEPDF, and TPLF); Gedeyo People's Revolutionary Democratic Fund or GPRDF [leader NA]; Gurage Nationalities' Democratic Movement orGNDM [leader NA]; Kafa Shaka People's Democratic Organization or KSPDO [leader NA]; Kembata, Alabaa and Tembaro or KAT [leader NA]; Oromo Liberation Front or OLF [DAOUD Ibsa Gudina]; Oromo National Congress or ONC [MERERA Gudina]; Oromo People's Democratic Organization or OPDO [JUNEDI Sado]; Sidamo People's Democratic Organization or SPDO [leader NA]; South Ethiopia People's Democratic Front or SEPDF [KASSU Yilala]; South Omo People's Democratic Movement or SOPDM [leader NA]; Tigrayan People's Liberation Front or TPLF [MELES Zenawi]; Walayta, Gamo, Gofa, Dawro, and Konta People's Democratic Organization or WGGPDO [leader NA]; dozens of small parties
International Disputes: most of the southern half of the boundary with Somalia in the Ogaden region is a provisional administrative line; in the Ogaden, regional states have established a variety of conflicting relationships with the Somali Transitional National Government in Mogadishu, feuding factions in Puntland region, and the economically stabile break-away "Somaliland" region; Ethiopia agreeed in 2002 to demarcate its entire boundary with Sudan; Eritrea and Ethiopia have expressed general approval of the April 2002 arbitration commission ruling re-delimiting the boundary, the focus of their 1998-2000 war; United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) will monitor activities within the 25-km wide temporary security zone in Eritrea until demarcation and de-mining are complete
Illicit Drugs: transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and Southeast Asia and destined for Europe and North America as well as cocaine destined for markets in southern Africa; cultivates qat (khat) for local use and regional export, principally to Djibouti and Somalia (legal in all three countries) 
  Ethiopia Facts |  Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Information | Ethiopia Statistics  
Location of Ethiopia: Eastern Africa, west of Somalia
Continent: Africa Land Area Total: 1,127,127 sq km 
Region: Eastern African Land Area Land: 1,119,683 sq km
Capitol City: Addis Ababa Land Area Water: 7,444 sq km
Latitude: 008 00 N Border Boundary Land: 5,328 km
Longitude: 038 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 0 km 
Arable Land: 10.00 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 1.00 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
Highest Elevation: 4,620 m Location: Ras Dejen
Lowest Elevation: -125 m Location: Denakil Depression
Largest City in Ethiopia: Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Largest City Population: 2,534,000
Threatened Species: 77
Environmental Issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water shortages in some areas from water-intensive farming and poor management
Environmental Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban
Irrigated Land: 1,900
Bordering Countries: Djibouti 349 km, Eritrea 912 km, Kenya 861 km, Somalia 1,600 km, Sudan 1,606 km
Natural Resources: small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas, hydropower
Geographical Terrain: high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley
Comparative Area of Ethiopia: slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Ethiopia's Geography: landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 24 May 1993; the Blue Nile, the chief headstream of the Nile, rises in T'ana Hayk (Lake Tana) in northwest Ethiopia

  Ethiopia Facts |  Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Information | Ethiopia Statistics  
General Climate: tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation
Natural Hazards: geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts
  Ethiopia Facts |  Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Information | Ethiopia Statistics  
Economic Overview: Ethiopia's poverty-stricken economy is based on agriculture, which accounts for half of GDP, 85% of exports, and 80% of total employment. The agricultural sector suffers from frequent drought and poor cultivation practices, and as many as 4.6 million people need food assistance annually. Coffee is critical to the Ethiopian economy with exports of some $260 million in 2000. Other important exports include qat, live animals, hides, and gold. The war with Eritrea in 1999-2000 and recurrent drought have buffeted the economy, in particular coffee production. In November 2001 Ethiopia qualified for debt relief from the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative. Under Ethiopia's land tenure system, the government owns all land and provides long-term leases to the tenants; the system continues to hamper growth in the industrial sector as entrepreneurs are unable to use land as collateral for loans. Despite this limitation, strong growth is expected to continue in the near term as good rainfall, the cessation of hostilities, and renewed foreign aid and debt relief push the economy forward.
GDP: $46,000,000,000 USD Currency: birr
GDP per Capita: $700 USD Currency Code: ETB
GDP Growth Rate: 7.30 %
Currency Exchange Rate History: birr per US dollar (end of period) - 8.455 (December 2001), 8.3140 (December 2000), 8.3140 (2000), 8.1340 (1999), 7.5030 (1998), 6.8640 (1997) note: since 24 October 2001 exchange rates are determined on a daily basis via interbank transactions regulate
GDP of Agriculture: 52.30 % GDP of Industry: 11.10 %
GDP of Services: 36.60 %  
Inflation Rate: 6.80 % Population in Poverty: 64.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 0.00 % Tourism: 92.00 visitors each year
Consumption by lowest 10%: 3.00 % Budget Revenue in USD: $1,800,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 33.70 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $1,900,000,000 USD
Electricity Production: 1,630,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 0 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 1,516,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 0 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 1.84% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 98.16% Other Electricity Production: 0.00%
Oil Production: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 0 cu m
Oil Consumption: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 0 cu m
Oil Exports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 0 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 0 cu m
External Debt: $5,300,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $308,000,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
Agricultural Products: cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseed, sugarcane, potatoes, qat; hides, cattle, sheep, goats
Primary Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metals processing, cement
Industrial Growth Rate: 6.70 %
Import Amount in USD: $1,540,000,000 USD - food and live animals, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery, motor vehicles, cereals, textiles
Import Partners: Saudi Arabia 25%, US 9%, Italy 7%, Russia 4%
Export Amount in USD: $442,000,000 USD - coffee, qat, gold, leather products, oilseeds
Export Partners: Germany 18%, Japan 11%, Djibouti 11%, Saudi Arabia 8%
GINI Index: 40.00%
Labor Force Number of People: 0
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture and animal husbandry 80%, government and services 12%, industry and construction 8%
  Ethiopia Facts |  Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Information | Ethiopia Statistics  
Radio Broadcast Stations: 9 Number of People with Radios: 15,200,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 1 Number of People with Televisions: 682,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 231,900 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 17,800
Internet Service Providers: 1 Internet Users: 20,000
Internet Country Code: .et Newspapers: 2
Two Letter Country Code: ET Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: +251 Electricity Voltage: Volts
Telephone Systems: general assessment: open wire and microwave radio relay system; adequate for government use domestic: open wire; microwave radio relay; radio communication in the HF, VHF, and UHF frequencies; two domestic satellites provide the national trunk service international: open wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean)
  Ethiopia Facts |  Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Information | Ethiopia Statistics  


Highways: 3,290 km Railways: 681 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 0 km Waterways: 0 km
Airports: 14 Heliports: 0
Motor Vehicles: 2 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 1,894,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 0.10 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
Merchant Marines: total: 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 81,933 GRT/101,287 DWT ships by type: cargo 5, container 1, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 2
Ports and Harbors: none; Ethiopia is landlocked and was by agreement with Eritrea using the ports of Assab and Massawa; since the border dispute with Eritrea flared, Ethiopia has used the port of Djibouti for nearly all of its imports
  Ethiopia Facts |  Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Information | Ethiopia Statistics  
Population: 67,673,031 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 44.31 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 56.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 18.04 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 2.64% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 6.94 babies born per woman
Population Male 0-14: 16,098,191 Population Female 0-14: 15,879,065
Population Male 15-64: 17,005,387 Population Female 15-64: 16,801,536
Population Male 65+: 854,023 Population Female 65+: 1,034,829
Population 0-14: 47.20% Literacy Rate: 35.50%
Population 15-64: 50.00% Literacy rate of Males: 45.50%
Population 65+: 2.80% Literacy rate of Females: 25.30%
Population that is Male: 50.50 % Population that is Female: 49.50%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 44.21 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 98.63 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 43.36 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 45.09 years
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 10.63% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 3,000,000
Number of people who died of AIDS: 280,000
Disease Risk:
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: 0.11
Nationality: ETHIOPIAN
Ethnic Groups: Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigre 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella 6%, Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1% 
Primary Language: Amharic
Other Languages: Amharic, Tigrinya, Oromigna, Guaragigna, Somali, Arabic, other local languages, English (major foreign language taught in schools)
Primary Religion: Muslim
Other Religions: Muslim 45%-50%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35%-40%, animist 12%, other 3%-8%
  Ethiopia Facts |  Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Information | Ethiopia Statistics  
Branches: Ethiopian National Defense Force (Ground Forces, Air Force, militia, police) note: Ethiopia is landlocked and has no navy; following the secession of Eritrea, Ethiopian naval facilities remained in Eritrean possession
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years of age years
Manpower Available: 14,925,883 People
Manpower Fit to Serve: 7,790,977 People
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 703,625 People per year
Expenditures: $800,000,000 USD per year
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 12.60
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
  Ethiopia Facts |  Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Information | Ethiopia Statistics  
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