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Finland Facts

Finland Facts | Republic of Finland Information | Finland Statistics | Finland

Finland Facts |  Republic of Finland Information | Finland Statistics Finland Facts |  Republic of Finland Information | Finland Statistics
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Finland Facts |  Republic of Finland Information | Finland Statistics Finland Facts |  Republic of Finland Information | Finland Statistics
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 FINNISH POLITICAL
  Finland Facts |  Republic of Finland Information | Finland Statistics  
Background: Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It won its complete independence in 1917. During World War II, it was able to successfully defend its freedom and resist invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, the Finns made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is now on par with Western Europe. As a member of the European Union, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro system at its initiation in January 1999.
 
 
Common Name: Finland Local Official Name: Suomi
Abbreviated Name: Republic of Finland Official Name: Suomen Tasavalta
Official Script Name: Finland Local Common Name: Finland
Former Name: Finland Territory of: NA
 
Head of State: President Tarja HALONEN
 
Government Type: republic
 
Independence: 1917 December 6 (from Russia)
 
Constitution: 1919 July 17
 
National Holiday: Independence Day, 6 December
 
International Organization Participation: AfDB, Arctic Council, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
 
Administrative Divisions: 6 provinces (laanit, singular - laani); Aland, Etela-Suomen Laani, Ita-Suomen Laani, Lansi-Suomen Laani, Lappi, Oulun Laani
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court may request legislation interpreting or modifying laws; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
 
Suffrage: 18 years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: President Tarja HALONEN (since 1 March 2000) head of government: Prime Minister Matti VANHANEN (since 24 June 2003) and Deputy Prime Minister Eero HEINALUOMA (since 24 September 2005) cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to parliament elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 15 January 2006 (next to be held January 2012); the president appoints the prime minister and deputy prime minister from the majority party or the majority coalition after parliamentary elections and the parliament must approve the appointment election results: percent of vote - Tarja HALONEN (SDP) 46.3%, Sauli NIINISTO (Kok) 24.1%, Matti Vanhanen (Kesk) 18.6%, Heidi HAUTALA (VIHR) 3.5%; a runoff election between HALONEN and NIINISTO was held 29 January 2006 - HOLONEN 51.8%, NIINISTO 48.2% note: government coalition - Kesk, SDP, and SFP Legislative Branch: unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional basis to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 16 March 2003 (next to be held March 2007) election results: percent of vote by party - Kesk 24.7%, SDP 24.5%, Kok 18.5%, VAS 9.9%, VIHR 8%, KD 5.3%, SFP 4.6%; seats by party - Kesk 55, SDP 53, Kok 40, VAS 19, VIHR 14, KD 7, SFP 8, other 4 Judicial Branch: Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (judges appointed by the president)
 
Party Leaders: Center Party or Kesk [Matti VANHANEN]; Christian Democrats or KD [Paivi RASANEN]; Green League or VIHR [Tarja CRONBERG]; Left Alliance or VAS composed of People's Democratic League and Democratic Alternative [Martti KORHONEN]; National Coalition (conservative) Party or Kok [Jyrki KATAINEN]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Eero HEINALUOMA]; Swedish People's Party or SFP [Stefan WALLIN]
 
International Disputes: various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union, but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands
 
Illicit Drugs: NA 
 
 
 FINNISH GEOGRAPHY
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Location of Finland: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia
 
Continent: Europe Land Area Total: 338,145 sq km 
Region: Scandanavian Land Area Land: 338,145 sq km
Capitol City: Helsinki Land Area Water: 33,672 sq km
      
Latitude: 064 00 N Border Boundary Land: 2,681 km
Longitude: 026 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 1,250 km 
  
Arable Land: 6.54 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 0.02 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 1,328 m Location: Haltiatunturi
Lowest Elevation: 0 m Location: Baltic Sea
  
Largest City in Finland: Helsinki Helsinki Largest City Population: 562,570
  
Threatened Species: 19
 
Environmental Issues: air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
 
Environmental Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
Irrigated Land: 640
 
Bordering Countries: Norway 727 km, Sweden 614 km, Russia 1,340 km
 
Natural Resources: timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone
 
Geographical Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills
 
Comparative Area of Finland: slightly smaller than Montana
 
Finland's Geography: long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain
 

 FINNISH CLIMATE
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General Climate: cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes
 
Natural Hazards: NA
 
 
 FINNISH ECONOMY
  Finland Facts |  Republic of Finland Information | Finland Statistics  
 
Economic Overview: Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy with per capita output roughly that of the UK, France, Germany, and Italy. Its key economic sector is manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Trade is important; exports equal two-fifths of GDP. Finland excels in high-tech exports, e.g., mobile phones. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important export earner, provides a secondary occupation for the rural population. Rapidly increasing integration with Western Europe - Finland was one of the 12 countries joining the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) - will dominate the economic picture over the next several years. High unemployment remains a persistent problem.
 
 
GDP: $161,900,000,000 USD Currency: euro
GDP per Capita: $31,000 USD Currency Code: EUR
GDP Growth Rate: 3.00 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: euros per US dollar - 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001)
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 2.80 % GDP of Industry: 29.50 %
GDP of Services: 67.60 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 0.90 % Population in Poverty: 0.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 8.40 % Tourism: 2,454,000.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 4.20 % Budget Revenue in USD: $99,610,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 21.60 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $97,140,000,000 USD
   
Electricity Production: 79,610,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 7,000,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 78,940,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 11,900,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 40.86% Nuclear Electricity Production: 28.32%
Hydro Electricity Production: 19.22% Other Electricity Production: 11.60%
   
Oil Production: 9,013 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 0 cu m
Oil Consumption: 219,700 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 5,028,000,000 cu m
Oil Exports: 101,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 4,567,000,000 cu m
Oil Imports: 318,300 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 5,043,000,000 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 0 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 0 cu m
   
External Debt: $211,700,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $0 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $379,000,000 USD
   
Agricultural Products: barley, wheat, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; fish
 
Primary Industries: metals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing
 
Industrial Growth Rate: -2.00 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $56,450,000,000 USD - foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and fabrics, grains
 
Import Partners: Germany 16.2%, Sweden 14.1%, Russia 13.9%, Netherlands 6.2%, Denmark 4.6%, UK 4.3%, China 4.2%
 
Export Amount in USD: $67,880,000,000 USD - machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals; timber, paper, pulp
 
Export Partners: Russia 11.2%, Sweden 10.7%, Germany 10.5%, UK 6.6%, US 6.2%, Netherlands 4.8%
 
    
GINI Index: 26.90%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 2,610,000
 
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture and forestry 8%, industry 22%, construction 6%, commerce 14%, finance, insurance, and business services 10%, transport and communications 8%, public services 32%
 
  
 FINNISH COMMUNICATIONS
  Finland Facts |  Republic of Finland Information | Finland Statistics  
 
Radio Broadcast Stations: 189 Number of People with Radios: 7,700,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 120 Number of People with Televisions: 3,200,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 2,120,000 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 5,231,000
 
Internet Service Providers: 1,503,976 Internet Users: 3,286,000
 
Internet Country Code: .fi Newspapers: 445
Two Letter Country Code: FI Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: 358 Electricity Voltage: 230 Volts
  
Telephone Systems: general assessment: modern system with excellent service domestic: digital fiber-optic fixed-line network and an extensive cellular network provide domestic needs international: country code - 358; 1 submarine cable (Finland Estonia Connection); satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)
 
  
 FINNISH TRANSPORTATION
  Finland Facts |  Republic of Finland Information | Finland Statistics  

   

Highways: 50,633 km Railways: 5,741 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 694 km Waterways: 7,842 km
Airports: 76 Heliports: 0
 
Motor Vehicles: 462 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 63,945,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 10.90 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: total: 87 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,250,600 GRT/952,072 DWT by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 22, chemical tanker 6, container 1, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 20, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 25 foreign-owned: 3 (Norway 1, Russia 1, UK 1) registered in other countries: 48 (Bahamas 8, Germany 2, Gibraltar 3, Luxembourg 4, Marshall Islands 2, Netherlands 13, Norway 4, Sweden 11, UK 1)
 
Ports and Harbors: Hamina, Hanko, Helsinki, Kotka, Naantali, Pori, Porvoo, Raahe, Rauma, Turku
 
  
 FINNISH PEOPLE
  Finland Facts |  Republic of Finland Information | Finland Statistics  
 
Population: 5,231,372 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 10.45 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 15.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 9.86 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 0.14% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 1.73 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 455,420 Population Female 0-14: 438,719
Population Male 15-64: 1,766,674 Population Female 15-64: 1,724,858
Population Male 65+: 337,257 Population Female 65+: 508,444
 
Population 0-14: 17.10% Literacy Rate: 100.00%
Population 15-64: 66.70% Literacy rate of Males: 100.00%
Population 65+: 16.20% Literacy rate of Females: 100.00%
 
Population that is Male: 48.00 % Population that is Female: 52.00%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 78.50 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 3.55 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 74.99 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 82.17 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.00% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 1,500
Number of people who died of AIDS: 0
   
Disease Risk:
 
Diseases:
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: 0.84
 
Nationality: FINNISH
 
Ethnic Groups: Finn 93.4%, Swede 5.7%, Russian 0.4%, Estonian 0.2%, Roma 0.2%, Sami 0.1% 
 
  
Primary Language: Finnish
 
Other Languages: Finnish 92% (official), Swedish 5.6% (official), other 2.4% (small Sami- and Russian-speaking minorities)
 
 
Primary Religion: Evangelical Lutheran
 
Other Religions: Lutheran National Church 84.2%, Greek Orthodox in Finland 1.1%, other Christian 1.1%, other 0.1%, none 13.5%
 
  
 FINNISH MILITARY
  Finland Facts |  Republic of Finland Information | Finland Statistics  
  
Branches: Finnish Defense Forces: Army, Navy (includes coastal defense forces), Air Force
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years
 
Manpower Available: 2,197,959 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 1,789,306 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 62,559 People per year
 
Expenditures: $0 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 2.00
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
 FINNISH RESOURCES
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Finland Spa and Resort Directory
 
Finland Home Exchanges and Home Swaps
 
Finland Vacation Rentals And Holiday Villas
 

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