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 GEORGIAN POLITICAL
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Background: The region of present-day Georgia contained the ancient kingdoms of Colchis and Kartli-Iberia. The area came under Roman influence in the first centuries A.D. and Christianity became the state religion in the 330s. Domination by Persians, Arabs, and Turks was followed by a Georgian golden age (11th-13th centuries) that was cut short by the Mongol invasion of 1236. Subsequently, the Ottoman and Persian empires competed for influence in the region. Georgia was absorbed into the Russian Empire in the 19th century. Independent for three years (1918-1921) following the Russian revolution, it was forcibly incorporated into the USSR until the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991. An attempt by the incumbent Georgian government to manipulate national legislative elections in November 2003 touched off widespread protests that led to the resignation of Eduard SHEVARDNADZE, president since 1995. New elections in early 2004 swept Mikheil SAAKASHVILI into power along with his National Movement Party. Progress on market reforms and democratization has been made in the years since independence, but this progress has been complicated by two civil conflicts in the breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. These two territories remain outside the control of the central government and are ruled by de facto, unrecognized governments, supported by Russia. Russian-led peacekeeping operations continue in both regions. The Georgian Government put forward a new peace initiative for the peaceful resolution of the status of South Ossetia in 2005.
 
 
Common Name: Georgia Local Official Name: Sak'art'velo
Abbreviated Name: Official Name: Georgia
Official Script Name: Georgia Local Common Name: Georgia
Former Name: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic Territory of: NA
 
Head of State: President Mikheil SAAKASHVILI
 
Government Type: Rrepublic
 
Independence: 1991 April 9 (from Soviet Union)
 
Constitution: (adopted 17 October 1995)
 
National Holiday: Independence Day, 26 May
 
International Organization Participation: ACCT (observer), BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITU, MIGA, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
 
Administrative Divisions: 9 regions, (mkharebi, singular - mkhare), 9 cities* (k'alak'ebi, singular - k'alak'i), and 2 autonomous republics** (avtomnoy respubliki, singular - avtom respublika); Abkhazia or Ap'khazet'is Avtonomiuri Respublika** (Sokhumi), Ajaria or Acharis Avtonomiuri Respublika** (Bat'umi), Chiat'ura*, Gori*, Guria, Imereti, Kakheti, K'ut'aisi*, Kvemo Kartli, Mtskheta-Mtianeti, P'ot'i*, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, Rust'avi*, Samegrelo and Zemo Svaneti, Samtskhe-Javakheti, Shida Kartli, T'bilisi*, Tqibuli*, Tsqaltubo*, Zugdidi* Note: The administrative centers of the 2 autonomous republics are shown in parentheses.
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: Based on civil law system; Accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
 
Suffrage: 18 years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: Chief of state: President Mikheil SAAKASHVILI (since 25 January 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government for the power ministries: state security (includes interior) and defense Head of government: President Mikheil SAAKASHVILI (since 25 January 2004); Prime Minister Zurab NOGHAIDELI (since 17 February 2005); note - the president is the chief of state and head of government for the power ministries: state security (includes interior) and defense; the prime minister is head of the remaining ministries of government Cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 4 January 2004 (next to be held in 2009) Election results: Mikheil SAAKASHVILI elected president; percent of vote - Mikheil SAAKASHVILI 96.3%, Temur SHASHIASHVILI 1.9% Legislative Branch: Unicameral Supreme Council (commonly referred to as Parliament) or Umaghiesi Sabcho (235 seats - 150 elected by party lists); members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) Elections: last held 28 March 2004 (next to be held spring 2008) Election results: percent of vote by party - National Movement-Democratic Front 67.6%, Rightist Opposition 7.6%, all other parties received less than 7% each; seats by party - National Movement-Democratic Front 135, Rightist Opposition 15 Judicial Branch: Supreme Court (judges elected by the Supreme Council on the president's or chairman of the Supreme Court's recommendation); Constitutional Court; first and second instance courts.
 
Party Leaders: Burjanadze-Democrats [Nino BURJANADZE]; Georgian People's Front [Nodar NATADZE]; Georgian United Communist Party or UCPG [Panteleimon GIORGADZE]; Greens [Giorgi GACHECHILADZE]; Industry Will Save Georgia (Industrialists) or IWSG [Georgi TOPADZE]; Labor Party [Shalva NATELASHVILI]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Bachuki KARDAVA]; National Movement Democratic Front [Mikheil SAAKASHVILI] bloc composed of National Movement and Burjanadze-Democrats; National Movement [Mikheil SAAKASHVILI]; New Rights [David GAMKRELIDZE]; Republican Party [David USUPASHVILI]; Rightist Opposition [David GAMKRELIDZE] bloc composed of Industrialists and New Right Party; Socialist Party or SPG [Irakli MINDELI]; Traditionalists [Akaki ASATIANI]; Union of National Forces-Conservatives [Koba DAVITASHVILI and Zviad DZIDZIGURI].
 
International Disputes: Russia and Georgia agree on delimiting 80% of their common border, leaving certain small, strategic segments and the maritime boundary unresolved; OSCE observers monitor volatile areas such as the Pankisi Gorge in the Akhmeti region and the Argun Gorge in Abkhazia; UN Observer Mission in Georgia has maintained a peacekeeping force in Georgia since 1993; Meshkheti Turks scattered throughout the former Soviet Union seek to return to Georgia; boundary with Armenia remains undemarcated; ethnic Armenian groups in Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy from the Georgian government; Azerbaijan and Georgia continue to discuss the alignment of their boundary at certain crossing areas.
 
Illicit Drugs: Limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for domestic consumption; used as transshipment point for opiates via Central Asia to Western Europe and Russia. 
 
 
 GEORGIAN GEOGRAPHY
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Location of Georgia: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia
 
Continent: Asia Land Area Total: 69,700 sq km 
Region: Central Asia Land Area Land: 0 sq km
Capitol City: T'bilisi Land Area Water: 69,700 sq km
      
Latitude: 042 00 N Border Boundary Land: 1,461 km
Longitude: 043 30 E Border Boundary Coastline: 310 km 
  
Arable Land: 11.00 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 4.00 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 5,201 m Location: Mt'a Mqinvartsveri
Lowest Elevation: 0 m Location: Black Sea
  
Largest City in Georgia: Tbilisi Tbilisi Largest City Population: 1,309,000
  
Threatened Species: 40
 
Environmental Issues: air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi; heavy pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals
 
Environmental Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
Irrigated Land: 4,700
 
Bordering Countries: Armenia 164 km, Azerbaijan 322 km, Russia 723 km, Turkey 252 km
 
Natural Resources: forests, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore, copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and citrus growth
 
Geographical Terrain: largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhet'is Dablobi (Kolkhida Lowland) opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; good soils in river valley flood plains,
 
Comparative Area of Georgia: slightly smaller than South Carolina
 
Georgia's Geography: Strategically located east of the Black Sea; Georgia controls much of the Caucasus Mountains and the routes through them.
 

 GEORGIAN CLIMATE
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General Climate: warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast
 
Natural Hazards: earthquakes
 
 
 GEORGIAN ECONOMY
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Economic Overview: Definition Field Listing Georgia's main economic activities include the cultivation of agricultural products such as grapes, citrus fruits, and hazelnuts; mining of manganese and copper; and output of a small industrial sector producing alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, metals, machinery, and chemicals. The country imports the bulk of its energy needs, including natural gas and oil products. It has sizeable but underdeveloped hydropower capacity. Despite the severe damage the economy has suffered due to civil strife, Georgia, with the help of the IMF and World Bank, has made substantial economic gains since 2000, achieving positive GDP growth and curtailing inflation. Georgia had suffered from a chronic failure to collect tax revenues; however, the new government is making progress and has reformed the tax code, improved tax administration, increased tax enforcement, and cracked down on corruption. In addition, the reinvigorated privatization process has met with success, supplementing government expenditures on infrastructure, defense, and poverty reduction. Despite customs and financial (tax) enforcement improvements, smuggling is a drain on the economy. Georgia also suffers from energy shortages due to aging and badly maintained infrastructure, as well as poor management. Due to concerted reform efforts, collection rates have improved considerably to roughly 60%, both in T'bilisi and throughout the regions. Continued reform in the management of state-owned power entities is essential to successful privatization and onward sustainability in this sector. The country is pinning its hopes for long-term growth on its role as a transit state for pipelines and trade. The construction on the Baku-T'bilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline and the Baku-T'bilisi-Erzerum gas pipeline have brought much-needed investment and job opportunities. Nevertheless, high energy prices in 2006 will compound the pressure on the country's inefficient energy sector. Restructuring the sector and finding energy supply alternatives to Russia remain major challenges.
 
 
GDP: $15,560,000,000 USD Currency: lari
GDP per Capita: $3,300 USD Currency Code: GEL
GDP Growth Rate: 6.40 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: lari per US dollar - 1.8127 (2005), 1.9167 (2004), 2.1457 (2003), 2.1957 (2002), 2.073
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 17.20 % GDP of Industry: 27.50 %
GDP of Services: 55.30 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 8.20 % Population in Poverty: 54.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 12.60 % Tourism: 384,000.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 2.30 % Budget Revenue in USD: $1,430,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 27.90 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $1,560,000,000 USD
   
Electricity Production: 8,634,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 71,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 9,800,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 1,200,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 20.99% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 79.01% Other Electricity Production: 0.00%
   
Oil Production: 1,982 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 20,000,000 cu m
Oil Consumption: 13,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 1,500,000 cu m
Oil Exports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 1,500,000,000 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 0 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 0 cu m
   
External Debt: $2,040,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $150,000,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
   
Agricultural Products: citrus, grapes, tea, hazelnuts, vegetables; livestock
 
Primary Industries: steel, aircraft, machine tools, electrical appliances, mining (manganese), chemicals, wood products, wine
 
Industrial Growth Rate: 3.00 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $2,500,000,000 USD - fuels, machinery and parts, transport equipment, grain and other foods, pharmaceuticals
 
Import Partners: Russia 16%, Turkey 10.3%, US 9.6%, Ukraine 9%, Azerbaijan 7.4%, Germany 6.5%, Italy 4.3%
 
Export Amount in USD: $1,400,000,000 USD - scrap metal, machinery, chemicals; fuel reexports; citrus fruits, tea, wine
 
Export Partners: US 16.1%, Turkey 15.5%, Russia 12.3%, Turkmenistan 11.3%
 
    
GINI Index: 38.00%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 2,040,000
 
Labor Force by Occupations: industry 20%, agriculture 40%, services 40%
 
  
 GEORGIAN COMMUNICATIONS
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Radio Broadcast Stations: 23 Number of People with Radios: 3,200,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 12 Number of People with Televisions: 2,570,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 683,200 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 840,600
 
Internet Service Providers: 8,942 Internet Users: 175,600
 
Internet Country Code: .ge Newspapers: 0
Two Letter Country Code: GG Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: +995 Electricity Voltage: Volts
  
Telephone Systems: General assessment: NA Domestic: local - T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi have cellular telephone networks; urban telephone density is about 20 per 100 people; rural telephone density is about 4 per 100 people; intercity facilities include a fiber-optic line between T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi; nationwide pager service is available. International: country code - 995; Georgia and Russia are working on a fiber-optic line between P'ot'i and Sochi (Russia); present international service is available by microwave, landline, and satellite through the Moscow switch; international electronic mail and telex service are available.
 
  
 GEORGIAN TRANSPORTATION
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Highways: 7,973 km Railways: 1,612 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 2,724 km Waterways: 0 km
Airports: 19 Heliports: 3
 
Motor Vehicles: 63 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 4,415,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 4.20 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: Total: 222 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,059,386 GRT/1,538,746 DWT by type: bulk carrier 27, cargo 176, container 4, liquefied gas 1, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 2, specialized tanker 1 Foreign-owned: 188 (Albania 1, Azerbaijan 2, Belgium 1, China 2, Cyprus 1, Ecuador 1, Egypt 8, Germany 1, Greece 8, Indonesia 1, South Korea 1, Lebanon 7, Monaco 13, Romania 11, Russia 28, Slovakia 1, Slovenia 1, Syria 43, Turkey 30, UAE 1, UK 4, Ukraine 22)
 
Ports and Harbors: Bat'umi, P'ot'i
 
  
 GEORGIAN PEOPLE
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Population: 4,661,473 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 10.41 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 74.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 9.23 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: -0.34% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 1.42 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 428,056 Population Female 0-14: 380,193
Population Male 15-64: 1,482,908 Population Female 15-64: 1,602,064
Population Male 65+: 308,905 Population Female 65+: 459,347
 
Population 0-14: 17.30% Literacy Rate: 100.00%
Population 15-64: 66.20% Literacy rate of Males: 100.00%
Population 65+: 16.50% Literacy rate of Females: 100.00%
 
Population that is Male: 57.50 % Population that is Female: 42.50%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 76.09 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 17.97 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 72.80 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 79.87 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.10% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 3,000
Number of people who died of AIDS: 0
   
Disease Risk:
 
Diseases:
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: -4.54
 
Nationality: GEORGIAN
 
Ethnic Groups: Georgian 83.8%, Azeri 6.5%, Armenian 5.7%, Russian 1.5%, other 2.5% 
 
  
Primary Language: Georgian
 
Other Languages: Russian 9%, Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, other 7% note: Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia
 
 
Primary Religion: Orthodox Christian
 
Other Religions: Orthodox Christian 83.9%, Muslim 9.9%, Armenian-Gregorian 3.9%, Catholic 0.8%, other 0.8%, none 0.7%
 
  
 GEORGIAN MILITARY
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Branches: Ground Forces (includes National Guard), Air and Air Defense Forces, Navy
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years
 
Manpower Available: 2,144,646 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 1,731,072 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 77,095 People per year
 
Expenditures: $23,000,000 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 0.59
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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