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Germany Facts

Germany Facts | Federal Republic of Germany Information | Germany Statistics | German Empire, German Republic, German Reich

Germany Facts |  Federal Republic of Germany Information | Germany Statistics Germany Facts |  Federal Republic of Germany Information | Germany Statistics
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  Germany Facts |  Federal Republic of Germany Information | Germany Statistics  
Background: As Europe's largest economy and second most populous nation, Germany remains a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed Germany in two devastating World Wars in the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union in 1945. With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949: the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded itself in key Western economic and security organizations, the EC, which became the EU, and NATO, while the Communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German unification in 1990. Since then, Germany has expended considerable funds to bring Eastern productivity and wages up to Western standards. In January 1999, Germany and 10 other EU countries introduced a common European exchange currency, the euro.
Common Name: Germany Local Official Name: Deutschland
Abbreviated Name: Federal Republic of Germany Official Name: Bundesrepublik Deutschland
Official Script Name: Germany Local Common Name: Germany
Former Name: German Empire, German Republic, German Reich Territory of: NA
Head of State: President Horst KOEHLER
Government Type: federal republic
Independence: 18 January 1871 (German Empire unification); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, a
Constitution: 1949 May 23, known as Basic Law (became constitution of the united German people 1990 October 3)
National Holiday: Unity Day, 3 October
International Organization Participation: AfDB, Arctic Council (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOVIC, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Administrative Divisions: 13 states (Laender, singular - Land) and 3 free states* (Freistaaten, singular - Freistaat); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern*, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen*, Sachsen-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen*
Dependent Areas: NA
Legal System: civil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in the Federal Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: President Horst KOEHLER (since 1 July 2004) head of government: Chancellor Angela MERKEL (since 22 November 2005) cabinet: Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) appointed by the president on the recommendation of the chancellor elections: president elected for a five-year term (eligible for a second term) by a Federal Convention, including all members of the Federal Assembly and an equal number of delegates elected by the state parliaments; election last held 23 May 2004 (next to be held 23 May 2009); chancellor elected by an absolute majority of the Federal Assembly for a four-year term; election last held 22 November 2005 (next to be held November 2009) election results: Horst KOEHLER elected president; received 604 votes of the Federal Convention against 589 for Gesine SCHWAN; Angela MERKEL elected chancellor; vote by Federal Assembly 397 to 202 with 12 abstentions Legislative Branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Federal Assembly or Bundestag (613 seats; elected by popular vote under a system combining direct and proportional representation; a party must win 5% of the national vote or three direct mandates to gain representation; members serve four-year terms) and the Federal Council or Bundesrat (69 votes; state governments are directly represented by votes; each has three to six votes depending on population and are required to vote as a block) elections: Federal Assembly - last held 18 September 2005 (next to be held September 2009); note - there are no elections for the Bundesrat; composition is determined by the composition of the state-level governments; the composition of the Bundesrat has the potential to change any time one of the 16 states holds an election election results: Federal Assembly - percent of vote by party - CDU/CSU 35.2%, SPD 34.3%, FDP 9.8%, Left 8.7%, Greens 8.1%; seats by party - CDU/CSU 225, SPD 222, FDP 61, Left 54, Greens 51 Judicial Branch: Federal Constitutional Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht (half the judges are elected by the Bundestag and half by the Bundesrat)
Party Leaders: Alliance '90/Greens [Claudia ROTH and Reinhard BUETIKOFER]; Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Angela MERKEL]; Christian Social Union or CSU [Edmund STOIBER, chairman]; Free Democratic Party or FDP [Guido WESTERWELLE, chairman]; Left Party (Linkspartei. was Party of Democratic Socialism) or PDS [Lothar BISKY]; Social Democratic Party or SPD [Kurt BECK]
International Disputes: NA
Illicit Drugs: source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors; transshipment point for and consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and European-produced synthetic drugs; major financial center 
  Germany Facts |  Federal Republic of Germany Information | Germany Statistics  
Location of Germany: Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark
Continent: Europe Land Area Total: 357,021 sq km 
Region: Central Europe Land Area Land: 349,223 sq km
Capitol City: Berlin Land Area Water: 7,798 sq km
Latitude: 051 00 N Border Boundary Land: 3,621 km
Longitude: 009 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 2,389 km 
Arable Land: 33.13 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 0.60 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
Highest Elevation: 2,963 m Location: Zugspitze
Lowest Elevation: -3 m Location: Neuendorf bei Wilste
Largest City in Germany: Essen Essen Largest City Population: 6,533,000
Threatened Species: 71
Environmental Issues: emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal; government established a mechanism for ending the use of nuclear power over the next 15 years; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in line with the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive
Environmental Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Irrigated Land: 4,850
Bordering Countries: Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 646 km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577 km, Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334 km
Natural Resources: coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable land
Geographical Terrain: lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south
Comparative Area of Germany: slightly smaller than Montana
Germany's Geography: strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea

  Germany Facts |  Federal Republic of Germany Information | Germany Statistics  
General Climate: temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind
Natural Hazards: flooding
  Germany Facts |  Federal Republic of Germany Information | Germany Statistics  
Economic Overview: Germany's affluent and technologically powerful economy - the fifth largest in the world - has become one of the slowest growing economies in the euro zone. A quick turnaround is not in the offing in the foreseeable future. Growth in 2001-03 fell short of 1%, rising to 1.7% in 2004 before falling back to 0.9% in 2005. The modernization and integration of the eastern German economy continues to be a costly long-term process, with annual transfers from west to east amounting to roughly $70 billion. Germany's aging population, combined with high unemployment, has pushed social security outlays to a level exceeding contributions from workers. Structural rigidities in the labor market - including strict regulations on laying off workers and the setting of wages on a national basis - have made unemployment a chronic problem. Corporate restructuring and growing capital markets are setting the foundations that could allow Germany to meet the long-term challenges of European economic integration and globalization, particularly if labor market rigidities are further addressed. In the short run, however, the fall in government revenues and the rise in expenditures have raised the deficit above the EU's 3% debt limit.
GDP: $2,480,000,000,000 USD Currency: euro
GDP per Capita: $30,100 USD Currency Code: EUR
GDP Growth Rate: 0.90 %
Currency Exchange Rate History: euros per US dollar - 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001)
GDP of Agriculture: 0.90 % GDP of Industry: 29.60 %
GDP of Services: 69.50 %  
Inflation Rate: 2.00 % Population in Poverty: 11.70 %
Unemployment Rate: 11.70 % Tourism: 17,116,000.00 visitors each year
Consumption by lowest 10%: 3.60 % Budget Revenue in USD: $1,249,000,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 25.10 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $1,362,000,000,000 USD
Electricity Production: 558,100,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 54,100,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 510,400,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 45,400,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 63.08% Nuclear Electricity Production: 30.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 3.65% Other Electricity Production: 3.27%
Oil Production: 158,700 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 22,220,000,000 cu m
Oil Consumption: 2,677,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 93,880,000,000 cu m
Oil Exports: 12,900 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 7,731,000,000 cu m
Oil Imports: 2,135 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 85,020,000,000 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 0 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 305,800,000,000 cu m
External Debt: $3,626,000,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $0 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $5,600,000,000,000 USD
Agricultural Products: potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; cattle, pigs, poultry
Primary Industries: among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages, shipbuilding, textiles
Industrial Growth Rate: 2.90 %
Import Amount in USD: $8,010,000,000,000 USD - machinery, vehicles, chemicals, foodstuffs, textiles, metals
Import Partners: France 8.7%, Netherlands 8.5%, US 6.6%, China 6.4%, UK 6.3%, Italy 5.7%, Belgium 5%, Austria 4%
Export Amount in USD: $1,016,000,000,000 USD - machinery, vehicles, chemicals, metals and manufactures, foodstuffs, textiles
Export Partners: France 10.2%, US 8.8%, UK 7.9%, Italy 6.9%, Netherlands 6.1%, Belgium 5.6%, Austria 5.4%, Spain 5.1%
GINI Index: 28.30%
Labor Force Number of People: 43,320,000
Labor Force by Occupations: industry 33.4%, agriculture 2.8%, services 63.8%
  Germany Facts |  Federal Republic of Germany Information | Germany Statistics  
Radio Broadcast Stations: 842 Number of People with Radios: 77,800,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 373 Number of People with Televisions: 51,400,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 55,046,000 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 79,200,000
Internet Service Providers: 7,657,162 Internet Users: 2,147,483,647
Internet Country Code: .de Newspapers: 305
Two Letter Country Code: GM Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: 49 Electricity Voltage: 230 Volts
Telephone Systems: general assessment: Germany has one of the world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country, dating back to World War II, has been modernized and integrated with that of the western part domestic: Germany is served by an extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available, expanding rapidly, and includes roaming service to many foreign countries international: country code - 49; Germany's international service is excellent worldwide, consisting of extensive land and undersea cable facilities as well as earth stations in the Inmarsat, Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems
  Germany Facts |  Federal Republic of Germany Information | Germany Statistics  


Highways: 231,581 km Railways: 47,201 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 32,985 km Waterways: 7,467 km
Airports: 332 Heliports: 32
Motor Vehicles: 554 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 886,181,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 10.20 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
Merchant Marines: total: 394 ships (1000 GRT or over) 11,017,754 GRT/13,091,194 DWT by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 60, chemical tanker 13, container 273, liquefied gas 3, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 25, petroleum tanker 10, roll on/roll off 3 foreign-owned: 4 (Finland 2, Italy 1, Switzerland 1) registered in other countries: 2,491 (Antigua and Barbuda 858, Australia 3, Bahamas 22, Belize 3, Bermuda 21, Brazil 7, Bulgaria 1, Burma 5, Canada 3, Cayman Islands 13, Cyprus 214, Denmark 13, Dominica 1, French Southern and Antarctic Lands 2, Georgia 1, Gibraltar 108, Guyana 1, Hong Kong 6, Indonesia 1, Ireland 2, Isle of Man 56, Jamaica 3, Liberia 587, Luxembourg 10, Malaysia 2, Malta 64, Marshall Islands 194, Morocco 2, Netherlands 56, Netherlands Antilles 60, NZ 1, Panama 35, Portugal 17, Russia 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 8, Samoa 1, Singapore 9, Spain 12, Sri Lanka 5, Sweden 3, Turkey 1, UK 76, US 2)
Ports and Harbors: Berlin, Bonn, Brake, Bremen, Bremerhaven, Cologne, Dresden, Duisburg, Emden, Hamburg, Karlsruhe, Kiel, Luebeck, Magdeburg, Mannheim, Rostock, Stuttgart
  Germany Facts |  Federal Republic of Germany Information | Germany Statistics  
Population: 82,422,299 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 8.25 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 231.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 10.62 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: -0.02% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 1.36 babies born per woman
Population Male 0-14: 5,973,437 Population Female 0-14: 5,665,971
Population Male 15-64: 27,889,936 Population Female 15-64: 26,874,858
Population Male 65+: 6,602,478 Population Female 65+: 9,415,619
Population 0-14: 14.10% Literacy Rate: 99.00%
Population 15-64: 66.40% Literacy rate of Males: 99.00%
Population 65+: 19.40% Literacy rate of Females: 99.00%
Population that is Male: 48.00 % Population that is Female: 52.00%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 78.80 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 4.12 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 75.81 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 81.96 years
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.10% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 43,000
Number of people who died of AIDS: 0
Disease Risk:
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: 2.18
Nationality: GERMAN
Ethnic Groups: German 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other 6.1% (made up largely of Greek, Italian, Polish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish) 
Primary Language: German
Other Languages: German
Primary Religion: Protestant
Other Religions: Protestant 34%, Roman Catholic 34%, Muslim 3.7%, unaffiliated or other 28.3%
  Germany Facts |  Federal Republic of Germany Information | Germany Statistics  
Branches: Federal Armed Forces (Bundeswehr): Army (Heer), Navy (Deutsche Marine, includes naval air arm), Air Force (Luftwaffe), Joint Support Service, Central Medical Service
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years
Manpower Available: 36,830,650 People
Manpower Fit to Serve: 29,702,343 People
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 967,585 People per year
Expenditures: $38,800,000,000 USD per year
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 1.50
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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