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  Greece Facts |  Hellenic Republic Information | Greece Statistics  
Background: Greece achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1829. During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, it gradually added neighboring islands and territories, most with Greek-speaking populations. In World War II, Greece was first invaded by Italy (1940) and subsequently occupied by Germany (1941-44); fighting endured in a protracted civil war between supporters of the king and Communist rebels. Following the latter's defeat in 1949, Greece joined NATO in 1952. A military dictatorship, which in 1967 suspended many political liberties and forced the king to flee the country, lasted seven years. The 1974 democratic elections and a referendum created a parliamentary republic and abolished the monarchy. In 1981 Greece joined the EC (now the EU); it became the 12th member of the euro zone in 2001.
Common Name: Greece Local Official Name: Ellas or Ellada
Abbreviated Name: Hellenic Republic Official Name: Elliniki Dhimokratia
Official Script Name: Greece Local Common Name: Greece
Former Name: Kingdom of Greece Territory of: NA
Head of State: President Karolos PAPOULIAS
Government Type: parliamentary republic
Independence: 1829 (from the Ottoman Empire)
Constitution: 1975 June 11; amended 1986 March and 2001 April
National Holiday: Independence Day, 25 March
International Organization Participation: Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, G- 6, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIS, UNOMIG, UPU, WCO, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Administrative Divisions: 51 prefectures (nomoi, singular - nomos) and 1 autonomous region*; Achaia, Agion Oros* (Mt. Athos), Aitolia kai Akarnania, Argolis, Arkadia, Arta, Attiki, Chalkidiki, Chanion, Chios, Dodekanisos, Drama, Evros, Evrytania, Evvoia, Florina, Fokidos, Fthiotis, Grevena, Ileia, Imathia, Ioannina, Irakleion, Karditsa, Kastoria, Kavala, Kefallinia, Kerkyra, Kilkis, Korinthia, Kozani, Kyklades, Lakonia, Larisa, Lasithi, Lefkas, Lesvos, Magnisia, Messinia, Pella, Pieria, Preveza, Rethynnis, Rodopi, Samos, Serrai, Thesprotia, Thessaloniki, Trikala, Voiotia, Xanthi, Zakynthos
Dependent Areas: NA
Legal System: based on codified Roman law; judiciary divided into civil, criminal, and administrative courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 18 years
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: President Karolos PAPOULIAS (since 12 March 2005) head of government: Prime Minister Konstandinos (Kostas) KARAMANLIS (since 7 March 2004) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister elections: president elected by parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 8 February 2005 (next to be held by February 2010); according to the Greek Constitution, presidents may only serve two terms; president appoints leader of the party securing plurality of vote in election to become prime minister and form a government election results: Karolos PAPOULIAS elected president; number of parlimentary votes, 279 out of 300 Legislative Branch: unicameral Parliament or Vouli ton Ellinon (300 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: elections last held 7 March 2004 (next to be held by March 2008) election results: percent of vote by party - ND 45.4%, PASOK 40.6%, KKE 5.9%, Synaspismos 3.3%; seats by party - ND 165, PASOK 117, KKE 12, Synaspismos 6 Judicial Branch: Supreme Judicial Court; Special Supreme Tribunal; all judges appointed for life by the president after consultation with a judicial council
Party Leaders: Coalition of the Left and Progress (Synaspismos) [Alekos ALAVANOS]; Communist Party of Greece or KKE [Aleka PAPARIGA]; New Democracy or ND (conservative) [Konstandinos KARAMANLIS]; Panhellenic Socialist Movement or PASOK [Yiorgos PAPANDREOU]; Popular Orthodox Rally or LAOS [Yeoryios KARATZAFERIS]
International Disputes: Greece and Turkey continue discussions to resolve their complex maritime, air, territorial, and boundary disputes in the Aegean Sea; Cyprus question with Turkey; Greece rejects the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia
Illicit Drugs: a gateway to Europe for traffickers smuggling cannabis and heroin from the Middle East and Southwest Asia to the West and precursor chemicals to the East; some South American cocaine transits or is consumed in Greece; money laundering related to drug trafficking and organized crime 
  Greece Facts |  Hellenic Republic Information | Greece Statistics  
Location of Greece: Southern Europe, bordering the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea, between Albania and Turkey
Continent: Europe Land Area Total: 131,940 sq km 
Region: Eastern Europe Land Area Land: 130,800 sq km
Capitol City: Athens Land Area Water: 1,140 sq km
Latitude: 039 00 N Border Boundary Land: 1,228 km
Longitude: 022 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 13,676 km 
Arable Land: 20.45 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 8.59 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
Highest Elevation: 2,917 m Location: Mount Olympus
Lowest Elevation: 0 m Location: Mediterranean Sea
Largest City in Greece: Athens Athens Largest City Population: 3,112,000
Threatened Species: 66
Environmental Issues: air pollution; water pollution
Environmental Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
Irrigated Land: 14,530
Bordering Countries: Albania 282 km, Bulgaria 494 km, Turkey 206 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 246 km
Natural Resources: lignite, petroleum, iron ore, bauxite, lead, zinc, nickel, magnesite, marble, salt, hydropower potential
Geographical Terrain: mostly mountains with ranges extending into the sea as peninsulas or chains of islands
Comparative Area of Greece: slightly smaller than Alabama
Greece's Geography: strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to Turkish Straits; a peninsular country, possessing an archipelago of about 2,000 islands

  Greece Facts |  Hellenic Republic Information | Greece Statistics  
General Climate: temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers
Natural Hazards: severe earthquakes
  Greece Facts |  Hellenic Republic Information | Greece Statistics  
Economic Overview: Greece has a capitalist economy with the public sector accounting for about 40% of GDP and with per capita GDP at least 75% of the leading euro-zone economies. Tourism provides 15% of GDP. Immigrants make up nearly one-fifth of the work force, mainly in menial jobs. Greece is a major beneficiary of EU aid, equal to about 3.3% of annual GDP. The Greek economy grew by about 4.0% for the between 2003 and 2005, largely because of an investment boom and infrastructure upgrades for the 2004 Athens Olympic Games. Economic growth slowed to about 3% in 2005. Greece has not met the EU's Growth and Stability Pact budget deficit criteria of 3% of GDP since 2000. Public debt, inflation, and unemployment are above the euro-zone average. To overcome these challenges, the Greek Government is expected to continue cutting government spending, reducing the size of the public sector, and reforming the labor and pension systems.
GDP: $238,200,000,000 USD Currency: euro
GDP per Capita: $22,300 USD Currency Code: EUR
GDP Growth Rate: 3.70 %
Currency Exchange Rate History: euros per US dollar - 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001)
GDP of Agriculture: 5.40 % GDP of Industry: 21.30 %
GDP of Services: 73.30 %  
Inflation Rate: 3.50 % Population in Poverty: 0.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 9.90 % Tourism: 12,164,000.00 visitors each year
Consumption by lowest 10%: 3.00 % Budget Revenue in USD: $94,130,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 28.30 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $103,400,000,000 USD
Electricity Production: 54,560,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 2,100,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 53,500,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 4,200,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 91.53% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 6.60% Other Electricity Production: 1.87%
Oil Production: 5,805 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 2,018,000,000 cu m
Oil Consumption: 435,700 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 991,100,000 cu m
Oil Exports: 84,720 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 468,300 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 2,018,000,000 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 4,500,000 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 991,100,000 cu m
External Debt: $75,180,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $8,000,000,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
Agricultural Products: wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes; beef, dairy products
Primary Industries: tourism, food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products; mining, petroleum
Industrial Growth Rate: -0.30 %
Import Amount in USD: $48,200,000,000 USD - machinery, transport equipment, fuels, chemicals
Import Partners: Germany 12.7%, Italy 12.4%, Russia 7.8%, France 5.7%, Netherlands 5.5%, Saudi Arabia 4.1%
Export Amount in USD: $12,500,000,000 USD - food and beverages, manufactured goods, petroleum products, chemicals, textiles
Export Partners: EU 44% (Germany 12%, Italy 9%, UK 6%), US 5%
GINI Index: 35.10%
Labor Force Number of People: 4,720,000
Labor Force by Occupations: industry 20%, agriculture 12%, services 68%
  Greece Facts |  Hellenic Republic Information | Greece Statistics  
Radio Broadcast Stations: 118 Number of People with Radios: 5,020,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 36 Number of People with Televisions: 2,540,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 2,147,483,647 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 10,043,000
Internet Service Providers: 414,724 Internet Users: 3,800,000
Internet Country Code: .gr Newspapers: 153
Two Letter Country Code: GR Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: 30 Electricity Voltage: 220 Volts
Telephone Systems: general assessment: adequate, modern networks reach all areas; good mobile telephone and international service domestic: microwave radio relay trunk system; extensive open-wire connections; submarine cable to offshore islands international: country code - 30; tropospheric scatter; 8 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region)
  Greece Facts |  Hellenic Republic Information | Greece Statistics  


Highways: 106,920 km Railways: 2,571 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 1,260 km Waterways: 6 km
Airports: 66 Heliports: 8
Motor Vehicles: 375 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 100,449,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 7.60 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
Merchant Marines: total: 817 ships (1000 GRT or over) 31,895,832 GRT/54,341,584 DWT by type: bulk carrier 270, cargo 61, chemical tanker 47, container 47, liquefied gas 5, passenger 11, passenger/cargo 114, petroleum tanker 244, roll on/roll off 17, specialized tanker 1 foreign-owned: 24 (Belgium 12, Cyprus 1, Hong Kong 1, UK 9, US 1) registered in other countries: 2,363 (Bahamas 232, Barbados 11, Belgium 4, Belize 2, Bermuda 2, Cambodia 8, Cayman Islands 21, Comoros 10, Cyprus 337, Denmark 5, Dominica 5, Egypt 6, Georgia 8, Gibraltar 7, Honduras 3, Hong Kong 27, Isle of Man 45, Italy 6, Jamaica 6, North Korea 1, Lebanon 3, Liberia 267, Malta 495, Marshall Islands 199, Norway 1, Panama 524, Philippines 5, Portugal 4, Russia 1, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 82, Sao Tome and Principe 1, Singapore 9, Slovakia 4, UAE 2, UK 7, Uruguay 1, US 1, Venezuela 3, unknown 7)
Ports and Harbors: Agioitheodoroi, Aspropyrgos, Irakleion, Pachi, Piraeus, Thessaloniki
  Greece Facts |  Hellenic Republic Information | Greece Statistics  
Population: 10,688,058 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 9.68 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 83.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 10.24 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 0.18% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 1.34 babies born per woman
Population Male 0-14: 790,291 Population Female 0-14: 742,902
Population Male 15-64: 3,562,251 Population Female 15-64: 3,566,097
Population Male 65+: 891,620 Population Female 65+: 1,134,897
Population 0-14: 14.30% Literacy Rate: 97.50%
Population 15-64: 66.70% Literacy rate of Males: 98.60%
Population 65+: 19.00% Literacy rate of Females: 96.50%
Population that is Male: 48.50 % Population that is Female: 51.50%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 79.24 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 6.25 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 76.72 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 81.91 years
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.20% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 9,100
Number of people who died of AIDS: 0
Disease Risk:
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: 2.34
Nationality: GREEK
Ethnic Groups: Greek 98%, other 2% note: the Greek Government states there are no ethnic divisions in Greece 
Primary Language: Greek
Other Languages: Greek 99% (official), English, French
Primary Religion: Greek Orthodox
Other Religions: Greek Orthodox 98%, Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%
  Greece Facts |  Hellenic Republic Information | Greece Statistics  
Branches: Hellenic Army (Ellinikos Stratos, ES), Hellenic Navy (Ellinikos Polemiko Navtiko, EPN), Hellenic Air Force (Ellinikos Polemiki Aeroporia, EPA)
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years
Manpower Available: 4,902,806 People
Manpower Fit to Serve: 4,019,207 People
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 113,970 People per year
Expenditures: $6,120,000,000 USD per year
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 4.30
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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