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Greenland Facts

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Background: Greenland, the world's largest island, is about 81% ice-capped. Vikings reached the island in the 10th century from Iceland; Danish colonization began in the 18th century, and Greenland was made an integral part of Denmark in 1953. It joined the European Community (now the EU) with Denmark in 1973 but withdrew in 1985 over a dispute over stringent fishing quotas. Greenland was granted self-government in 1979 by the Danish parliament. The law went into effect the following year. Denmark continues to exercise control of Greenland's foreign affairs.
Common Name: Greenland Local Official Name: Kalaallit Nunaat
Abbreviated Name: Greenland Official Name: Greenland
Official Script Name: Greenland Local Common Name: Greenland
Former Name: Greenland Territory of: NA
Head of State: Queen MARGRETHE II of Denmark
Government Type: parliamentary democracy within a constitutional monarchy
Independence: none (part of the Kingdom of Denmark; foreign affairs is the responsibility of Denmark, but Greenland actively participates in international agreements relating to Greenland)
Constitution: 1953 June 5 (Danish constitution)
National Holiday: June 21 (longest day)
International Organization Participation: Arctic Council, NC, NIB, UPU
Administrative Divisions: 3 districts (landsdele); Avannaa (Nordgronland), Tunu (Ostgronland), Kitaa (Vestgronland) note: there are 18 municipalities in Greenland
Dependent Areas: NA
Legal System: Danish
Suffrage: 18 years
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II of Denmark (since 14 January 1972), represented by High Commissioner Soren MOLLER (since April 2005) head of government: Prime Minister Hans ENOKSEN (since 14 December 2002) cabinet: Home Rule Government is elected by the parliament (Landstinget) on the basis of the strength of parties elections: the monarchy is hereditary; high commissioner appointed by the monarch; prime minister is elected by parliament (usually the leader of the majority party); election last held 3 December 2002 (next to be held December 2006) election results: Hans ENOKSEN elected prime minister note: government coalition - Siumut and Inuit Ataqatigiit Legislative Branch: unicameral Parliament or Landstinget (31 seats; members are elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms) elections: last held on 15 November 2005 (next to be held by December 2009) election results: percent of vote by party - Siumut 30.7%, Demokratiit 22.8%, Inuit Ataqatigiit 22.6%, Atassut Party 19.1%; Katusseqatigiit 4.1%, other 0.7%; seats by party - Siumut 10, Demokratiit 7, Inuit Ataqatigiit 7, Atassut 6, Katusseqatigiit 1 note: two representatives were elected to the Danish Parliament or Folketing on 8 February 2005 (next to be held February 2009); percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Siumut 1, Inuit Ataqatigiit 1 Judicial Branch: High Court or Landsret (appeals can be made to the Ostre Landsret or Eastern Division of the High Court or Supreme Court in Copenhagen)
Party Leaders: Atassut Party (Solidarity, a conservative party favoring continuing close relations with Denmark) [Finn KARLSEN]; Demokratiit [Per BERTHELSEN]; Inuit Ataqatigiit or IA (Eskimo Brotherhood, a leftist party favoring complete independence from Denmark rather than home rule) [Josef MOTZFELDT]; Issituup (Polar Party) [Nicolai HEINRICH]; Kattusseqatigiit (Candidate List, an independent right-of-center party with no official platform; Siumut (Forward Party, a social democratic party advocating more distinct Greenlandic identity and greater autonomy from Denmark) [Hans ENOKSEN]
International Disputes: managed dispute between Canada and Denmark over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Canada's Ellesmere Island and Greenland
Illicit Drugs: NA 
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Location of Greenland: Northern North America, island between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Canada
Continent: North America Land Area Total: 2,166,086 sq km 
Region: Northern American Land Area Land: 2,166,086 sq km
Capitol City: Nuuk (Godthab) Land Area Water: 0 sq km
Latitude: 072 00 N Border Boundary Land: 0 km
Longitude: 040 00 W Border Boundary Coastline: 44,087 km 
Arable Land: 0.00 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 0.00 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
Highest Elevation: 3,700 m Location: Gunnbjorn
Lowest Elevation: 0 m Location: Atlantic Ocean
Largest City in Greenland: Largest City Population: 0
Threatened Species: 0
Environmental Issues: protection of the arctic environment; preservation of the Inuit traditional way of life, including whaling and seal hunting
Environmental Agreements: NA
Irrigated Land: 0
Bordering Countries: NA
Natural Resources: zinc, lead, iron ore, coal, molybdenum, gold, platinum, uranium, fish, seals, whales, hydropower, possible oil and gas
Geographical Terrain: flat to gradually sloping icecap covers all but a narrow, mountainous, barren, rocky coast
Comparative Area of Greenland: slightly more than three times the size of Texas
Greenland's Geography: dominates North Atlantic Ocean between North America and Europe; sparse population confined to small settlements along coast, but close to one-quarter of the population lives in the capital, Nuuk; world's second largest ice cap

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General Climate: arctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters
Natural Hazards: continuous permafrost over northern two-thirds of the island
  Greenland Facts |  Greenland Information | Greenland Statistics  
Economic Overview: The economy remains critically dependent on exports of fish and substantial support from the Danish Government, which supplies about half of government revenues. The public sector, including publicly-owned enterprises and the municipalities, plays the dominant role in the economy. Despite several interesting hydrocarbon and mineral exploration activities, it will take a number of years before production can materialize. Tourism is the only sector offering any near-term potential, and even this is limited due to a short season and high costs.
GDP: $1,100,000,000 USD Currency: Danish krone
GDP per Capita: $20,000 USD Currency Code: DKK
GDP Growth Rate: 1.80 %
Currency Exchange Rate History: Danish kroner per US dollar - 5.9969 (2005), 5.9911 (2004), 6.5877 (2003), 7.8947 (2002), 8.3228 (2001)
GDP of Agriculture: 0.00 % GDP of Industry: 0.00 %
GDP of Services: 0.00 %  
Inflation Rate: 1.60 % Population in Poverty: 0.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 10.00 % Tourism: 0.00 visitors each year
Consumption by lowest 10%: 0.00 % Budget Revenue in USD: $646,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 0.00 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $629,000,000 USD
Electricity Production: 242,200,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 0 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 225,300,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 0 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 100.00% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 0.00% Other Electricity Production: 0.00%
Oil Production: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 0 cu m
Oil Consumption: 3,850 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 0 cu m
Oil Exports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 0 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 0 cu m
External Debt: $25,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $380,000,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
Agricultural Products: forage crops, garden and greenhouse vegetables; sheep, reindeer; fish
Primary Industries: fish processing (mainly shrimp and Greenland halibut); gold, niobium, tantalite, uranium, iron and diamond mining; handicrafts, hides and skins, small shipyards
Industrial Growth Rate: 0.00 %
Import Amount in USD: $601,000,000 USD - machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, petroleum products
Import Partners: Denmark 66.8%, Sweden 19.3%, Ireland 3.6%
Export Amount in USD: $480,000,000 USD - fish and fish products 94% (prawns 63%)
Export Partners: Denmark 62.5%, Japan 12.3%, China 5.3%
GINI Index: 0.00%
Labor Force Number of People: 24,500
Labor Force by Occupations: NA
  Greenland Facts |  Greenland Information | Greenland Statistics  
Radio Broadcast Stations: 17 Number of People with Radios: 30,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 1 Number of People with Televisions: 30,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 25,300 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 32,200
Internet Service Providers: 8,851 Internet Users: 38,000
Internet Country Code: .gl Newspapers: 0
Two Letter Country Code: GL Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: 299 Electricity Voltage: 220 Volts
Telephone Systems: general assessment: adequate domestic and international service provided by satellite, cables and microwave radio relay; totally digitalized in 1995 domestic: microwave radio relay and satellite international: country code - 299; satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 2 Americom GE-2 (all Atlantic Ocean)
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Highways: 60 km Railways: 0 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 0 km Waterways: 0 km
Airports: 9 Heliports: 0
Motor Vehicles: 0 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 0 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 0.00 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
Merchant Marines: total: 3 ships (1000 GRT or over) 5,540 GRT/2,540 DWT by type: cargo 1, passenger 2 registered in other countries: 2 (Cyprus 1, Denmark 1)
Ports and Harbors: Sisimiut
  Greenland Facts |  Greenland Information | Greenland Statistics  
Population: 56,361 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 15.93 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 0.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 7.84 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: -0.03% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 2.40 babies born per woman
Population Male 0-14: 7,072 Population Female 0-14: 6,740
Population Male 15-64: 20,904 Population Female 15-64: 17,919
Population Male 65+: 1,768 Population Female 65+: 1,958
Population 0-14: 24.50% Literacy Rate: 100.00%
Population 15-64: 68.90% Literacy rate of Males: 100.00%
Population 65+: 6.60% Literacy rate of Females: 100.00%
Population that is Male: 51.00 % Population that is Female: 49.00%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 69.94 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 15.40 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 66.36 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 73.60 years
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.00% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 100
Number of people who died of AIDS: 0
Disease Risk:
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: -8.37
Nationality: GREENLANDIC
Ethnic Groups: Greenlander 88% (Inuit and Greenland-born whites), Danish and others 12% 
Primary Language: Greenlandic (East Inuit)
Other Languages: Greenlandic (East Inuit), Danish, English
Primary Religion: Evangelical Lutheran
Other Religions: Evangelical Lutheran
  Greenland Facts |  Greenland Information | Greenland Statistics  
Branches: defense is the responsibility of Denmark
Manpower Fit to Serve: NA years
Manpower Available: 14,653 People
Manpower Fit to Serve: 10,199 People
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 440 People per year
Expenditures: $0 USD per year
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 0.00
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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