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Guatemala Facts

Guatemala Facts | Republic of Guatemala Information | Guatemala Statistics | Guatemala

Guatemala Facts |  Republic of Guatemala Information | Guatemala Statistics Guatemala Facts |  Republic of Guatemala Information | Guatemala Statistics
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Guatemala Facts |  Republic of Guatemala Information | Guatemala Statistics Guatemala Facts |  Republic of Guatemala Information | Guatemala Statistics
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 GUATEMALAN POLITICAL
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Background: The Maya civilization flourished in Guatemala and surrounding regions during the first millennium A.D. After almost three centuries as a Spanish colony, Guatemala won its independence in 1821. During the second half of the 20th century, it experienced a variety of military and civilian governments, as well as a 36-year guerrilla war. In 1996, the government signed a peace agreement formally ending the conflict, which had left more than 100,000 people dead and had created some 1 million refugees.
 
 
Common Name: Guatemala Local Official Name: Guatemala
Abbreviated Name: Republic of Guatemala Official Name: Republica de Guatemala
Official Script Name: Guatemala Local Common Name: Guatemala
Former Name: Guatemala Territory of: NA
 
Head of State: President Oscar Jose Rafael BERGER Perdomo
 
Government Type: constitutional democratic republic
 
Independence: 1821 September 15 (from Spain)
 
Constitution: 1985 May 31, effective 1986 January 14
 
National Holiday: Independence Day, 15 September
 
International Organization Participation: BCIE, CACM, FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM, OAS, ONUB, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIS, UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
 
Administrative Divisions: 22 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula, El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jalapa, Jutiapa, Peten, Quetzaltenango, Quiche, Retalhuleu, Sacatepequez, San Marcos, Santa Rosa, Solola, Suchitepequez, Totonicapan, Zacapa
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
 
Suffrage: 18 years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: President Oscar Jose Rafael BERGER Perdomo (since 14 January 2004); Vice President Eduardo STEIN Barillas (since 14 January 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Oscar Jose Rafael BERGER Perdomo (since 14 January 2004); Vice President Eduardo STEIN Barillas (since 14 January 2004) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 9 November 2003; runoff held 28 December 2003 (next to be held September 2007) election results: Oscar BERGER Perdomo elected president; percent of vote - Oscar BERGER Perdomo (GANA) 54.1%, Alvarado COLOM (UNE) 45.9% Legislative Branch: unicameral Congress of the Republic or Congreso de la Republica (158 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 9 November 2003 (next to be held September 2007) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - GANA 49, FRG 41, UNE 33, PAN 17, other 18 note: for the 9 November 2003 election, the number of congressional seats increased from 113 to 158 Judicial Branch: Constitutional Court or Corte de Constitutcionalidad is Guatemala's highest court (five judges are elected for concurrent five-year terms by Congress, each serving one year as president of the Constitutional Court; one is elected by Congress, one elected by the Supreme Court of Justice, one appointed by the president, one elected by Superior Counsel of Universidad San Carlos de Guatemala, and one by Colegio de Abogados); Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (13 members serve concurrent five-year terms and elect a president of the Court each year from among their number; the president of the Supreme Court of Justice also supervises trial judges around the country, who are named to five-year terms)
 
Party Leaders: Authentic Integral Development or DIA [Eduardo SUGER]; Grand National Alliance or GANA (an alliance of smaller parties) [Alfredo VILA Giron, secretary general]; Green Party or LOV [Rodolfo ROSALES Garcis-Salaz]; Guatemalan Christian Democracy or DCG [Vinicio CEREZO Arevalo]; Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity or URNG [Alba ESTELA Maldonado, secretary general]; Guatemalan Republican Front or FRG [Efrain RIOS Montt]; Movement for Guatemalan Unity or MGU [Jacobo ARBENZ Villanueva]; Movement for Principals and Values or MPV [Francisco BIANCHI]; National Advancement Party or PAN [Leonel LOPEZ Rodas, secretary general]; National Unity for Hope or UNE [Alvarado COLOM Caballeros]; New Nation Alliance or ANN (formed by an alliance of DIA, URNG, and several splinter groups most of whom subsequently defected) [led by three co-equal partners - Nineth Varenca MONTENEGRO Cottom, Rodolfo BAUER Paiz, and Jorge Antonio BALSELLS TUT]; Patriot Party or PP [Ret. Gen. Otto PEREZ Molina]; Progressive Liberator Party or PLP [Acisclo VALLADARES Molina]; Reform Movement or MR [Alfredo SKINNER-KLEE, secretary general]; Unionista Party
 
International Disputes: Guatemalan squatters continue to settle in the rain forests of Belize's border region; Organization of American States (OAS) is attempting to revive the 2002 failed Differendum that created a small adjustment to land boundary, a Guatemalan maritime corridor in Caribbean, a joint ecological park for the disputed Sapodilla Cays, and a substantial US-UK financial package; Guatemalans enter Mexico illegally seeking work or transit to the US
 
Illicit Drugs: major transit country for cocaine and heroin; in 2004, reemerged as a potential source of opium, growing 330 hectares of opium poppy, with potential pure heroin production of 1.4 metric tons; 76% of opium poppy cultivation in western highlands along Mexican border; marijuana cultivation for mostly domestic consumption; proximity to Mexico makes Guatemala a major staging area for drugs (particularly for cocaine); money laundering is a serious problem; corruption is a major problem 
 
 
 GUATEMALAN GEOGRAPHY
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Location of Guatemala: Central America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between El Salvador and Mexico, and bordering the Gulf of Honduras (Caribbean Sea) between Honduras and Belize
 
Continent: South America Land Area Total: 108,890 sq km 
Region: Central America Land Area Land: 108,430 sq km
Capitol City: Guatemala Land Area Water: 460 sq km
      
Latitude: 015 30 N Border Boundary Land: 1,687 km
Longitude: 090 15 W Border Boundary Coastline: 400 km 
  
Arable Land: 13.22 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 5.60 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 4,211 m Location: Volcan Tajumulco
Lowest Elevation: 0 m Location: Pacific Ocean
  
Largest City in Guatemala: Guatemala City Guatemala City Largest City Population: 3,119,000
  
Threatened Species: 106
 
Environmental Issues: deforestation in the Peten rainforest; soil erosion; water pollution
 
Environmental Agreements: party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol
 
Irrigated Land: 1,300
 
Bordering Countries: Belize 266 km, El Salvador 203 km, Honduras 256 km, Mexico
 
Natural Resources: petroleum, nickel, rare woods, fish, chicle, hydropower
 
Geographical Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow coastal plains and rolling limestone plateau
 
Comparative Area of Guatemala: slightly smaller than Tennessee
 
Guatemala's Geography: no natural harbors on west coast
 

 GUATEMALAN CLIMATE
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General Climate: tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands
 
Natural Hazards: numerous volcanoes in mountains, with occasional violent earthquakes; Caribbean coast extremely susceptible to hurricanes and other tropical storms
 
 
 GUATEMALAN ECONOMY
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Economic Overview: Guatemala is the largest and most populous of the Central American countries with a GDP per capita roughly one-half that of Brazil, Argentina, and Chile. The agricultural sector accounts for about one-fourth of GDP, two-thirds of exports, and half of the labor force. Coffee, sugar, and bananas are the main products. The 1996 signing of peace accords, which ended 36 years of civil war, removed a major obstacle to foreign investment, but widespread political violence and corruption scandals continue to dampen investor confidence. The distribution of income remains highly unequal with perhaps 75% of the population below the poverty line. Other ongoing challenges include increasing government revenues, negotiating further assistance from international donors, upgrading both government and private financial operations, curtailing drug trafficking, and narrowing the trade deficit.
 
 
GDP: $56,860,000,000 USD Currency: quetzal, US dollar, others allowed
GDP per Capita: $4,700 USD Currency Code: GTQ;
GDP Growth Rate: 3.20 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: quetzales per US dollar - 7.6339 (2005), 7.9465 (2004), 7.9409 (2003), 7.8217 (2002), 7.8586 (2001)
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 22.70 % GDP of Industry: 18.80 %
GDP of Services: 58.50 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 9.10 % Population in Poverty: 75.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 7.50 % Tourism: 823,000.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 1.60 % Budget Revenue in USD: $3,374,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 46.00 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $4,041,000,000 USD
   
Electricity Production: 6,898,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 425,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 6,025,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 35,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 50.35% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 44.54% Other Electricity Production: 5.11%
   
Oil Production: 22,300 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 0 cu m
Oil Consumption: 66,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 0 cu m
Oil Exports: 3,104 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 263,000,000 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 3,087,000,000 cu m
   
External Debt: $5,503,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $250,000,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
   
Agricultural Products: sugarcane, corn, bananas, coffee, beans, cardamom; cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens
 
Primary Industries: sugar, textiles and clothing, furniture, chemicals, petroleum, metals, rubber, tourism
 
Industrial Growth Rate: 4.10 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $7,744,000,000 USD - fuels, machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, grain, fertilizers, electricity
 
Import Partners: US 38.1%, Mexico 7.6%, El Salvador 4.8%, South Korea 4.8%, Panama 4.4%
 
Export Amount in USD: $3,940,000,000 USD - coffee, sugar, petroleum, apparel, bananas, fruits and vegetables, cardamom
 
Export Partners: US 50.1%, El Salvador 12.1%, Honduras 7.3%, Mexico 4%
 
    
GINI Index: 48.30%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 3,760,000
 
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture 50%, industry 15%, services 35%
 
  
 GUATEMALAN COMMUNICATIONS
  Guatemala Facts |  Republic of Guatemala Information | Guatemala Statistics  
 
Radio Broadcast Stations: 632 Number of People with Radios: 835,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 26 Number of People with Televisions: 1,323,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 1,132,100 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 3,168,300
 
Internet Service Providers: 49,026 Internet Users: 756,000
 
Internet Country Code: .gt Newspapers: 33
Two Letter Country Code: GT Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: 502 Electricity Voltage: 120 Volts
  
Telephone Systems: general assessment: fairly modern network centered in the city of Guatemala domestic: NA international: country code - 502; connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
 
  
 GUATEMALAN TRANSPORTATION
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Highways: 4,863 km Railways: 886 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 480 km Waterways: 990 km
Airports: 11 Heliports: 0
 
Motor Vehicles: 62 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 7,684,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 0.70 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: NA
 
Ports and Harbors: Puerto Quetzal, Santo Tomas de Castilla
 
  
 GUATEMALAN PEOPLE
  Guatemala Facts |  Republic of Guatemala Information | Guatemala Statistics  
 
Population: 12,293,545 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 29.88 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 113.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 5.20 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 2.27% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 3.82 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 2,573,359 Population Female 0-14: 2,479,098
Population Male 15-64: 3,353,630 Population Female 15-64: 3,468,184
Population Male 65+: 194,784 Population Female 65+: 224,490
 
Population 0-14: 41.10% Literacy Rate: 70.60%
Population 15-64: 55.50% Literacy rate of Males: 78.00%
Population 65+: 3.40% Literacy rate of Females: 63.30%
 
Population that is Male: 52.50 % Population that is Female: 47.50%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 69.38 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 30.94 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 67.65 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 71.18 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 1.10% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 78,000
Number of people who died of AIDS: 5,800
   
Disease Risk:
 
Diseases:
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: -1.94
 
Nationality: GUATEMALAN
 
Ethnic Groups: Mestizo (mixed Amerindian-Spanish or assimilated Amerindian - in local Spanish called Ladino), approximately 55%, Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian, approximately 43%, whites and others 2% 
 
  
Primary Language: Spanish
 
Other Languages: Spanish 60%, Amerindian languages 40% (23 officially recognized Amerindian languages, including Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi, Mam, Garifuna, and Xinca)
 
 
Primary Religion: Roman Catholic
 
Other Religions: Roman Catholic, Protestant, indigenous Mayan beliefs
 
  
 GUATEMALAN MILITARY
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Branches: Army, Navy (includes marines), Air Force
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years
 
Manpower Available: 4,932,515 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 3,982,218 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 264,673 People per year
 
Expenditures: $0 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 0.50
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
 GUATEMALAN RESOURCES
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