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Haiti Facts

Haiti Facts | Republic of Haiti Information | Haiti Statistics | Haiti

Haiti Facts |  Republic of Haiti Information | Haiti Statistics Haiti Facts |  Republic of Haiti Information | Haiti Statistics
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Haiti Facts |  Republic of Haiti Information | Haiti Statistics Haiti Facts |  Republic of Haiti Information | Haiti Statistics
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 HAITIAN POLITICAL
  Haiti Facts |  Republic of Haiti Information | Haiti Statistics  
Background: The native Taino Amerindians - who inhabited the island of Hispaniola when it was discovered by COLUMBUS in 1492 - were virtually annihilated by Spanish settlers within 25 years. In the early 17th century, the French established a presence on Hispaniola, and in 1697, Spain ceded to the French the western third of the island, which later became Haiti. The French colony, based on forestry and sugar-related industries, became one of the wealthiest in the Caribbean, but only through the heavy importation of African slaves and considerable environmental degradation. In the late 18th century, Haiti's nearly half million slaves revolted under Toussaint L'OUVERTURE. After a prolonged struggle, Haiti became the first black republic to declare its independence in 1804. The poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti has been plagued by political violence for most of its history. After an armed rebellion led to the departure of President Jean-Betrand ARISTIDE in February 2004, an interim government took office to organize new elections under the auspices of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH). Continued violence and technical delays have prompted repeated postponements, and Haiti missed the constitutionally-mandated presidential inauguration date of 7 February 2006.
 
 
Common Name: Haiti Local Official Name: Haiti/Ayiti
Abbreviated Name: Republic of Haiti Official Name: Republique d'Haiti/Repiblik d' Ayiti
Official Script Name: Haiti Local Common Name: Haiti
Former Name: Haiti Territory of: NA
 
Head of State: President Rene PREVAL
 
Government Type: elected government
 
Independence: 1804 January 1 (from France)
 
Constitution: approved March 1987; suspended June 1988 with most articles reinstated March 1989; constitutional government ousted in a military coup in September 1991, although in October 1991, military government claimed to be observing the constitution; returned to c
 
National Holiday: Independence Day, 1 January
 
International Organization Participation: ACCT, ACP, Caricom, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, MIGA, OAS, OIF, OPANAL, OPCW (signatory), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
 
Administrative Divisions: 10 departments (departements, singular - departement); Artibonite, Centre, Grand 'Anse, Nippes, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: based on Roman civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
 
Suffrage: 18 years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: President Rene PREVAL (since 14 May 2006) head of government: Prime Minister Jacques-Edouard ALEXIS (since 30 May 2006) cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 7 February 2006 (next to be held in 2011); prime minister appointed by the president, ratified by the National Assembly election results: Rene PREVAL elected president; percent of vote - Rene PREVAL 51% Legislative Branch: bicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale consists of the Senate (30 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms; one-third elected every two years) and the Chamber of Deputies (99 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); note - in reestablishing the Senate, the candidate in each department receiving the most votes in the last election serves six years, the candidate with the second most votes serves four years, and the candidate with the third most votes serves two years elections: Senate - last held 21 April 2006, run-off elections to be determined (next regular election, for one third of seats, to be held in 2008); Chamber of Deputies - last held 21 April 2006, run-off elections to be determined (next regular election to be held in 2010) election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - L'ESPWA 11, OPL 4, FL 3, FUSION 3, LAAA 2, UNCRH 2, ALYANS 1, PONT 1, 3 seats subject to run-off election; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - L'ESPWA 19, FUSION 15, ALYANS 10, OPL 8, FL 6, UNCRH 6, MPH 4, RDNP 4, LAAA 3,KONBA 3, FRN 1, MOCHRENHA 1, MRN 1, Tet-Ansanm 1, MIRN 1, JPDN 1, UNITE 1, PLH 1, 13 seats subject to run-off election Judicial Branch: Supreme Court or Cour de Cassation
 
Party Leaders: Artibonite in Action or LAAA [Youri LATORTUE]; Assembly of Progressive National Democrats or RDNP [Leslie MANIGAT]; Convention for Democratic Unity or KID [Evans PAUL]; Cooperative Action to Build Haiti or KONBA [Evans LESCOUFALIR]; Democratic Alliance or ALYANS (coalition composed of KID and PPRH) [Evans PAUL]; Effort and Solidarity to Create an Alternative for the People or ESKAMP [Joseph JASME]; For Us All or PONT [Jean-Marie CHERESTAL]; Front for Hope or L'ESPWA (alliance of ESKAMP, PLB, and grass-roots organizations Grand-Anse Resistance Committee, the Central Plateau Peasants' Group, and Kombit Sudest) [Rene PREVAL]; Grand Center Right Front coalition (composed of MDN, MRN, and PDCH) [Hubert de RONCERAY]; Haitian Christian Democratic Party or PDCH [Osner FEVRY and Marie-Denise CLAUDE]; Haitian Democratic and Reform Movement or MODEREH [Dany TOUSSAINT and Pierre Soncon PRINCE]; Heads Together or Tet-Ansanm [Dr. Gerard BLOT]; Independent Movement for National Reconciliation or MIRN [Luc FLEURINORD]; Justice for Peace and National Development or JPDN [Rigaud DUPLAN]; Fanmi Lavalas or FL [Rudy HERIVEAUX]; Liberal Party of Haiti or PLH [Gehy MICHEL]; Merging of Haitian Social Democratic Parties or FUSION or FPSDH (merged Ayiti Capable, Haitian National Revolutionary Party, and National Congress of Democratic Movements) [Serge GILLES]; Mobilization for Haiti's Development or MPH [Samir MOURRA]; Mobilization for National Development or MDN [Hubert de RONCERAY]; Movement for National Reconstruction or MRN [Jean Henold BUTEAU]; Movement for the Installation of Democracy in Haiti or MIDH [Marc BAZIN]; National Christian Union for the Reconstruction of Haiti or UNCRH [Marie Claude GERMAIN]; National Front for the Reconstruction of Haiti or FRN [Guy PHILIPPE]; New Christian Movement for a New Haiti or MOCHRENA [Luc MESADIEU]; Open the Gate Party or PLB [Anes LUBIN]; Popular Party for the Renewal of Haiti or PPRH [Claude ROMAIN and Daniel SUPPLICE]; Struggling People's Organization or OPL [Edgard LEBLANC]; Union for Haiti or UPH (coalition of MIDH and FL) [Marc BAZIN]; Union of Nationalist and Progressive Haitians or UNITE [Edouard FRANCISQUE]
 
International Disputes: since 2004, about 8,000 peacekeepers from the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) maintain civil order in Haiti; despite efforts to control illegal migration, Haitians fleeing economic privation and civil unrest continue to cross into the Dominican Republic and sail to neighboring countries; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa Island
 
Illicit Drugs: Caribbean transshipment point for cocaine en route to the US and Europe; substantial money-laundering activity; Colombian narcotics traffickers favor Haiti for illicit financial transactions; pervasive corruption 
 
 
 HAITIAN GEOGRAPHY
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Location of Haiti: Caribbean, western one-third of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of the Dominican Republic
 
Continent: North America Land Area Total: 27,750 sq km 
Region: Caribbean Land Area Land: 27,560 sq km
Capitol City: Port-au-Prince Land Area Water: 190 sq km
      
Latitude: 019 00 N Border Boundary Land: 360 km
Longitude: 072 25 W Border Boundary Coastline: 1,771 km 
  
Arable Land: 28.11 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 11.53 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 2,680 m Location: Chaine de la Selle
Lowest Elevation: 0 m Location: Caribbean Sea
  
Largest City in Haiti: Port-au-Prince Port-au-Prince Largest City Population: 1,699,000
  
Threatened Species: 69
 
Environmental Issues: extensive deforestation (much of the remaining forested land is being cleared for agriculture and used as fuel); soil erosion; inadequate supplies of potable water
 
Environmental Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban
 
Irrigated Land: 920
 
Bordering Countries: Dominican Republic 360 km
 
Natural Resources: bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble, hydropower
 
Geographical Terrain: mostly rough and mountainous
 
Comparative Area of Haiti: slightly smaller than Maryland
 
Haiti's Geography: shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)
 

 HAITIAN CLIMATE
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General Climate: tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds
 
Natural Hazards: lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; periodic droughts
 
 
 HAITIAN ECONOMY
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Economic Overview: In this poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, 80% of the population lives in abject poverty. Two-thirds of all Haitians depend on the agriculture sector, mainly small-scale subsistence farming, and remain vulnerable to damage from frequent natural disasters, exacerbated by the country's widespread deforestation. The economy grew 1.5% in 2005, the highest growth rate since 1999. Haiti suffers from rampant inflation, a lack of investment, and a severe trade deficit. In early 2005, Haiti paid its arrears to the World Bank, paving the way for reengagement with the Bank. The government is reliant on formal international economic assistance for fiscal sustainability. Remittances are the primary source of foreign exchange, equaling nearly a quarter of GDP in 2005.
 
 
GDP: $13,970,000,000 USD Currency: gourde
GDP per Capita: $1,700 USD Currency Code: HTG
GDP Growth Rate: 1.80 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: gourdes per US dollar - 40.449 (2005), 38.352 (2004), 42.367 (2003), 29.251 (2002), 24.429 (2001)
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 28.00 % GDP of Industry: 20.00 %
GDP of Services: 52.00 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 15.70 % Population in Poverty: 80.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 0.00 % Tourism: 143,000.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 0.00 % Budget Revenue in USD: $400,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 0.00 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $600,800,000 USD
   
Electricity Production: 546,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 0 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 507,800,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 0 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 68.97% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 31.03% Other Electricity Production: 0.00%
   
Oil Production: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 0 cu m
Oil Consumption: 11,800 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 0 cu m
Oil Exports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 0 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 0 cu m
   
External Debt: $1,313,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $153,000,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
   
Agricultural Products: coffee, mangoes, sugarcane, rice, corn, sorghum; wood
 
Primary Industries: sugar refining, flour milling, textiles, cement, light assembly industries based on imported parts
 
Industrial Growth Rate: 0.00 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $1,471,000 USD - food, manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, raw materials
 
Import Partners: US 49.3%, Netherlands Antilles 12%, Colombia 3.2%
 
Export Amount in USD: $390,700,000 USD - manufactures, coffee, oils, cocoa, mangoes
 
Export Partners: US 80.8%, Dominican Republic 6.9%, Canada 4%
 
    
GINI Index: 0.00%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 3,600,000
 
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture 66%, services 25%, industry 9%
 
  
 HAITIAN COMMUNICATIONS
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Radio Broadcast Stations: 67 Number of People with Radios: 415,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 2 Number of People with Televisions: 38,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 140,000 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 400,000
 
Internet Service Providers: 6 Internet Users: 500,000
 
Internet Country Code: .ht Newspapers: 3
Two Letter Country Code: HA Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: 509 Electricity Voltage: 110 Volts
  
Telephone Systems: general assessment: domestic facilities barely adequate; international facilities slightly better domestic: coaxial cable and microwave radio relay trunk service international: country code - 509; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
 
  
 HAITIAN TRANSPORTATION
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Highways: 1,011 km Railways: 0 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 0 km Waterways: 0 km
Airports: 4 Heliports: 0
 
Motor Vehicles: 19 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 1,473,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 0.20 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: NA
 
Ports and Harbors: Cap-Haitien
 
  
 HAITIAN PEOPLE
  Haiti Facts |  Republic of Haiti Information | Haiti Statistics  
 
Population: 8,308,504 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 36.44 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 300.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 12.17 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 2.30% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 4.90 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 1,770,523 Population Female 0-14: 1,749,853
Population Male 15-64: 2,201,957 Population Female 15-64: 2,301,886
Population Male 65+: 125,298 Population Female 65+: 158,987
 
Population 0-14: 42.40% Literacy Rate: 52.90%
Population 15-64: 54.20% Literacy rate of Males: 54.80%
Population 65+: 3.40% Literacy rate of Females: 51.20%
 
Population that is Male: 48.50 % Population that is Female: 51.50%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 53.23 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 71.65 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 51.89 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 54.60 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 5.60% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 280,000
Number of people who died of AIDS: 24,000
   
Disease Risk:
 
Diseases:
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: -1.31
 
Nationality: HAITIAN
 
Ethnic Groups: black 95%, mulatto and white 5% 
 
  
Primary Language: French
 
Other Languages: French (official), Creole (official)
 
 
Primary Religion: Roman Catholic
 
Other Religions: Roman Catholic 80%, Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%, Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%, other 1%), none 1%, other 3% note: roughly half of the population practices Voodoo
 
  
 HAITIAN MILITARY
  Haiti Facts |  Republic of Haiti Information | Haiti Statistics  
  
Branches: the regular Haitian Armed Forces (FAdH) - Army, Navy, and Air Force - have been demobilized but still exist on paper unless they are constitutionally abolished
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years
 
Manpower Available: 3,264,148 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 1,880,292 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 196,244 People per year
 
Expenditures: $0 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 0.90
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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