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Hungary Facts

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 HUNGARIAN POLITICAL
  Hungary Facts |  Republic of Hungary Information | Hungary Statistics  
Background: Hungary was part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under Communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. Under the leadership of Janos KADAR in 1968, Hungary began liberalizing its economy, introducing so-called "Goulash Communism." Hungary held its first multiparty elections in 1990 and initiated a free market economy. It joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004.
 
 
Common Name: Hungary Local Official Name: Magyarorszag
Abbreviated Name: Republic of Hungary Official Name: Magyar Koztarsasag
Official Script Name: Hungary Local Common Name: Hungary
Former Name: Hungary Territory of: NA
 
Head of State: Laszlo SOLYOM
 
Government Type: parliamentary democracy
 
Independence: 1001 (unification by King Stephen I)
 
Constitution: 1949 August 18, effective 20 August 1949; revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight;
 
National Holiday: St. Stephen's Day, 20 August
 
International Organization Participation: ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BIS, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU (new member), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
 
Administrative Divisions: 19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 22 urban counties (singular - megyei varos), and 1 capital city (fovaros) counties: Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Csongrad, Fejer, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Komarom-Esztergom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala urban counties: Bekescsaba, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Gyor, Hodmezovasarhely, Kaposvar, Kecskemet, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs, Salgotarjan, Sopron, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Szekszard, Szolnok, Szombathely, Tatabanya, Veszprem, Zalaegerszeg capital city: Budapest
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: rule of law based on Western model; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
 
Suffrage: 18 years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: Laszlo SOLYOM (since 5 August 2005) head of government: Prime Minister Ferenc GYURCSANY (since 29 September 2004) cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 6-7 June 2005 (next to be held by June 2010); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; election last held 29 September 2004 election results: Laszlo SOLYOM elected president by a simple majority in the third round of voting, 185 to 182; Ferenc GYURCSANY elected prime minister; result of legislative vote - 197 to 12 note: to be elected, the president must win two-thirds of legislative vote in the first two rounds or a simple majority in the third round Legislative Branch: unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (386 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a system of proportional and direct representation to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 9 and 23 April 2006 (next to be held April 2010) election results: percent of vote by party (5% or more of the vote required for parliamentary representation in the first round) - MSzP 43.2%, Fidesz-KDNP 42%, SzDSz 6.5%, MDF 5%, other 3.3%; seats by party - MSzP 190, Fidesz 141, KDNP 23, SzDSz 20, MDF 11, independent 1 Judicial Branch: Constitutional Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly for nine-year terms)
 
Party Leaders: Alliance of Free Democrats or SzDSz [Gabor KUNCZE]; Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Zsolt SEMJEN]; Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz [Viktor ORBAN, chairman]; Hungarian Democratic Forum or MDF [Ibolya DAVID]; Hungarian Socialist Party or MSzP [Istvan HILLER, chairman]
 
International Disputes: in 2004, Hungary amended the status law extending special social and cultural benefits - and voted down a referendum to extend dual citizenship - to ethnic Hungarians living in neighboring states, which have objected to such measures; consultations continue between Slovakia and Hungary over Hungary's completion of its portion the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Hungary must implement the strict Schengen border rules
 
Illicit Drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamine and methamphetamine; improving, but remains vulnerable to money laundering related to organized crime and drug trafficking 
 
 
 HUNGARIAN GEOGRAPHY
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Location of Hungary: Central Europe, northwest of Romania
 
Continent: Europe Land Area Total: 93,030 sq km 
Region: Eastern Europe Land Area Land: 92,340 sq km
Capitol City: Budapest Land Area Water: 690 sq km
      
Latitude: 047 00 N Border Boundary Land: 2,171 km
Longitude: 020 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 0 km 
  
Arable Land: 49.58 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 2.06 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 1,014 m Location: Kekes
Lowest Elevation: 78 m Location: Tisza River
  
Largest City in Hungary: Budapest Budapest Largest City Population: 1,836,000
  
Threatened Species: 52
 
Environmental Issues: the approximation of Hungary's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution with environmental requirements for EU accession will require large investments
 
Environmental Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
 
Irrigated Land: 2,300
 
Bordering Countries: Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km, Yugoslavia 151 km, Slovakia 677 km, Slovenia 102 km, Ukraine 103 km
 
Natural Resources: bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land
 
Geographical Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border
 
Comparative Area of Hungary: slightly smaller than Indiana
 
Hungary's Geography: landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions
 

 HUNGARIAN CLIMATE
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General Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
 
Natural Hazards: NA
 
 
 HUNGARIAN ECONOMY
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Economic Overview: Hungary has made the transition from a centrally planned to a market economy, with a per capita income one-half that of the Big Four European nations. Hungary continues to demonstrate strong economic growth and acceded to the EU in May 2004. The private sector accounts for over 80% of GDP. Foreign ownership of and investment in Hungarian firms are widespread, with cumulative foreign direct investment totaling more than $60 billion since 1989. Hungarian sovereign debt was upgraded in 2000 and together with the Czech Republic holds the highest rating among the Central European transition economies; however, ratings agencies have expressed concerns over Hungary's unsustainable budget and current account deficits. Inflation has declined from 14% in 1998 to 3.7% in 2005. Unemployment has persisted around the 6% level, but Hungary's labor force participation rate of 57% is one of the lowest in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Germany is by far Hungary's largest economic partner. Policy challenges include cutting the public sector deficit to 3% of GDP by 2008, from about 6.5% in 2005, and orchestrating an orderly interest rate reduction without sparking capital outflows.
 
 
GDP: $163,100,000,000 USD Currency: forint
GDP per Capita: $16,300 USD Currency Code: HUF
GDP Growth Rate: 4.40 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: forints per US dollar - 199.58 (2005), 202.75 (2004), 224.31 (2003), 257.89 (2002), 286.49 (2001)
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 3.70 % GDP of Industry: 31.20 %
GDP of Services: 65.10 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 3.60 % Population in Poverty: 8.60 %
Unemployment Rate: 7.20 % Tourism: 14,402,000.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 4.10 % Budget Revenue in USD: $51,400,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 20.50 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $58,340,000,000 USD
   
Electricity Production: 32,210,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 7,100,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 36,960,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 14,100,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 58.83% Nuclear Electricity Production: 40.29%
Hydro Electricity Production: 0.53% Other Electricity Production: 0.35%
   
Oil Production: 43,920 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 2,940,000,000 cu m
Oil Consumption: 134,100 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 14,580,000,000 cu m
Oil Exports: 47,180 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 4,000,000 cu m
Oil Imports: 136,600 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 9,587,000,000 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 110,700,000 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 34,260,000,000 cu m
   
External Debt: $66,220,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $4,200,000,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
   
Agricultural Products: wheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products
 
Primary Industries: mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles
 
Industrial Growth Rate: 7.30 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $64,830,000,000 USD - machinery and equipment 51.6%, other manufactures 35.7%, fuels and electricity 7.7%, food products 3.1%, raw materials 2.0%
 
Import Partners: Germany 27.2%, Russia 7.5%, China 7.2%, Austria 6.7%, Italy 4.9%, France 4.8%, Netherlands 4.3%
 
Export Amount in USD: $61,750,000,000 USD - machinery and equipment 61.1%, other manufactures 28.7%, food products 6.5%, raw materials 2%, fuels and electricity 1.6%
 
Export Partners: Germany 29.4%, Austria 5.9%, Italy 5.6%, France 5%, UK 4.7%
 
    
GINI Index: 24.40%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 4,180,000
 
Labor Force by Occupations: services 66.7%, industry 27.1%, agriculture 6.2%
 
  
 HUNGARIAN COMMUNICATIONS
  Hungary Facts |  Republic of Hungary Information | Hungary Statistics  
 
Radio Broadcast Stations: 77 Number of People with Radios: 7,010,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 35 Number of People with Televisions: 4,420,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 3,356,000 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 9,320,000
 
Internet Service Providers: 261,294 Internet Users: 3,050,000
 
Internet Country Code: .hu Newspapers: 465
Two Letter Country Code: HU Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: 36 Electricity Voltage: 230 Volts
  
Telephone Systems: general assessment: the telephone system has been modernized and is capable of satisfying all requests for telecommunication service domestic: the system is digitalized and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay; a program for fiber-optic subscriber connections was initiated in 1996; heavy use is made of mobile cellular telephones international: country code - 36; Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals
 
  
 HUNGARIAN TRANSPORTATION
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Highways: 70,050 km Railways: 7,937 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 5,591 km Waterways: 1,622 km
Airports: 20 Heliports: 5
 
Motor Vehicles: 260 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 57,601,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 5.70 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: NA
 
Ports and Harbors: Budapest, Dunaujvaros, Gyor-Gonyu, Csepel, Baja, Mohacs
 
  
 HUNGARIAN PEOPLE
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Population: 9,981,334 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 9.72 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 106.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 13.11 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: -0.25% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 1.32 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 799,163 Population Female 0-14: 755,389
Population Male 15-64: 3,403,375 Population Female 15-64: 3,505,640
Population Male 65+: 550,297 Population Female 65+: 967,470
 
Population 0-14: 15.60% Literacy Rate: 99.40%
Population 15-64: 69.20% Literacy rate of Males: 99.50%
Population 65+: 15.20% Literacy rate of Females: 99.30%
 
Population that is Male: 45.50 % Population that is Female: 54.50%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 72.66 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 8.39 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 68.45 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 77.14 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.10% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 2,800
Number of people who died of AIDS: 0
   
Disease Risk:
 
Diseases:
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: 0.86
 
Nationality: HUNGARIAN
 
Ethnic Groups: Hungarian 92.3%, Roma 1.9%, other or unknown 5.8% 
 
  
Primary Language: Hungarian
 
Other Languages: Hungarian 93.6%, other or unspecified 6.4%
 
 
Primary Religion: Roman Catholic
 
Other Religions: Roman Catholic 51.9%, Calvinist 15.9%, Lutheran 3%, Greek Catholic 2.6%, other Christian 1%, other or unspecified 11.1%, unaffiliated 14.5%
 
  
 HUNGARIAN MILITARY
  Hungary Facts |  Republic of Hungary Information | Hungary Statistics  
  
Branches: Ground Forces, Air Forces
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years
 
Manpower Available: 4,568,579 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 3,645,093 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 130,884 People per year
 
Expenditures: $1,080,000,000 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 1.75
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
 HUNGARIAN RESOURCES
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