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 INDIAN POLITICAL
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Background: The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world, dates back at least 5,000 years. Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated onto Indian lands about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. Arab incursions starting in the 8th century and Turkish in the 12th were followed by those of European traders, beginning in the late 15th century. By the 19th century, Britain had assumed political control of virtually all Indian lands. Indian armed forces in the British army played a vital role in both World Wars. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU brought independence in 1947. The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of India and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan. A third war between the two countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. Despite impressive gains in economic investment and output, India faces pressing problems such as the ongoing dispute with Pakistan over Kashmir, massive overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and ethnic and religious strife.
 
 
Common Name: India Local Official Name: India/Bharat
Abbreviated Name: Republic of India Official Name: Republic of India/Bharatiya Ganarajya
Official Script Name: India Local Common Name: India
Former Name: India Territory of: NA
 
Head of State: President Abdul KALAM
 
Government Type: federal republic
 
Independence: 1947 August 15 (from UK)
 
Constitution: 1950 January 26
 
National Holiday: Republic Day, 26 January
 
International Organization Participation: AfDB, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIMSTEC, BIS, C, CERN (observer), CP, EAS, FAO, G- 6, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), ONUB, OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMEE, UNMIS, UNMOVIC, UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
 
Administrative Divisions: 28 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: based on English common law; limited judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations; separate personal law codes apply to Muslims, Christians, and Hindus
 
Suffrage: 18 years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: President A.P.J. Abdul KALAM (since 26 July 2002); Vice President Bhairon Singh SHEKHAWAT (since 19 August 2002) Head of government: Prime Minister Manmohan SINGH (since 22 May 2004) Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister Elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and the legislatures of the states for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held July 2002 (next to be held 18 July 2007); vice president Elected by both houses of Parliament for a five-year term; election last held 12 August 2002 (next to be held August 2007); prime minister chosen by parliamentary members of the majority party following legislative elections; election last held April - May 2004 (next to be held May 2009) Election results: Abdul KALAM elected president; percent of electoral college vote - 89.6%; Bhairon Singh SHEKHAWAT elected vice president; percent of Parliament vote - 59.8% Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of the Council of States or Rajya Sabha (a body consisting of not more than 250 members, up to 12 of whom are appointed by the president, the remainder are chosen by the elected members of the state and territorial assemblies; members serve six-year terms) and the People's Assembly or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 elected by popular vote, 2 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) elections: People's Assembly - last held 20 April through 10 May 2004 (next must be held before May 2009) election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - INC 145, BJP 138, CPI(M) 43, SP 36, RJD 24, BSP 19, DMK 16, SS 12, BJD 11, CPI 10, NCP 9, JDU 8, SAD 8, PMK 6, TDP 5, TRS 5, JMM 5, LJSP 4, MDMK 4, independents 5, other 30 Judicial branch: Supreme Court (one chief justice and 25 associate justices are appointed by the president and remain in office until they reach the age of 65 or are removed for "proved misbehavior")
 
Party Leaders: note - India has dozens of national and regional political parties; only parties with four or more seats in the People's Assembly are listed; Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]; Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Lal Krishna ADVANI]; Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]; Communist Party of India or CPI [Ardhendu Bhushan BARDHAN]; Communist Party of India (Marxist) or CPI (M) [Prakash KARAT]; Dravida Munnetra Kazagham or DMK [M. KARUNANIDHI]; Eqtedar-e-Melli-Eslami (Naional Islamic Empowerment) [Ahmad Shah AHMADZAI]; Indian National Congress or INC [Sonia GANDHI]; Janata Dal (United) or JDU [George FERNANDEZ]; Jharkhand Mukti Morcha or JMM [Shibu SOREN]; Lok Jan Shakti Party or LJSP [Ram Vilas PASWAN]; Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or MDMK [VAIKO]; Nahzat-e-Faragir-e-Democracy Wa Taraqi-e-Afghanistan (Afghanistan's Democracy and Progress Movement) [Sher Mohammad BUZGAR]; Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]; Pattali Makkal Katchi or PMK [S. RAMADOSS]; Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Laloo Prasad YADAV]; Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV]; Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [Prakash Singh BADAL]; Shiv Sena or SS [Bal THACKERAY]; Telangana Rashtra Samithi or TRS [K. Chandrashekar RAO]; Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]
 
International Disputes: since China and India launched a security and foreign policy dialogue in 2005, consolidated discussions related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, Indian claims that China transferred missiles to Pakistan, and other matters continue; various talks and confidence-building measures have cautiously begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the October 2005 earthquake in the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); in 2004, India and Pakistan instituted a cease fire in Kashmir and in 2005, restored bus service across the highly militarized Line of Control; Pakistan has taken its dispute on the impact and benefits of India's building the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu and Kashmir to the World Bank for arbitration; UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; disputes persist with Pakistan over Indus River water sharing; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, in 2004, India and Pakistan resurveyed a portion of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch; Pakistani maps continue to show its Junagadh claim in Indian Gujarat State; discussions with Bangladesh remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary, to exchange 162 miniscule enclaves in both countries, to allocate divided villages, and to stop illegal cross-border trade, migration, violence, and transit of terrorists through the porous border; Bangladesh protests India's attempts to fence off high-traffic sections of the border; dispute with Bangladesh over New Moore/South Talpatty/Purbasha Island in the Bay of Bengal deters maritime boundary delimitation; India seeks cooperation from Bhutan and Burma to keep Indian Nagaland and Assam separatists from hiding in remote areas along the borders; Joint Border Committee with Nepal continues to demarcate minor disputed boundary sections; India maintains a strict border regime to keep out Maoist insurgents and control illegal cross-border activities from Nepal.
 
Illicit Drugs: world's largest producer of licit opium for the pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; transit point for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries; illicit producer of methaqualone; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the hawala system 
 
 
 INDIAN GEOGRAPHY
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Location of India: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan
 
Continent: Asia Land Area Total: 3,287,590 sq km 
Region: Central Asia Land Area Land: 2,973,190 sq km
Capitol City: New Delhi Land Area Water: 314,400 sq km
      
Latitude: 020 00 N Border Boundary Land: 14,103 km
Longitude: 077 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 7,000 km 
  
Arable Land: 48.83 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 2.80 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 8,598 m Location: Kanchenjunga
Lowest Elevation: 0 m Location: Indian Ocean
  
Largest City in India: Mumbai Mumbai Largest City Population: 17,482,000
  
Threatened Species: 482
 
Environmental Issues: deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources
 
Environmental Agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
Irrigated Land: 558,080
 
Bordering Countries: Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Burma 1,463 km, China 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km
 
Natural Resources: coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land
 
Geographical Terrain: upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north
 
Comparative Area of India: slightly more than one-third the size of the US
 
India's Geography: dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain in the world, lies on the border with Nepal
 

 INDIAN CLIMATE
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General Climate: varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
 
Natural Hazards: droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes
 
 
 INDIAN ECONOMY
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Economic Overview: ndia's diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of services. Services are the major source of economic growth, accounting for half of India's output with less than one quarter of its labor force. About three-fifths of the work-force is in agriculture, leading the UPA government to articulate an economic reform program that includes developing basic infrastructure to improve the lives of the rural poor and boost economic performance. Government controls on foreign trade and investment have been reduced in some areas, but high tariffs (averaging 20% on non-agricultural items in 2004) and limits on foreign direct investment are still in place. The government in 2005 liberalized investment in the civil aviation, telecom, and construction sectors. Privatization of government-owned industries essentially came to a halt in 2005, and continues to generate political debate; continued social, political, and economic rigidities hold back needed initiatives. The economy has posted an average growth rate of more than 7% in the decade since 1994, reducing poverty by about 10 percentage points. India achieved 7.6% GDP growth in 2005, significantly expanding manufacturing. India is capitalizing on its large numbers of well-educated people skilled in the English language to become a major exporter of software services and software workers. Despite strong growth, the World Bank and others worry about the combined state and federal budget deficit, running at approximately 9% of GDP; government borrowing has kept interest rates high. Economic deregulation would help attract additional foreign capital and lower interest rates. The huge and growing population is the fundamental social, economic, and environmental problem.
 
 
GDP: $3,611,000,000,000 USD Currency: Indian rupee
GDP per Capita: $3,300 USD Currency Code: INR
GDP Growth Rate: 7.60 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: Indian rupees per US dollar - 44.101 (2005), 45.317 (2004), 46.583 (2003), 48.61 (2002), 47.186 (2001)
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 18.60 % GDP of Industry: 27.60 %
GDP of Services: 53.80 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 4.20 % Population in Poverty: 25.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 8.99 % Tourism: 2,482,000.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 3.50 % Budget Revenue in USD: $111,200,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 33.50 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $135,800,000,000 USD
   
Electricity Production: 556,800,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 187,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 519,000,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 1,400,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 83.40% Nuclear Electricity Production: 2.57%
Hydro Electricity Production: 13.85% Other Electricity Production: 0.18%
   
Oil Production: 785,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 27,100,000,000 cu m
Oil Consumption: 2,320,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 27,100,000,000 cu m
Oil Exports: 350,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 2,090,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 5,700,000,000 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 853,500,000,000 cu m
   
External Debt: $125,500,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $2,900,000,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
   
Agricultural Products: rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry; fish
 
Primary Industries: textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software
 
Industrial Growth Rate: 7.90 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $113,100,000,000 USD - crude oil, machinery, gems, fertilizer, chemicals
 
Import Partners: China 7.2%, US 6.4%, Belgium 5.1%, Singapore 4.7%, Australia 4.2%, Germany 4.2%, UK 4.1%
 
Export Amount in USD: $76,230,000,000 USD - textile goods, gems and jewelry, engineering goods, chemicals, leather manufactures
 
Export Partners: US 18%, China 8.9%, UAE 8.4%, UK 4.7%, Hong Kong 4.2%
 
    
GINI Index: 32.50%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 496,400,000
 
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture 60%, services 23%, industry 17%
 
  
 INDIAN COMMUNICATIONS
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Radio Broadcast Stations: 312 Number of People with Radios: 116,000,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 562 Number of People with Televisions: 63,000,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 49,750,000 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 69,193,321
 
Internet Service Providers: 787,543 Internet Users: 50,600,000
 
Internet Country Code: .in Newspapers: 60
Two Letter Country Code: IN Weights and Measures: Metric
Phone Country Code: 91 Electricity Voltage: 240 Volts
  
Telephone Systems: General assessment: recent deregulation and liberalization of telecommunications laws and policies have prompted rapid change; local and long distance service provided throughout all regions of the country, with services primarily concentrated in the urban areas; steady improvement is taking place with the recent admission of private and private-public investors, but telephone density remains low at about seven for each 100 persons nationwide but only one per 100 persons in rural areas and a national waiting list of over 1.7 million; fastest growth is in cellular service with modest growth in fixed lines Domestic: expansion of domestic service, although still weak in rural areas, resulted from increased competition and dramatic reductions in price led in large part by wireless service; mobile cellular service (both CDMA and GSM) introduced in 1994 and organized nationwide into four metropolitan cities and 19 telecom circles each with about three private service providers and one state-owned service provider; in recent years significant trunk capacity added in the form of fiber-optic cable and one of the world's largest domestic satellite systems, the Indian National Satellite system (INSAT), with five satellites supporting 33,000 very small aperture terminals (VSAT) International: country code - 91; satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region); nine gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay), New Delhi, Kolkata (Calcutta), Chennai (Madras), Jalandhar, Kanpur, Gandhinagar, Hyderabad, and Ernakulam; 5 submarine cables, including Sea-Me-We-3 with landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay), Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) with landing site at Mumbai (Bombay), South Africa - Far East (SAFE) with landing site at Cochin, i2icn linking to Singapore with landing sites at Mumbai (Bombay) and Chennai (Madras), and Tata Indicom linking Singapore and Chennai (Madras), provide a significant increase in the bandwidth available for both voice and data traffic.
 
  
 INDIAN TRANSPORTATION
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Highways: 2,411,001 km Railways: 63,230 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 18,546 km Waterways: 14,500 km
Airports: 243 Heliports: 28
 
Motor Vehicles: 13 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 1,025,566,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 4.20 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: total: 316 ships (1000 GRT or over) 7,772,313 GRT/13,310,858 DWT by type: bulk carrier 96, cargo 72, chemical tanker 13, container 8, liquefied gas 17, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 10, petroleum tanker 96, roll on/roll off 1 foreign-owned: 10 (China 2, Hong Kong 1, UAE 6, UK 1) registered in other countries: 46 (Bahamas 1, Comoros 1, Cyprus 5, North Korea 1, Liberia 3, Malta 1, Mauritius 2, Panama 19, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 6, Singapore 5, Venezuela 1, unknown 1)
 
Ports and Harbors: Chennai, Haldia, Jawaharal Nehru, Kandla, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay), New Mangalore, Vishakhapatnam
 
  
 INDIAN PEOPLE
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Population: 1,095,351,995 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 22.01 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 324.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 8.18 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 1.38% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 2.73 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 173,478,760 Population Female 0-14: 163,852,827
Population Male 15-64: 363,876,219 Population Female 15-64: 340,181,764
Population Male 65+: 27,258,020 Population Female 65+: 26,704,405
 
Population 0-14: 30.80% Literacy Rate: 59.50%
Population 15-64: 64.30% Literacy rate of Males: 70.20%
Population 65+: 4.90% Literacy rate of Females: 48.30%
 
Population that is Male: 52.50 % Population that is Female: 47.50%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 64.71 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 54.63 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 63.90 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 65.57 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.90% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 5,100,000
Number of people who died of AIDS: 310,000
   
Disease Risk: High
 
Diseases: food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Japanese encephalitis are high risks in some locations animal contact disease: rabies
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: -0.07
 
Nationality: INDIAN
 
Ethnic Groups: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% 
 
  
Primary Language: English
 
Other Languages: English enjoys associate status but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marat
 
 
Primary Religion: Hindu
 
Other Religions: Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.1%
 
  
 INDIAN MILITARY
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Branches: Army, Navy (includes naval air arm), Air Force, Coast Guard, various security or paramilitary forces (includes Border Security Force, Assam Rifles, National Security Guards, Indo-Tibetan Border Police, Special Frontier Force, Central Reserve Police Force, Central Industrial Security Force, Railway Protection Force, and Defense Security Corps)
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 16 years
 
Manpower Available: 556,075,946 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 429,389,552 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 22,112,329 People per year
 
Expenditures: $19,040,000,000 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 2.50
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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