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Indonesia Facts

Indonesia Facts | Republic of Indonesia Information | Indonesia Statistics | Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies

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 INDONESIAN POLITICAL
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Background: The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; the islands were occupied by Japan from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence after Japan's surrender, but it required four years of intermittent negotiations, recurring hostilities, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to relinquish its colony. Indonesia is the world's largest archipelagic state and home to the world's largest Muslim population. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing financial sector reforms, stemming corruption, and holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations. Indonesia was the nation worst hit by the December 2004 tsunami, which particularly affected Aceh province causing over 100,000 deaths and over $4 billion in damage. An additional earthquake in March 2005 created heavy destruction on the island of Nias. Reconstruction in these areas may take up to a decade. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, but it continues to face a low intensity separatist guerilla movement in Papua.
 
 
Common Name: Indonesia Local Official Name: Indonesia
Abbreviated Name: Republic of Indonesia Official Name: Republik Indonesia
Official Script Name: Indonesia Local Common Name: Indonesia
Former Name: Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies Territory of: NA
 
Head of State: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO
 
Government Type: Republic
 
Independence: 1945 August 17 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December
 
Constitution: 1945 August (abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959; series of amemdments concluded in 2002)
 
National Holiday: Independence Day, 17 August
 
International Organization Participation: APEC, APT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, BIS, CP, EAS, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
 
Administrative Divisions: 30 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular - propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Irian Jaya Barat, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Kepulauan Riau, Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Papua, Riau, Sulawesi Barat, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Yogyakarta* note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, the 440 districts or regencies have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures and election codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
 
Suffrage: 17 years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: Chief of state: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004) and Vice President Muhammad Yusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004) and Vice President Muhammad Yusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president Elections: president and vice president were elected for five-year terms (eligible for a second term) by direct vote of the citizenry; last held 20 September 2004 (next to be held in 2009) Election results: Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO elected president receiving 60.6% of vote; MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri received 39.4% Legislative Branch: House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (550 seats; members elected to serve five-year terms); House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD), constitutionally mandated role includes providing legislative input to DPR on issues affecting regions; People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) has role in inaugurating and impeaching president and in amending constitution; consists of popularly-elected members in DPR and DPD; MPR does not formulate national policy Elections: last held 5 April 2004 (next to be held in 2009) Election results: percent of vote by party - Golkar 21.6%, PDI-P 18.5%, PKB 10.6%, PPP 8.2%, PD 7.5%, PKS 7.3%, PAN 6.4%, others 19.9%; seats by party - Golkar 128, PDI-P 109, PPP 58, PD 55, PAN 53, PKB 52, PKS 45, others 50 note: because of election rules, the number of seats won does not always follow the percentage of votes received by parties Judicial Branch: Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (justices appointed by the president from a list of candidates approved by the legislature); a separate Constitutional Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi was invested by the president on 16 August 2003; in March 2004 the Supreme Court assumed administrative and financial responsibility for the lower court system from the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights; Labor Court under supervision of Supreme Court began functioning in January 2006
 
Party Leaders: Crescent Moon and Star Party or PBB [Yusril Ihza MAHENDRA]; Democratic Party or PD [Subur BUDHISANTOSO]; Functional Groups Party or Golkar [Yusuf KALLA]; Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]; National Awakening Party or PKB [Alwi SHIHAB]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Sutrisno BACHIR]; Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Tifatul SEMBIRING]; United Development Party or PPP [Hamzah HAZ]
 
International Disputes: East Timor-Indonesia Boundary Committee continues to meet, survey, and delimit land boundary, but several sections of the boundary remain unresolved; many East Timorese refugees who left in 2003 still reside in Indonesia and refuse repatriation; Indonesia and East Timor contest the sovereignty of the uninhabited coral island of Pulau Batek/Fatu Sinai, which hinders a decision on a northern maritime boundary; a 1997 treaty between Indonesia and Australia settled some parts of their maritime boundary but outstanding issues remain; ICJ's award of Sipadan and Ligitan islands to Malaysia in 2002 left maritime boundary in the hydrocarbon-rich Celebes Sea in dispute, culminating in hostile confrontations in March 2005 over concessions to the Ambalat oil block; the ICJ decision has prompted Indonesia to assert claims to and to establish a presence on its smaller outer islands; Indonesia and Singapore pledged in 2005 to finalize their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait
 
Illicit Drugs: illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; producer of methamphetamine and ecstasy 
 
 
 INDONESIAN GEOGRAPHY
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Location of Indonesia: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
 
Continent: Asia Land Area Total: 1,919,440 sq km 
Region: South East Asia Land Area Land: 1,826,440 sq km
Capitol City: Jakarta Land Area Water: 93,000 sq km
      
Latitude: 005 00 S Border Boundary Land: 2,830 km
Longitude: 120 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 54,716 km 
  
Arable Land: 11.03 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 7.04 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 5,030 m Location: Puncak Jaya
Lowest Elevation: 0 m Location: Indian Ocean
  
Largest City in Indonesia: Jakarta Jakarta Largest City Population: 10,621,000
  
Threatened Species: 794
 
Environmental Issues: deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
 
Environmental Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
 
Irrigated Land: 45,000
 
Bordering Countries: East Timor 228 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km
 
Natural Resources: petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
 
Geographical Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
 
Comparative Area of Indonesia: slightly less than three times the size of Texas
 
Indonesia's Geography: archipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean
 

 INDONESIAN CLIMATE
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General Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
 
Natural Hazards: occasional floods, severe droughts, tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanoes, forest fires
 
 
 INDONESIAN ECONOMY
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Economic Overview: Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, has struggled to overcome the Asian financial crisis, and still grapples with high unemployment, a fragile banking sector, endemic corruption, inadequate infrastructure, a poor investment climate, and unequal resource distribution among regions. Indonesia became a net oil importer in 2004 because of declining production and lack of new exploration investment. The cost of subsidizing domestic fuel placed increasing strain on the budget in 2005, and combined with indecisive monetary policy, contributed to a run on the currency in August, prompting the government to enact a 126% average fuel price hike in October. The resulting inflation and interest rate hikes will dampen growth prospects in 2006. Keys to future growth remain internal reform, building up the confidence of international and domestic investors, and strong global economic growth. In late December 2004, the Indian Ocean tsunami took 131,000 lives with another 37,000 missing, left some 570,000 displaced persons, and caused an estimated $4.5 billion in damages and losses. Terrorist incidents in 2005 have slowed tourist arrivals. Indonesia experienced several human cases of avian influenza in late 2005, sparking concerns of a pandemic.
 
 
GDP: $865,600,000,000 USD Currency: Indonesian rupiah
GDP per Capita: $3,600 USD Currency Code: IDR
GDP Growth Rate: 5.60 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: Indonesian rupiahs per US dollar - 9,704.7 (2005), 8,938.9 (2004), 8,577.1 (2003), 9,311.2 (2002), 10,260.9 (2001)
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 13.40 % GDP of Industry: 45.80 %
GDP of Services: 40.80 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 10.50 % Population in Poverty: 16.70 %
Unemployment Rate: 11.80 % Tourism: 4,728,000.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 3.60 % Budget Revenue in USD: $54,300,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 28.50 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $57,700,000,000 USD
   
Electricity Production: 120,200,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 0 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 105,400,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 0 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 81.02% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 14.04% Other Electricity Production: 4.94%
   
Oil Production: 1,061,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 83,400,000,000 cu m
Oil Consumption: 1,084,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 22,500,000,000 cu m
Oil Exports: 431,500 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 37,500,000,000 cu m
Oil Imports: 345,700 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 4,600,000,000 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 2,557,000,000,000 cu m
   
External Debt: $135,000,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $43,000,000,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
   
Agricultural Products: rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra; poultry, beef, pork, eggs
 
Primary Industries: petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourism
 
Industrial Growth Rate: 4.80 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $62,020,000,000 USD - machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
 
Import Partners: Singapore 16.4%, Japan 12%, China 10.1%, US 6.7%, Thailand 6%, South Korea 5%, Saudi Arabia 4.7%, Australia 4.4%
 
Export Amount in USD: $83,640,000,000 USD - oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber
 
Export Partners: Japan 21.1%, US 11.5%, Singapore 9.2%, South Korea 8.3%, China 7.8%, Malaysia 4%
 
    
GINI Index: 34.30%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 94,200,000
 
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture 46.5%, industry 11.8%, services 41.7%
 
  
 INDONESIAN COMMUNICATIONS
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Radio Broadcast Stations: 803 Number of People with Radios: 31,500,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 54 Number of People with Televisions: 13,750,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 9,990,000 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 30,000,000
 
Internet Service Providers: 134,735 Internet Users: 18,000,000
 
Internet Country Code: .id Newspapers: 23
Two Letter Country Code: ID Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: 62 Electricity Voltage: Volts
  
Telephone Systems: general assessment: domestic service fair, international service good domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system international: country code - 62; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)
 
  
 INDONESIAN TRANSPORTATION
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Highways: 213,649 km Railways: 6,458 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 4,664 km Waterways: 21,579 km
Airports: 159 Heliports: 23
 
Motor Vehicles: 25 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 238,541,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 1.20 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: total: 824 ships (1000 GRT or over) 3,773,771 GRT/4,887,614 DWT by type: bulk carrier 43, cargo 451, chemical tanker 21, container 50, liquefied gas 7, livestock carrier 1, passenger 41, passenger/cargo 58, petroleum tanker 132, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 12, specialized tanker 4, vehicle carrier 2 foreign-owned: 30 (France 1, Germany 1, Japan 3, South Korea 1, Norway 1, Philippines 1, Singapore 17, Switzerland 3, UK 2) registered in other countries: 122 (Bahamas 4, Belize 2, Bermuda 1, Cambodia 1, Georgia 1, Hong Kong 4, Liberia 1, Panama 50, Singapore 56, Thailand 1, unknown 1)
 
Ports and Harbors: Banjarmasin, Belawan, Ciwandan, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok
 
  
 INDONESIAN PEOPLE
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Population: 245,452,739 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 20.34 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 109.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 6.25 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 1.41% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 2.40 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 35,995,919 Population Female 0-14: 34,749,582
Population Male 15-64: 80,796,794 Population Female 15-64: 80,754,238
Population Male 65+: 5,737,473 Population Female 65+: 7,418,733
 
Population 0-14: 28.80% Literacy Rate: 87.90%
Population 15-64: 65.80% Literacy rate of Males: 92.50%
Population 65+: 5.40% Literacy rate of Females: 83.90%
 
Population that is Male: 52.50 % Population that is Female: 47.50%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 69.87 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 34.39 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 67.42 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 72.45 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.10% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 110,000
Number of people who died of AIDS: 2,400
   
Disease Risk: High
 
Diseases: food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and chikungunya are high risks in some locations note: at present, H5N1 avian influenza poses a minimal risk; during outbreaks among birds, rare cases could occur among US citizens who have close contact with infected birds or poultry
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: -0.21
 
Nationality: INDONESIAN
 
Ethnic Groups: Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other 26% 
 
  
Primary Language: Bahasa Indonesia
 
Other Languages: Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects, the most widely spoken of which is Javanese
 
 
Primary Religion: Muslim
 
Other Religions: Muslim 88%, Protestant 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other 1%
 
  
 INDONESIAN MILITARY
  Indonesia Facts |  Republic of Indonesia Information | Indonesia Statistics  
  
Branches: Indonesia Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-AD), Navy (TNI-AL, includes marines, naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-AU) note: the TNI is directly subordinate to the president but the government is making efforts to incorporate it into the Department of Defense
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years
 
Manpower Available: 120,524,758 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 98,940,145 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 4,340,620 People per year
 
Expenditures: $1,300,000,000 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 3.00
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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