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Iraq Facts

Iraq Facts | Republic of Iraq Information | Iraq Statistics | Iraq

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 IRAQI POLITICAL
  Iraq Facts |  Republic of Iraq Information | Iraq Statistics  
Background: Formerly part of the Ottoman Empire, Iraq was occupied by Britain during the course of World War I; in 1920, it was declared a League of Nations mandate under UK administration. In stages over the next dozen years, Iraq attained its independence as a kingdom in 1932. A "republic" was proclaimed in 1958, but in actuality a series of military strongmen ruled the country, the latest was SADDAM Husayn. Territorial disputes with Iran led to an inconclusive and costly eight-year war (1980-88). In August 1990, Iraq seized Kuwait, but was expelled by US-led, UN coalition forces during the Gulf War of January-February 1991. Following Kuwait's liberation, the UN Security Council (UNSC) required Iraq to scrap all weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles and to allow UN verification inspections. Continued Iraqi noncompliance with UNSC resolutions over a period of 12 years led to the US-led invasion of Iraq in March 2003 and the ouster of the SADDAM Husayn regime. Coalition forces remain in Iraq, helping to restore degraded infrastructure and facilitating the establishment of a freely elected government, while simultaneously dealing with a robust insurgency. The Coalition Provisional Authority, which temporarily administered Iraq after the invasion, transferred full governmental authority on 28 June 2004, to the Iraqi Interim Government (IG), which governed under the Transitional Administrative Law for Iraq (TAL). Under the TAL, elections for a 275-member Transitional National Assembly (TNA) were held in Iraq on 30 January 2005. Following these elections, the Iraqi Transitional Government (ITG) assumed office. The TNA was charged with drafting Iraq's permanent constitution, which was approved in a 15 October 2005 constitutional referendum. An election under the constitution for a 275-member Council of Representatives (CoR) was held in December 2005. The CoR approval in the selection of most of the cabinet ministers on 20 May 2006 marked the transition from the ITG to Iraq's full-term government.
 
 
Common Name: Iraq Local Official Name: Al Iraq
Abbreviated Name: Republic of Iraq Official Name: Al Jumhuriyah al Iraqiyah
Official Script Name: Iraq Local Common Name: Iraq
Former Name: Iraq Territory of: NA
 
Head of State: President Jalal TALABANI
 
Government Type: transitional democracy
 
Independence: 1932 October 3 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration); note - on 28 June 2004 the Coalition Provisional Authority transferred sovereignty to the Iraqi Interim Government
 
Constitution: 2005 October 15 (ratified)
 
National Holiday: Revolution Day, 17 July
 
International Organization Participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)
 
Administrative Divisions: 18 provinces (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At Ta'mim, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Karbala', Maysan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: based on European civil and Islamic law under the framework outlined in the Iraqi Constitution
 
Suffrage: 18 years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: President Jalal TALABANI (since 6 April 2005); Deputy Presidents Adil ABD AL-MAHDI and Tariq al-HASHIMI (since 22 April 2006); note - the president and deputy presidents comprise the Presidency Council) head of government: Prime Minister Nuri al-MALIKI (since 20 May 2006); Deputy Prime Ministers Barham SALIH and Salam al-ZUBAI (since 20 May 2006) cabinet: 37 ministers appointed by the Presidency Council, plus Prime Minister Nuri al-MALIKI, and Deputy Prime Ministers Barham SALIH and Salam al-ZUBAI elections: held 15 December 2005 to elect a 275-member Council of Representatives Legislative Branch: unicameral Council of Representatives or Mejlis Watani (consisting of 275 members elected by a closed-list, proportional-representation system) elections: held 15 December 2005 to elect a 275-member Council of Representatives that will finalize a permanent constitution election results: Council of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; number of seats by party - NA Judicial Branch: Supreme Court appointed by the Prime Minister, confirmed by the Presidency Council
 
Party Leaders: Al-Sadr Movement [Muqtada Al-SADR]; Assyrian Democratic Movement [Yunadim KANNA]; Conference of Iraqi People [Adnan al-DULAYMI]; Constitutional Monarchy Movement or CMM [Sharif Ali Bin al-HUSAYN]; Da'wa Party [Ibrahim al-JA'FARI]; Independent Iraqi Alliance or IIA [Falah al-NAQIB]; Iraqi Communist Party [Hamid al-MUSA]; Iraqi Hizballah [Karim Mahud al-MUHAMMADAWI]; Iraqi Independent Democrats or IID [Adnan PACHACHI, Mahdi al-HAFIZ]; Iraqi Islamic Party or IIP [Muhsin Abd al-HAMID, Hajim al-HASSANI]; Iraqi National Accord or INA [Ayad ALLAWI]; Iraqi National Congress or INC [Ahmad CHALABI]; Iraqi National Council for Dialogue or INCD [Khalaf Ulayan al-Khalifawi al-DULAYMI]; Iraqi National Unity Movement or INUM [Ahmad al-KUBAYSI, chairman]; Islamic Action Organization or IAO [Ayatollah Muhammad al-MUDARRISI]; Jama'at al Fadilah or JAF [Ayatollah Muhammad Ali al-YAQUBI]; Kurdistan Democratic Party or KDP [Masud BARZANI]; Muslim Ulama Council or MUC [Harith Sulayman al-DARI, secretary general]; National Iraqi Front [Salih al-MUTLAQ]; National Reconciliation and Liberation Party [Mishan al-JABBURI]; Patriotic Union of Kurdistan or PUK [Jalal TALABANI]; Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq or SCIRI [Abd al-Aziz al-HAKIM] note: the Kurdistan Alliance, Iraqi National List, Iraqi Consensus Front, Iraqi Front for National Dialogue, and United Iraqi Alliance were only electoral slates consisting of the representatives from the various Iraqi political parties
 
International Disputes: coalition forces assist Iraqis in monitoring boundary security; Iraq's lack of a maritime boundary with Iran prompts jurisdiction disputes beyond the mouth of the Shatt al Arab in the Persian Gulf; Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq
 
Illicit Drugs: NA 
 
 
 IRAQI GEOGRAPHY
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Location of Iraq: Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwait
 
Continent: Middle East Land Area Total: 437,072 sq km 
Region: Middle Eastern Land Area Land: 432,162 sq km
Capitol City: Baghdad Land Area Water: 4,910 sq km
      
Latitude: 033 00 N Border Boundary Land: 3,650 km
Longitude: 044 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 58 km 
  
Arable Land: 13.12 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 0.61 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 3,611 m Location: unnamed peak
Lowest Elevation: 0 m Location: Persian Gulf
  
Largest City in Iraq: Baghdad Baghdad Largest City Population: 4,689,000
  
Threatened Species: 29
 
Environmental Issues: government water control projects have drained most of the inhabited marsh areas east of An Nasiriyah by drying up or diverting the feeder streams and rivers; a once sizable population of Marsh Arabs, who inhabited these areas for thousands of years, has been displaced; furthermore, the destruction of the natural habitat poses serious threats to the area's wildlife populations; inadequate supplies of potable water; development of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers system contingent upon agreements with upstream riparian Turkey; air and water pollution; soil degradation (salination) and erosion; desertification
 
Environmental Agreements: party to: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
 
Irrigated Land: 35,250
 
Bordering Countries: Iran 1,458 km, Jordan 181 km, Kuwait 240 km, Saudi Arabia 814 km, Syria 605 km, Turkey 352 km
 
Natural Resources: petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur
 
Geographical Terrain: mostly broad plains; reedy marshes along Iranian border in south with large flooded areas; mountains along borders with Iran and Turkey
 
Comparative Area of Iraq: slightly more than twice the size of Idaho
 
Iraq's Geography: strategic location on Shatt al Arab waterway and at the head of the Persian Gulf
 

 IRAQI CLIMATE
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General Climate: mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows that melt in early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding in central and southern Iraq
 
Natural Hazards: dust storms, sandstorms, floods
 
 
 IRAQI ECONOMY
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Economic Overview: Iraq's economy is dominated by the oil sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. Iraq's seizure of Kuwait in August 1990, subsequent international economic sanctions, and damage from military action by an international coalition beginning in January 1991 drastically reduced economic activity. Although government policies supporting large military and internal security forces and allocating resources to key supporters of the regime hurt the economy, implementation of the UN's oil-for-food program, which began in December 1996, helped improve conditions for the average Iraqi citizen. Iraq was allowed to export limited amounts of oil in exchange for food, medicine, and some infrastructure spare parts. In December 1999, the UN Security Council authorized Iraq to export under the program as much oil as required to meet humanitarian needs. Per capita food imports increased significantly, while medical supplies and health care services steadily improved. Per capita output and living standards were still well below the pre-1991 level, but any estimates have a wide range of error. The military victory of the US-led coalition in March-April 2003 resulted in the shutdown of much of the central economic administrative structure. Although a comparatively small amount of capital plant was damaged during the hostilities, looting, insurgent attacks, and sabotage have undermined efforts to rebuild the economy. Attacks on key economic facilities - especially oil pipelines and infrastructure - have prevented Iraq from reaching projected export volumes, but total government revenues have been higher than anticipated due to high oil prices. Despite political uncertainty, Iraq has established the institutions needed to implement economic policy, has successfully concluded a three-stage debt reduction agreement with the Paris Club, and is working toward a Standby Arrangement with the IMF. The Standby Arrangement would clear the way for continued debt relief from the Paris Club.
 
 
GDP: $94,100,000,000 USD Currency: New Iraqi dinar
GDP per Capita: $1,800 USD Currency Code: NID
GDP Growth Rate: -3.00 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: New Iraqi dinars per US dollar - 1,475 (2005), 1,890 (second half, 2003), 0.3109 (2001)
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 7.30 % GDP of Industry: 66.60 %
GDP of Services: 26.10 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 33.00 % Population in Poverty: 0.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 30.00 % Tourism: 51,000.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 0.00 % Budget Revenue in USD: $19,300,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 0.00 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $24,000,000,000 USD
   
Electricity Production: 31,700,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 0 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 33,300,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 2,020,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 98.17% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 1.83% Other Electricity Production: 0.00%
   
Oil Production: 2,093,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 1,500,000,000 cu m
Oil Consumption: 351,500 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 0 cu m
Oil Exports: 1,420,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 112,500,000,000 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 3,115,000,000,000 cu m
   
External Debt: $92,330,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $33,000,000,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
   
Agricultural Products: wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, cotton; cattle, sheep, poultry
 
Primary Industries: petroleum, chemicals, textiles, leather, construction materials, food processing, fertilizer, metal fabrication/processing
 
Industrial Growth Rate: 0.00 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $19,570,000,000 USD - food, medicine, manufactures
 
Import Partners: Turkey 23.2%, Syria 23%, US 11.6%, Jordan 5.1%
 
Export Amount in USD: $17,780,000,000 USD - crude oil (83.9%), crude materials excluding fuels (8.0%), food and live animals (5.0%)
 
Export Partners: US 49.3%, Italy 10.3%, Spain 6.2%, Canada 5.6%
 
    
GINI Index: 0.00%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 2,147,483,647
 
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
 
  
 IRAQI COMMUNICATIONS
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Radio Broadcast Stations: 80 Number of People with Radios: 4,850,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 21 Number of People with Televisions: 1,750,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 1,034,200 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 574,000
 
Internet Service Providers: 4 Internet Users: 36,000
 
Internet Country Code: .iq Newspapers: 19
Two Letter Country Code: IZ Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: 964 Electricity Voltage: 230 Volts
  
Telephone Systems: general assessment: the 2003 war severely disrupted telecommunications throughout Iraq including international connections; USAID is overseeing the repair of switching capability and the construction of mobile and satellite communication facilities domestic: repairs to switches and lines destroyed during the 2003 war continue, but sabotage remains a problem; additional switching capacity is improving access; cellular service is available and centered on three regional GSM networks, improving country-wide connectivity international: country code - 964; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 1 Arabsat (inoperative); coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Jordan, Kuwait, Syria, and Turkey; despite a new satellite gateway, international calls outside of Baghdad remain problematic
 
  
 IRAQI TRANSPORTATION
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Highways: 38,399 km Railways: 2,200 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 8,500 km Waterways: 5,273 km
Airports: 77 Heliports: 8
 
Motor Vehicles: 50 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 91,294,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 4.30 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: total: 13 ships (1000 GRT or over) 67,796 GRT/101,317 DWT by type: cargo 11, petroleum tanker 2
 
Ports and Harbors: Al Basrah, Khawr az Zubayr, Umm Qasr
 
  
 IRAQI PEOPLE
  Iraq Facts |  Republic of Iraq Information | Iraq Statistics  
 
Population: 26,783,383 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 31.98 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 57.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 5.37 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 2.66% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 4.18 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 5,398,645 Population Female 0-14: 5,231,760
Population Male 15-64: 7,776,257 Population Female 15-64: 7,576,726
Population Male 65+: 376,700 Population Female 65+: 423,295
 
Population 0-14: 39.70% Literacy Rate: 40.40%
Population 15-64: 57.30% Literacy rate of Males: 55.90%
Population 65+: 3.00% Literacy rate of Females: 24.40%
 
Population that is Male: 51.00 % Population that is Female: 49.00%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 69.01 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 48.64 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 67.76 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 70.31 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.00% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 0
Number of people who died of AIDS: 0
   
Disease Risk:
 
Diseases:
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: 0.00
 
Nationality: IRAQI
 
Ethnic Groups: Arab 75%-80%, Kurdish 15%-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian or other 5% 
 
  
Primary Language: Arabic
 
Other Languages: Arabic, Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian
 
 
Primary Religion: Muslim
 
Other Religions: Muslim 97% (Shi'a 60%-65%, Sunni 32%-37%), Christian or other 3%
 
  
 IRAQI MILITARY
  Iraq Facts |  Republic of Iraq Information | Iraq Statistics  
  
Branches: Iraqi Armed Forces: Iraqi Regular Army (includes Iraqi Special Operations Force, Iraqi Intervention Force), Iraqi Navy (former Iraqi Coastal Defense Force), Iraqi Air Force (former Iraqi Army Air Corps)
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years
 
Manpower Available: 11,512,713 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 9,701,179 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 488,397 People per year
 
Expenditures: $0 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 0.00
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
 IRAQI RESOURCES
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