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Italy Facts

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 ITALIAN POLITICAL
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Background: Italy became a nation-state in 1861 when the regional states of the peninsula, along with Sardinia and Sicily, were united under King Victor EMMANUEL II. An era of parliamentary government came to a close in the early 1920s when Benito MUSSOLINI established a Fascist dictatorship. His disastrous alliance with Nazi Germany led to Italy's defeat in World War II. A democratic republic replaced the monarchy in 1946 and economic revival followed. Italy was a charter member of NATO and the European Economic Community (EEC). It has been at the forefront of European economic and political unification, joining the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999. Persistent problems include illegal immigration, organized crime, corruption, high unemployment, sluggish economic growth, and the low incomes and technical standards of southern Italy compared with the prosperous north.
 
 
Common Name: Italy Local Official Name: Italia
Abbreviated Name: Italian Republic Official Name: Repubblica Italiana
Official Script Name: Italy Local Common Name: Italy
Former Name: Kingdom of Italy Territory of: NA
 
Head of State: President Giorgio NAPOLITANO
 
Government Type: republic
 
Independence: 17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed; Italy was not finally unified until 1870)
 
Constitution: 1947 January 1
 
National Holiday: Republic Day, 2 June
 
International Organization Participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CDB, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
 
Administrative Divisions: 15 regions (regioni, singular - regione) and 5 autonomous regions* (regioni autonome, singular - regione autonoma); Abruzzo, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Friuli-Venezia Giulia*, Lazio, Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte, Puglia, Sardegna*, Sicilia*, Toscana, Trentino-Alto Adige*, Umbria, Valle d'Aosta*, Veneto
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: based on civil law system; appeals treated as new trials; judicial review under certain conditions in Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
 
Suffrage: 18 years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: President Giorgio NAPOLITANO (since 15 May 2006) head of government: Prime Minister (referred to in Italy as the president of the Council of Ministers) Romano PRODI (since 17 May 2006) cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and approved by the president elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of both houses of parliament and 58 regional representatives for a seven-year term (no term limits); election last held 10 May 2006 (next to be held May 2013); prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by parliament election results: Giorgio NAPOLITANO elected president on the fourth round of voting; electoral college vote - 543 Legislative Branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlamento consists of the Senate or Senato della Repubblica (315 seats; elected by proportional vote with the winning coalition in each region receiving 55% of seats from that region; members serve five-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera dei Deputati (630 seats; elected by popular vote with the winning national coalition receiving 54% of chamber seats; members serve five-year terms); note - electoral vote reform passed in December 2005 elections: Senate - last held 10 April 2006 (next to be held in 2011); Chamber of Deputies - last held 10 April 2006 (next to be held May 2011) election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - The Union 158 (DS 62, DL 39, RC 27, Together with the Union 11, other 19), House of Freedoms 154 (FI 79, AN 41, UDC 21, LEGA 13), other 3; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - The Union 348 (DS 220, RC 41, Rose in the Fist 18, Italy of Values 17, PdCI 16, Greens Federation 15, UDEUR 10, other 11), House of Freedoms 276 (FI 140, AN 71, Union of Christian and Center Democrats 39, LEGA 26), other 6 Judicial Branch: Constitutional Court or Corte Costituzionale (composed of 15 judges: one-third appointed by the president, one-third elected by parliament, one-third elected by the ordinary and administrative Supreme Courts)
 
Party Leaders: Center-Left Union Coalition [Romano PRODI]: Ulivo Alliance (including Democrats of the Left or DS [Piero FASSINO]; Daisy-Democracy is Freedom or DL [Francesco RUTELLI]); Rose in the Fist (including Italian Social Democrats or SDI [Enrico BOSELLI]; Italian Radical Party [Emma BONINO]); Italian Communist Party or PdCI [Oliviero DILIBERTO]; Green Federation [Alfonso PECORARO SCANIO]; Communist Renewal or RC [Fausto BERTINOTTI]; Italy of Values or IdV [Antonio DI PIETRO]; Union of Democrats for Europe or UDEUR [Clemente MASTELLA]; Republican European Movement or MRE [Luciana SBARBATI] Center-Right Freedom House Coalition [Silvio BERLUSCONI]: Forza Italia or FI [Silvio BERLUSCONI]; National Alliance or AN [Gianfranco FINI]; Union of Christian Democrats of the Center or UDC [Pier Ferdinando CASINI]; Northern League or LEGA [Umberto BOSSI]; Christian Democracy (Per la Autonomie) [Publio FIORI] other non-allied parties: New Italian Socialist Party or New PSI [Gianni DE MICHELIS]; Italian Republican Party or PRI [Giorgio LA MALFA]; Social Alternative [Alessandra MUSSOLINI]; Social Movement-Tricolor Flame or MSI-Fiamma [Luca ROMAGNOLI]; Social Idea Movement with Rauti or MIS [Pino RAUTI]; South Tyrol People's Party or SVP (German speakers) [Elmar Pichler ROLLE]; Union of Valley Aosta Region or UV [Guido CESAL]
 
International Disputes: Italy's long coastline and developed economy entices tens of thousands of illegal immigrants from southeastern Europe and northern Africa
 
Illicit Drugs: important gateway for and consumer of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market; money laundering by organized crime and from smuggling 
 
 
 ITALIAN GEOGRAPHY
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Location of Italy: Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia
 
Continent: Europe Land Area Total: 301,230 sq km 
Region: Southern Europe Land Area Land: 294,020 sq km
Capitol City: Rome Land Area Water: 7,210 sq km
      
Latitude: 042 50 N Border Boundary Land: 1,932 km
Longitude: 012 50 E Border Boundary Coastline: 7,600 km 
  
Arable Land: 26.41 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 9.09 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 4,748 m Location: Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) de Courmayeur
Lowest Elevation: 0 m Location: Mediterranean Sea
  
Largest City in Italy: Milan Milan Largest City Population: 4,242,000
  
Threatened Species: 104
 
Environmental Issues: air pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities
 
Environmental Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
 
Irrigated Land: 27,500
 
Bordering Countries: Austria 430 km, France 488 km, Holy See (Vatican City) 3.2 km, San Marino 39 km, Slovenia 232 km, Switzerland 740 km
 
Natural Resources: coal, mercury, zinc, potash, marble, barite, asbestos, pumice, fluorospar, feldspar, pyrite (sulfur), natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, arable land
 
Geographical Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands
 
Comparative Area of Italy: slightly larger than Arizona
 
Italy's Geography: strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe
 

 ITALIAN CLIMATE
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General Climate: predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in south
 
Natural Hazards: regional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venice
 
 
 ITALIAN ECONOMY
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Economic Overview: Italy has a diversified industrial economy with roughly the same total and per capita output as France and the UK. This capitalistic economy remains divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less-developed, welfare-dependent, agricultural south, with 20% unemployment. Most raw materials needed by industry and more than 75% of energy requirements are imported. Over the past decade, Italy has pursued a tight fiscal policy in order to meet the requirements of the Economic and Monetary Unions and has benefited from lower interest and inflation rates. The current government has enacted numerous short-term reforms aimed at improving competitiveness and long-term growth. Italy has moved slowly, however, on implementing needed structural reforms, such as lightening the high tax burden and overhauling Italy's rigid labor market and over-generous pension system, because of the current economic slowdown and opposition from labor unions. But the leadership faces a severe economic constraint: the budget deficit has breached the 3% EU ceiling. The economy experienced almost no growth in 2005, and unemployment remained at a high level.
 
 
GDP: $1,667,000,000,000 USD Currency: euro
GDP per Capita: $28,700 USD Currency Code: EUR
GDP Growth Rate: 0.10 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: euros per US dollar - 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001)
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 2.10 % GDP of Industry: 29.10 %
GDP of Services: 68.80 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 2.00 % Population in Poverty: 0.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 7.70 % Tourism: 36,516,000.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 2.10 % Budget Revenue in USD: $785,700,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 26.60 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $861,500,000,000 USD
   
Electricity Production: 270,100,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 500,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 302,200,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 51,500,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 80.01% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 17.07% Other Electricity Production: 2.92%
   
Oil Production: 136,200 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 13,550,000,000 cu m
Oil Consumption: 1,874,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 76,880,000,000 cu m
Oil Exports: 456,600 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 61,000,000 cu m
Oil Imports: 2,158,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 54,780,000,000 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 586,600,000 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 226,500,000,000 cu m
   
External Debt: $922,500,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $0 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $1,000,000,000 USD
   
Agricultural Products: fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain, olives; beef, dairy products; fish
 
Primary Industries: tourism, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics
 
Industrial Growth Rate: -1.00 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $369,200,000,000 USD - engineering products, chemicals, transport equipment, energy products, minerals and nonferrous metals, textiles and clothing; food, beverages, and tobacco
 
Import Partners: Germany 17.2%, France 9.9%, Netherlands 5.7%, China 4.6%, Belgium 4.5%, Spain 4.2%
 
Export Amount in USD: $371,900,000,000 USD - engineering products, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles, transport equipment, chemicals; food, beverages and tobacco; minerals, and nonferrous metals
 
Export Partners: Germany 13.1%, France 12.3%, US 8.1%, Spain 7.4%, UK 6.4%
 
    
GINI Index: 36.00%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 24,490,000
 
Labor Force by Occupations: services 63%, industry 32%, agriculture 5%
 
  
 ITALIAN COMMUNICATIONS
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Radio Broadcast Stations: 4,709 Number of People with Radios: 50,500,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 358 Number of People with Televisions: 30,300,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 25,049,000 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 72,200,000
 
Internet Service Providers: 1,246,253 Internet Users: 28,870,000
 
Internet Country Code: .it Newspapers: 104
Two Letter Country Code: IT Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: 39 Electricity Voltage: 230 Volts
  
Telephone Systems: general assessment: modern, well developed, fast; fully automated telephone, telex, and data services domestic: high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks international: country code - 39; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (with a total of 5 antennas - 3 for Atlantic Ocean and 2 for Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and NA Eutelsat; 21 submarine cables
 
  
 ITALIAN TRANSPORTATION
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Highways: 479,688 km Railways: 19,459 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 18,471 km Waterways: 2,400 km
Airports: 98 Heliports: 5
 
Motor Vehicles: 617 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 459,461,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 7.10 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: total: 591 ships (1000 GRT or over) 11,737,175 GRT/12,573,225 DWT by type: bulk carrier 52, cargo 45, chemical tanker 136, container 25, liquefied gas 37, livestock carrier 3, passenger 16, passenger/cargo 150, petroleum tanker 49, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 33, specialized tanker 13, vehicle carrier 28 foreign-owned: 36 (France 1, Greece 6, Spain 1, Taiwan 10, UK 3, US 15) registered in other countries: 152 (Bahamas 5, Belize 4, Cayman Islands 12, Cyprus 2, France 2, Germany 1, Gibraltar 6, Isle of Man 5, Jamaica 1, Liberia 16, Malta 29, Marshall Islands 1, Norway 4, Panama 15, Portugal 12, Romania 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 18, Singapore 2, Spain 2, Sweden 7, Turkey 3, UK 4)
 
Ports and Harbors: Augusta, Genoa, Livorno, Melilli Oil Terminal, Ravenna, Taranto, Trieste, Venice
 
  
 ITALIAN PEOPLE
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Population: 58,133,509 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 8.72 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 191.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 10.40 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 0.04% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 1.28 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 4,147,149 Population Female 0-14: 3,899,980
Population Male 15-64: 19,530,512 Population Female 15-64: 19,105,841
Population Male 65+: 4,771,858 Population Female 65+: 6,678,169
 
Population 0-14: 13.80% Literacy Rate: 98.60%
Population 15-64: 66.50% Literacy rate of Males: 99.00%
Population 65+: 19.70% Literacy rate of Females: 98.30%
 
Population that is Male: 48.00 % Population that is Female: 52.00%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 79.81 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 5.83 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 76.88 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 82.94 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.50% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 140,000
Number of people who died of AIDS: 0
   
Disease Risk:
 
Diseases:
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: 2.06
 
Nationality: ITALIAN
 
Ethnic Groups: Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south) 
 
  
Primary Language: Italian
 
Other Languages: Italian (official), German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area)
 
 
Primary Religion: Roman Catholic
 
Other Religions: approximately 90% Roman Catholic (about one-third regularly attend services); mature Protestant and Jewish communities and a growing Muslim immigrant community
 
  
 ITALIAN MILITARY
  Italy Facts |  Italian Republic Information | Italy Statistics  
  
Branches: Army (Esercito Italiano, EI), Navy (Marina Militare Italiana, MMI), Air Force (Aeronautica Militare Italiana, AMI), Carabinieri Corps (Corpo dei Carabinieri, CC)
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years
 
Manpower Available: 26,377,293 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 21,415,702 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 556,443 People per year
 
Expenditures: $0 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 1.80
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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