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Kazakhstan Facts

Kazakhstan Facts | Republic of Kazakhstan Information | Kazakhstan Statistics | Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic

Kazakhstan Facts |  Republic of Kazakhstan Information | Kazakhstan Statistics Kazakhstan Facts |  Republic of Kazakhstan Information | Kazakhstan Statistics
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Kazakhstan Facts |  Republic of Kazakhstan Information | Kazakhstan Statistics Kazakhstan Facts |  Republic of Kazakhstan Information | Kazakhstan Statistics
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  Kazakhstan Facts |  Republic of Kazakhstan Information | Kazakhstan Statistics  
Background: Native Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated into the region in the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936. During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural "Virgin Lands" program, Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures. This influx of immigrants (mostly Russians, but also some other deported nationalities) skewed the ethnic mixture and enabled non-Kazakhs to outnumber natives. Independence has caused many of these newcomers to emigrate. Current issues include: developing a cohesive national identity; expanding the development of the country's vast energy resources and exporting them to world markets; achieving a sustainable economic growth outside the oil, gas, and mining sectors; and strengthening relations with neighboring states and other foreign powers.
Common Name: Kazakhstan Local Official Name: Qazaqstan
Abbreviated Name: Republic of Kazakhstan Official Name: Qazaqstan Respublikasy
Official Script Name: Kazakhstan Local Common Name: Kazakhstan
Former Name: Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic Territory of: NA
Head of State: President Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV
Government Type: Republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
Independence: 1991 December 16(from the Soviet Union)
Constitution: first post-independence constitution adopted 28 January 1993; new constitution adopted by national referendum 30 August 1995
National Holiday: Independence Day, 16 December
International Organization Participation: AsDB, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)
Administrative Divisions: 14 provinces (oblystar, singular - oblys) and 3 cities* (qala, singular - qalasy); Almaty Oblysy, Almaty Qalasy*, Aqmola Oblysy (Astana), Aqtobe Oblysy, Astana Qalasy*, Atyrau Oblysy, Batys Qazaqstan Oblysy (Oral), Bayqongyr Qalasy*, Mangghystau Oblysy (Aqtau), Ongtustik Qazaqstan Oblysy (Shymkent), Pavlodar Oblysy, Qaraghandy Oblysy, Qostanay Oblysy, Qyzylorda Oblysy, Shyghys Qazaqstan Oblysy (Oskemen), Soltustik Qazaqstan Oblysy (Petropavlovsk), Zhambyl Oblysy (Taraz) Note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses); in 1995, the Governments of Kazakhstan and Russia entered into an agreement whereby Russia would lease for a period of 20 years an area of 6,000 sq km enclosing the Baykonur space launch facilities and the city of Bayqongyr (Baykonur, formerly Leninsk); in 2004, a new agreement extended the lease to 2050
Dependent Areas: NA
Legal System: based on civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: Chief of state: President Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV (chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 22 February 1990, elected president 1 December 1991) head of government: Prime Minister Daniyal AKHMETOV (since 13 June 2003); Deputy Prime Minister Karim MASIMOV (since 19 January 2006) Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president Elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (no term limits); election last held 4 December 2005 (next to be held in 2012); prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president Election results: Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV 91.1%, Zharmakhan A. TUYAKBAI 6.6%, Alikhan M. BAIMENOV 1.6% note: President NAZARBAYEV arranged a referendum in 1995 that extended his term of office and expanded his presidential powers: only he can initiate constitutional amendments, appoint and dismiss the government, dissolve Parliament, call referenda at his discretion, and appoint administrative heads of regions and cities Legislative Branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (39 seats; 7 senators are appointed by the president; other members are elected by local government bodies, 2 from each of the 14 oblasts, the capital of Astana, and the city of Almaty, to serve six-year terms; note - formerly composed of 47 seats) and the Mazhilis (77 seats; 10 out of the 77 Mazhilis members are elected from the winning party's lists; members are popularly elected to serve five-year terms) Elections: Senate - (indirect) last held December 2005; next to be held in 2011; Mazhilis - last held 19 September and 3 October 2004 (next to be held in September 2009) Election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; candidates nominated by local councils; Mazhilis - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Otan 42, AIST 11, ASAR (All Together) 4, Aq Zhol (Bright Path) 1, Democratic Party 1 (party refused to take the seat due to criticism of the election and seat remained unoccupied), independent 18; note - most independent candidates are affiliated with parastatal enterprises and other pro-government institutions Jidicaial Branch: Supreme Court (44 members); Constitutional Council (7 members)
Party Leaders: Agrarian and Industrial Union of Workers Bloc or AIST (comprised of the Agrarian Party and Civic Party); Agrarian Party [Romin MADINOV, chairman]; Aq Zhol Party (Bright Path) [Alikhan BAIMENOV, chairman]; AUL (Village) [Gani KALIYEV, chairman]; Civic Party [Azat PERUASHEV, first secretary]; Communist Party of Kazakhstan or KPK [Serikbolsyn ABDILDIN, first secretary]; Communist People's Party of Kazakhstan [Vladislav KOSAREV, first secretary]; Democratic Party of Kazakhstan [Maksut NARIKBAEV, chairman]; Otan-Asar [Bakhytzhan ZHUMAGULOV and Dariga NAZARBAYEVA, co-chairs]; Patriots' Party [Gani KASYMOV, chairman]; Rukhaniyat [Altynshash ZHAGANOVA, chairwoman]
International Disputes: In 2005, Kazakhstan agreed with Russia, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to commence demarcating their boundaries; delimitation with Kyrgyzstan is complete; creation of a seabed boundary with Turkmenistan in the Caspian Sea remains unresolved; equidistant seabed treaties have been ratified with Azerbaijan and Russia in the Caspian Sea, but no resolution has been made on dividing the water column among any of the littoral states
Illicit Drugs: Significant illicit cultivation of cannabis for CIS markets, as well as limited cultivation of opium poppy and ephedra (for the drug ephedrine); limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the rest of Europe. 
  Kazakhstan Facts |  Republic of Kazakhstan Information | Kazakhstan Statistics  
Location of Kazakhstan: Central Asia, northwest of China; a small portion west of the Ural River in eastern-most Europe
Continent: Asia Land Area Total: 2,717,300 sq km 
Region: Central Asia Land Area Land: 47,500 sq km
Capitol City: Astana Land Area Water: 2,669,800 sq km
Latitude: 048 00 N Border Boundary Land: 12,012 km
Longitude: 068 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 0 km 
Arable Land: 8.28 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 0.05 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
Highest Elevation: 6,995 m Location: Khan Tangiri Shyngy
Lowest Elevation: -132 m Location: Vpadina Kaundy
Largest City in Kazakhstan: Akmola Akmola Largest City Population: 303,000
Threatened Species: 47
Environmental Issues: Radioactive or toxic chemical sites associated with its former defense industries and test ranges throughout the country pose health risks for humans and animals; industrial pollution is severe in some cities; because the two main rivers which flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted for irrigation, it is drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust storms; pollution in the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals and salination from poor infrastructure and wasteful irrigation practices.
Environmental Agreements: Party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution Signed, but not Ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol.
Irrigated Land: 35,560
Bordering Countries: China 1,533 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,051 km, Russia 6,846 km, Turkmenistan 379 km, Uzbekistan 2,203 km
Natural Resources: major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium
Geographical Terrain: Extends from the Volga to the Altai Mountains and from the plains in western Siberia to oases and desert in Central Asia.
Comparative Area of Kazakhstan: slightly less than four times the size of Texas
Kazakhstan's Geography: Landlocked; Russia leases approximately 6,000 sq km of territory enclosing the Baykonur Cosmodrome; In January 2004, Kazakhstan and Russia extended the lease to 2050.

  Kazakhstan Facts |  Republic of Kazakhstan Information | Kazakhstan Statistics  
General Climate: continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid
Natural Hazards: earthquakes in the south, mudslides around Almaty
  Kazakhstan Facts |  Republic of Kazakhstan Information | Kazakhstan Statistics  
Economic Overview: Kazakhstan, the largest of the former Soviet republics in territory, excluding Russia, possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves and plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals. It also has a large agricultural sector featuring livestock and grain. Kazakhstan's industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these natural resources and also on a growing machine-building sector specializing in construction equipment, tractors, agricultural machinery, and some defense items. The breakup of the USSR in December 1991 and the collapse in demand for Kazakhstan's traditional heavy industry products resulted in a short-term contraction of the economy, with the steepest annual decline occurring in 1994. In 1995-97, the pace of the government program of economic reform and privatization quickened, resulting in a substantial shifting of assets into the private sector. Kazakhstan enjoyed double-digit growth in 2000-01 - 9% or more per year in 2002-05 - thanks largely to its booming energy sector, but also to economic reform, good harvests, and foreign investment. The opening of the Caspian Consortium pipeline in 2001, from western Kazakhstan's Tengiz oilfield to the Black Sea, substantially raised export capacity. Kazakhstan also has begun work on an ambitious cooperative construction effort with China to build an oil pipeline that will extend from the country's Caspian coast eastward to the Chinese border. The country has embarked upon an industrial policy designed to diversify the economy away from overdependence on the oil sector by developing light industry. The policy aims to reduce the influence of foreign investment and foreign personnel. The government has engaged in several disputes with foreign oil companies over the terms of production agreements; tensions continue. Upward pressure on the local currency continued in 2005 due to massive oil-related foreign-exchange inflows.
GDP: $124,300,000,000 USD Currency: tenge
GDP per Capita: $8,200 USD Currency Code: KZT
GDP Growth Rate: 9.20 %
Currency Exchange Rate History: tenge per US dollar - 132.88 (2005), 136.04 (2004), 149.58 (2003), 153.28 (2002), 146.74
GDP of Agriculture: 6.70 % GDP of Industry: 38.60 %
GDP of Services: 54.70 %  
Inflation Rate: 7.60 % Population in Poverty: 19.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 8.10 % Tourism: 0.00 visitors each year
Consumption by lowest 10%: 3.30 % Budget Revenue in USD: $12,190,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 26.50 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $12,440,000,000 USD
Electricity Production: 60,330,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 6,000,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 52,550,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 2,450,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 86.40% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 13.60% Other Electricity Production: 0.00%
Oil Production: 1,300,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 18,500,000,000 cu m
Oil Consumption: 221,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 15,200,000,000 cu m
Oil Exports: 890,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 4,100,000,000 cu m
Oil Imports: 47,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 26,000,000,000 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 3,000,000,000 cu m
External Debt: $41,660,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $74,200,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
Agricultural Products: grain (mostly spring wheat), cotton; livestock
Primary Industries: oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, iron and steel, tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials
Industrial Growth Rate: 4.60 %
Import Amount in USD: $17,510,000,000 USD - machinery and equipment 41%, metal products 28%, foodstuffs 8%
Import Partners: Russia 36.1%, China 21.5%, Germany 7.2%
Export Amount in USD: $30,090,000,000 USD - oil and oil products 58%, ferrous metals 24%, chemicals 5%, machinery 3%, grain, wool, meat, coal
Export Partners: Bermuda 12.8%, Russia 11.3%, Germany 11%, China 10.3%, Italy 8.1%, France 7.9%, US 4.1%
GINI Index: 61.50%
Labor Force Number of People: 7,850,000
Labor Force by Occupations: industry 30%, agriculture 20%, services 50%
  Kazakhstan Facts |  Republic of Kazakhstan Information | Kazakhstan Statistics  
Radio Broadcast Stations: 86 Number of People with Radios: 6,470,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 12 Number of People with Televisions: 3,880,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 2,500,000 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 2,758,900
Internet Service Providers: 20,327 Internet Users: 400,000
Internet Country Code: .kz Newspapers: 0
Two Letter Country Code: KZ Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: +7 Electricity Voltage: Volts
Telephone Systems: General assessment: service is poor; equipment antiquated Domestic: intercity by landline and microwave radio relay; mobile cellular systems are available in most of Kazakhstan International: country code - 7; international traffic with other former Soviet republics and China carried by landline and microwave radio relay and with other countries by satellite and by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat
  Kazakhstan Facts |  Republic of Kazakhstan Information | Kazakhstan Statistics  


Highways: 247,347 km Railways: 13,700 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 21,733 km Waterways: 4,000 km
Airports: 67 Heliports: 4
Motor Vehicles: 77 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 122,640,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 4.20 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
Merchant Marines: total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,064 GRT/646 DWT note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: United States 1 (2002 est.) ships by type: roll on/roll off 1
Ports and Harbors: Aqtau (Shevchenko), Atyrau (Gur'yev), Oskemen (Ust-Kamenogorsk), Pavlodar, Semey (Semipalatinsk)
  Kazakhstan Facts |  Republic of Kazakhstan Information | Kazakhstan Statistics  
Population: 15,233,244 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 16.00 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 6.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 9.42 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 0.33% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 1.89 babies born per woman
Population Male 0-14: 1,792,685 Population Female 0-14: 1,717,294
Population Male 15-64: 5,122,027 Population Female 15-64: 5,357,819
Population Male 65+: 438,541 Population Female 65+: 804,878
Population 0-14: 23.00% Literacy Rate: 98.40%
Population 15-64: 68.80% Literacy rate of Males: 99.10%
Population 65+: 8.20% Literacy rate of Females: 97.70%
Population that is Male: 53.00 % Population that is Female: 47.00%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 66.89 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 28.30 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 61.56 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 72.52 years
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.20% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 16,500
Number of people who died of AIDS: 0
Disease Risk:
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: -3.33
Nationality: KAZAKHSTANI
Ethnic Groups: Kazakh (Qazaq) 53.4%, Russian 30%, Ukrainian 3.7%, Uzbek 2.5%, German 2.4%, Tatar 1.7%, Uygur 1.4%, other 4.9% 
Primary Language: Kazakh (Qazaq, state language)
Other Languages: Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the "language of interethnic communication") 95%
Primary Religion: Muslim
Other Religions: Russian Orthodox 44%, Protestant 2%, other 7%
  Kazakhstan Facts |  Republic of Kazakhstan Information | Kazakhstan Statistics  
Branches: Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Naval Force, Republican Guard
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years
Manpower Available: 7,581,100 People
Manpower Fit to Serve: 5,641,577 People
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 341,826 People per year
Expenditures: $221,800,000 USD per year
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 0.90
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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