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Kyrgyzstan Facts

Kyrgyzstan Facts | Kyrgyz Republic Information | Kyrgyzstan Statistics | Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic

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 KYRGYZSTANI POLITICAL
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Background: A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, Kyrgyzstan was annexed by Russia in 1864; it achieved independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Nationwide demonstrations in the spring of 2005 resulted in the ouster of President Askar AKAYEV, who had run the country since 1990. Subsequent presidential elections in July 2005 were won overwhelmingly by former prime minister Kurmanbek BAKIYEV. Current concerns include: privatization of state-owned enterprises, expansion of democracy and political freedoms, reduction of corruption, improving interethnic relations, and combating terrorism.
 
 
Common Name: Kyrgyzstan Local Official Name: Kyrgyzstan
Abbreviated Name: Kyrgyz Republic Official Name: Kyrgyz Respublikasy
Official Script Name: Kyrgyzstan Local Common Name: Kyrgyzstan
Former Name: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic Territory of: NA
 
Head of State: President Kurmanbek BAKIYEV
 
Government Type: Republic
 
Independence: 1991 August 31 (from Soviet Union)
 
Constitution: Adopted 5 May 1993; note - amendment proposed by President Askar AKAYEV and passed in a national referendum on 2 February 2003 significantly expands the powers of the president at the expense of the legislature; following the spring 2005 demonstrations, a
 
National Holiday: Independence Day, 31 August
 
International Organization Participation: AsDB, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, ONUB, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
 
Administrative Divisions: 7 provinces (oblastlar, singular - oblasty) and 1 city* (shaar); Batken Oblasty, Bishkek Shaary*, Chuy Oblasty (Bishkek), Jalal-Abad Oblasty, Naryn Oblasty, Osh Oblasty, Talas Oblasty, Ysyk-Kol Oblasty (Karakol) note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: based on civil law system
 
Suffrage: 18 years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: President Kurmanbek BAKIYEV (since 14 August 2005); note - former President Askar AKAYEV resigned effective 11 April 2005 following widespread protests that forced him to flee the country on 24 March 2005 head of government: Prime Minister Feliks KULOV (since 1 September 2005); First Deputy Prime Minister Daniyar USENOV (since 10 May 2006) cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister elections: Kurmanbek BAKIYEV elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 10 July 2005 (next scheduled for 2010); prime minister nominated by the president for approval by Parliament election results: Kurmanbek BAKIYEV elected president; percent of vote - Kurmanbek BAKIYEV 88.6%, Tursunbai BAKIR-UULU 3.9%, other candidates 7.5%; Feliks KULOV approved as prime minister 55-8 Legislative Branch: Unicameral Supreme Council or Jorgorku Kenesh (75 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five year terms) Elections: elections for the new unicameral body or Jorgorku Kenesh were held 27 February 2005, but the vast majority of positions remained undecided and were contested in a runoff election on 13 March 2005; election irregularities caused widespread protests that resulted in the president being forced to flee the country Election results: Supreme Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA Judicial Branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed for 10-year terms by the Supreme Council on the recommendation of the president); Constitutional Court; Higher Court of Arbitration.
 
Party Leaders: Adilet (Justice) Party [Toychubek KASYMOV]; Agrarian Labor Party of Kyrgyzstan [Uson SYDYKOV]; Agrarian Party of Kyrgyzstan [Erkin ALIYEV]; Alga, Kyrgyzstan (Forward, Kyrgyzstan) [Bolot BEGALIYEV]; Ar-Namys (Dignity) Party [Emil ALIYEV]; Asaba (Banner National Revival Party) [Azimbek BEKNAZAROV]; Ata-Meken (Fatherland) [Omurbek TEKEBAYEV]; Communist Party of Kyrgyzstan [Klara ADZHIBEKOVA]; Democratic Movement of Kyrgyzstan or DDK [Jypar JEKSHEYEV]; Erkin Kyrgyzstan Progressive and Democratic Party [Bektur ASANOV]; Erkindik (Freedom) Party [Topchubek TURGUNALIYEV]; Future of Kyrgyzstan [Balbak TULEBAYEV]; Jany Kyrgyzstan (New Kyrgyzstan) [Dosbol NUR UULU]; Kairan El [Dooronbek SADYKOV]; Kyrgyz National Party [Bakyt BESHIMOV]; Kyrgyzstan Kelechegi [Ruslan CHYNYBAYEV]; Manas El (Party of Spiritual Restoration) [Chingiz AITMATOV]; Moya Strana (My Country Party of Action) [Joomart OTORBAYEV]; Party of Communists of Kyrgyzstan or KCP [Bakytbek BEKBOYEV]; Party of Justice and Progress [Muratbek IMANALIEV]; Party of Peasants [Esengul ISAKOV]
 
International Disputes: delimitation with Kazakhstan is complete; disputes in Isfara Valley delay completion of delimitation with Tajikistan; delimitation of 130 km of border with Uzbekistan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas
 
Illicit Drugs: limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy for CIS markets; limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the rest of Europe 
 
 
 KYRGYZSTANI GEOGRAPHY
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Location of Kyrgyzstan: Central Asia, west of China
 
Continent: Asia Land Area Total: 198,500 sq km 
Region: Central Asia Land Area Land: 191,300 sq km
Capitol City: Bishkek Land Area Water: 7,200 sq km
      
Latitude: 041 00 N Border Boundary Land: 3,878 km
Longitude: 075 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 0 km 
  
Arable Land: 6.55 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 0.28 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 7,439 m Location: Jengish Chokusu (Pik Pobedy)
Lowest Elevation: 132 m Location: Kara-Daryya (Karadar'ya)
  
Largest City in Kyrgyzstan: Bishkek Bishkek Largest City Population: 619,000
  
Threatened Species: 17
 
Environmental Issues: water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices
 
Environmental Agreements: Party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection Signed, but not Ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
Irrigated Land: 10,720
 
Bordering Countries: China 858 km, Kazakhstan 1,051 km, Tajikistan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,099 km
 
Natural Resources: abundant hydropower; significant deposits of gold and rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc
 
Geographical Terrain: Peaks of Tien Shan and associated valleys and basins encompass entire nation.
 
Comparative Area of Kyrgyzstan: slightly smaller than South Dakota
 
Kyrgyzstan's Geography: landlocked; entirely mountainous, dominated by the Tien Shan range; many tall peaks, glaciers, and high-altitude lakes
 

 KYRGYZSTANI CLIMATE
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General Climate: Dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan; Subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone.
 
Natural Hazards: NA
 
 
 KYRGYZSTANI ECONOMY
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Economic Overview: Kyrgyzstan is a poor, mountainous country with a predominantly agricultural economy. Cotton, tobacco, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products, although only tobacco and cotton are exported in any quantity. Industrial exports include gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, and electricity. Kyrgyzstan has been progressive in carrying out market reforms, such as an improved regulatory system and land reform. Kyrgyzstan was the first CIS country to be accepted into the World Trade Organization. Much of the government's stock in enterprises has been sold. Drops in production had been severe after the breakup of the Soviet Union in December 1991, but by mid-1995, production began to recover and exports began to increase. Kyrgyzstan has distinguished itself by adopting relatively liberal economic policies. The drop in output at the Kumtor gold mine sparked a 0.5% decline in GDP in 2002, but GDP growth bounced back in 2003-05. The government has made steady strides in controlling its substantial fiscal deficit and reduced the deficit to 1% of GDP in 2005. The government and international financial institutions have been engaged in a comprehensive medium-term poverty reduction and economic growth strategy, and in 2005 agreed to pursue much-needed tax reform. Progress fighting corruption, further restructuring of domestic industry, and success in attracting foreign investment are keys to future growth.
 
 
GDP: $10,650,000,000 USD Currency: Kyrgyzstani som
GDP per Capita: $2,100 USD Currency Code: KGS
GDP Growth Rate: 2.00 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: soms per US dollar - 41.012 (2005), 42.65 (2004), 43.648 (2003), 46.937 (2002), 48.378 (2001)
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 35.30 % GDP of Industry: 20.80 %
GDP of Services: 43.90 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 5.20 % Population in Poverty: 40.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 18.00 % Tourism: 69,000.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 3.90 % Budget Revenue in USD: $516,300,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 23.30 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $539,900,000 USD
   
Electricity Production: 13,770,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 4,130,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 8,783,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 108,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 7.62% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 92.38% Other Electricity Production: 0.00%
   
Oil Production: 1,990 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 6,000,000 cu m
Oil Consumption: 11,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 1,500,000,000 cu m
Oil Exports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 1,500,000,000 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 0 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 0 cu m
   
External Debt: $2,428,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $50,000,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
   
Agricultural Products: tobacco, cotton, potatoes, vegetables, grapes, fruits and berries; sheep, goats, cattle, wool
 
Primary Industries: small machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, sawn logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals
 
Industrial Growth Rate: 7.10 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $937,400,000 USD - oil and gas, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
 
Import Partners: China 43.2%, Russia 19.8%, Kazakhstan 11.9%, Turkey 4.2% (2005)
 
Export Amount in USD: $759,000,000 USD - cotton, wool, meat, tobacco; gold, mercury, uranium, hydropower; machinery; shoes
 
Export Partners: UAE 35.2%, Russia 18.4%, China 13.3%, Kazakhstan 12.5% (2005)
 
    
GINI Index: 29.00%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 2,700,000
 
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture 55%, industry 15%, services 30%
 
  
 KYRGYZSTANI COMMUNICATIONS
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Radio Broadcast Stations: 28 Number of People with Radios: 520,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 0 Number of People with Televisions: 210,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 416,400 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 263,400
 
Internet Service Providers: 18,539 Internet Users: 263,000
 
Internet Country Code: .kg Newspapers: 15
Two Letter Country Code: KG Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: 996 Electricity Voltage: Volts
  
Telephone Systems: General assessment: development of telecommunications infrastructure is slow; fixed line penetration remains low and concentrated in Bishkek Domestic: two wireless telephony service providers, but penetration remains low International: country code - 996; connections with other CIS countries by landline or microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik and 1 Intelsat; connected internationally by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line
 
  
 KYRGYZSTANI TRANSPORTATION
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Highways: 16,854 km Railways: 470 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 680 km Waterways: 600 km
Airports: 18 Heliports: 0
 
Motor Vehicles: 40 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 6,507,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 4.20 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: NA
 
Ports and Harbors: Balykchy (Ysyk-Kol or Rybach'ye)
 
  
 KYRGYZSTANI PEOPLE
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Population: 5,213,898 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 22.80 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 26.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 7.08 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 1.32% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 2.69 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 821,976 Population Female 0-14: 789,687
Population Male 15-64: 1,607,396 Population Female 15-64: 1,669,612
Population Male 65+: 126,847 Population Female 65+: 198,380
 
Population 0-14: 30.90% Literacy Rate: 98.70%
Population 15-64: 62.90% Literacy rate of Males: 99.30%
Population 65+: 6.20% Literacy rate of Females: 98.10%
 
Population that is Male: 52.50 % Population that is Female: 47.50%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 68.49 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 34.49 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 64.48 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 72.70 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.10% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 3,900
Number of people who died of AIDS: 0
   
Disease Risk:
 
Diseases:
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: -2.50
 
Nationality: KYRGYZSTANI
 
Ethnic Groups: Kyrgyz 64.9%, Uzbek 13.8%, Russian 12.5%, Dungan 1.1%, Ukrainian 1%, Uygur 1%, other 5.7% 
 
  
Primary Language: Kyrgyz
 
Other Languages: Russian - official language
 
 
Primary Religion: Muslim
 
Other Religions: Russian Orthodox 20%, other 5%
 
  
 KYRGYZSTANI MILITARY
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Branches: Army, Air Force, National Guard (2004)
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years
 
Manpower Available: 2,412,609 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 1,896,061 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 120,875 People per year
 
Expenditures: $19,200,000 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 1.40
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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