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Madagascar Facts

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 MALAGASY POLITICAL
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Background: Formerly an independent kingdom, Madagascar became a French colony in 1886, but regained its independence in 1960. During 1992-93, free presidential and National Assembly elections were held, ending 17 years of single-party rule. In 1997, in the second presidential race, Didier RATSIRAKA, the leader during the 1970s and 1980s, was returned to the presidency. The 2001 presidential election was contested between the followers of Didier RATSIRAKA and Marc RAVALOMANANA, nearly causing secession of half of the country. In April 2002 the High Constitutional Court announced RAVALOMANANA the winner.
 
 
Common Name: Madagascar Local Official Name: Madagascar
Abbreviated Name: Republic of Madagascar Official Name: Republique de Madagascar
Official Script Name: Madagascar Local Common Name: Madagascar
Former Name: Malagasy Republic Territory of: NA
 
Head of State: President Marc RAVALOMANANA
 
Government Type: republic
 
Independence: 1960 June 26 (from France)
 
Constitution: 1992 August 19 by national referendum
 
National Holiday: Independence Day, 26 June
 
International Organization Participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
 
Administrative Divisions: 6 provinces (faritany); Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
 
Suffrage: 18 years of age years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: President Marc RAVALOMANANA (since 6 May 2002) head of government: Prime Minister Jacques SYLLA (27 May 2002) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 16 December 2001 (next to be held NA November 2006); prime minister appointed by the president from a list of candidates nominated by the National Assembly election results: percent of vote - Didier RATSIRAKA (AREMA) 40.89%, Marc RAVALOMANANA 46.21%; note - on 29 April 2002, the High Constitutional Court announced RAVALOMANANA the winner by just over 50% after a recount; RATSIRIKA's prime minister was put under house arrest on 27 May 2002, and SYLLA was appointed the new prime minister by President RAVALOMANANA Legislative Branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (150 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); note - the legislature is scheduled to become a bicameral Parliament with the establishment of a Senate; two-thirds of the seats of this Senate will be filled by regional assemblies whose members will be elected by popular vote; the remaining one-third of the seats will be appointed by the president; the total number of seats will be determined by the National Assembly; all members will serve four-year terms elections: National Assembly - last held 17 May 1998 (next to be held NA 2002) election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - AREMA 63, LEADER/Fanilo 16, AVI 14, RPSD 11, AFFA 6, MFM 3, AKFM/Fanavaozana 3, GRAD/Iloafo 1, Fihaonana 1, independents 32 Judicial Branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; High Constitutional Court or Haute Cour Constitutionnelle
 
Party Leaders: Action, Truth, Development, and Harmony or AFFA [Professor Albert ZAFY]; Association for the Rebirth of Madagascar or AREMA [leader vacant]; Congress Party for Malagasy Independence or AKFM/Fanavaozana [leader NA]; Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery or LEADER/Fanilo [Herizo RAZAFIMAHALEO]; Fihaonana Rally or Fihaonana [Guy RAZANAMASY]; Group of Reflection and Action for the Development of Madagascar or GRAD/Iloafo; Judged by Your Work or AVI [Norbert RATSIRAHONANA]; Movement for the Progress of Madagascar or MFM [Manandafy RAKOTONIRINA]; Renewal of the Social Democratic Party or RPSD [Evariste MARSON]; Tranobe (Big House) [Ny Hasina ANDRIAMANJATO]
 
International Disputes: claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island (all administered by France)
 
Illicit Drugs: illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption; transshipment point for heroin 
 
 
 MALAGASY GEOGRAPHY
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Location of Madagascar: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Mozambique
 
Continent: Africa Land Area Total: 587,040 sq km 
Region: Eastern African Land Area Land: 581,540 sq km
Capitol City: Antananarivo Land Area Water: 5,500 sq km
      
Latitude: 020 00 S Border Boundary Land: 0 km
Longitude: 047 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 4,828 km 
  
Arable Land: 4.00 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 1.00 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 2,876 m Location: Maromokotro
Lowest Elevation: 0 m Location: Indian Ocean
  
Largest City in Madagascar: Antananarivo Antananarivo Largest City Population: 1,432,000
  
Threatened Species: 0
 
Environmental Issues: soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; several species of flora and fauna unique to the island are endangered
 
Environmental Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
Irrigated Land: 10,900
 
Bordering Countries: NA
 
Natural Resources: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower
 
Geographical Terrain: narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center
 
Comparative Area of Madagascar: 587040
 
Madagascar's Geography: world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel
 

 MALAGASY CLIMATE
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General Climate: tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south
 
Natural Hazards: periodic cyclones
 
 
 MALAGASY ECONOMY
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Economic Overview: Madagascar faces problems of chronic malnutrition, underfunded health and education facilities, a roughly 3% annual population growth rate, and severe loss of forest cover, accompanied by erosion. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is the mainstay of the economy, accounting for one-third of GDP and contributing more than 70% to export earnings. Industry features textile manufacturing and the processing of agricultural products. Growth in output in 1992-97 averaged less than the growth rate of the population. Growth has been held back by antigovernment strikes and demonstrations, a decline in world coffee prices, and the erratic commitment of the government to economic reform. The extent of government reforms, outside financial aid, and foreign investment will be key determinants of future growth.
 
 
GDP: $14,000,000,000 USD Currency: Malagasy franc
GDP per Capita: $870 USD Currency Code: MGF
GDP Growth Rate: 5.00 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: Malagasy francs per US dollar - 6,531.4 (December 2001), 6,588.5 (2001), 6,767.5 (2000), 6,283.8 (1999), 5,441.4 (1998), 5,090.9 (1997)
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 34.00 % GDP of Industry: 11.00 %
GDP of Services: 55.00 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 7.00 % Population in Poverty: 70.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 0.00 % Tourism: 138,000.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 2.20 % Budget Revenue in USD: $553,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 37.30 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $735,000,000 USD
   
Electricity Production: 820,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 0 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 762,600,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 0 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 36.59% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 63.41% Other Electricity Production: 0.00%
   
Oil Production: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 0 cu m
Oil Consumption: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 0 cu m
Oil Exports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 0 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 0 cu m
   
External Debt: $4,500,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $838,000,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
   
Agricultural Products: coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products
 
Primary Industries: meat processing, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourism
 
Industrial Growth Rate: 3.00 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $919,000,000 USD - intermediate manufactures, capital goods, petroleum, consumer goods, food
 
Import Partners: France 38%, Hong Kong 10%, China 5%, Singapore 5%, Japan 3%
 
Export Amount in USD: $680,000,000 USD - coffee, vanilla, shellfish, sugar; cotton cloth, chromite, petroleum products
 
Export Partners: France 41%, US 21%, Germany 7%, Japan 4%, UK 1%
 
    
GINI Index: 46.00%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 7,000,000
 
Labor Force by Occupations: NA
 
  
 MALAGASY COMMUNICATIONS
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Radio Broadcast Stations: 17 Number of People with Radios: 3,050,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 1 Number of People with Televisions: 325,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 55,000 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 63,100
 
Internet Service Providers: 2 Internet Users: 30,000
 
Internet Country Code: .mg Newspapers: 5
Two Letter Country Code: MA Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: +261 Electricity Voltage: Volts
  
Telephone Systems: general assessment: system is above average for the region domestic: open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter links connect regions international: submarine cable to Bahrain; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)
 
  
 MALAGASY TRANSPORTATION
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Highways: 5,781 km Railways: 893 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 0 km Waterways: 0 km
Airports: 29 Heliports: 0
 
Motor Vehicles: 5 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 0 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 0.00 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: total: 15 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 27,199 GRT/37,462 DWT ships by type: cargo 9, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 2
 
Ports and Harbors: Antsiranana, Antsohimbondrona, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara
 
  
 MALAGASY PEOPLE
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Population: 16,473,477 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 42.41 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 26.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 12.15 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 3.03% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 5.77 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 3,713,700 Population Female 0-14: 3,696,478
Population Male 15-64: 4,227,931 Population Female 15-64: 4,313,940
Population Male 65+: 241,699 Population Female 65+: 279,729
 
Population 0-14: 45.00% Literacy Rate: 80.00%
Population 15-64: 51.80% Literacy rate of Males: 88.00%
Population 65+: 3.20% Literacy rate of Females: 73.00%
 
Population that is Male: 49.50 % Population that is Female: 50.50%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 55.74 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 81.90 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 53.45 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 58.11 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.15% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 11,000
Number of people who died of AIDS: 870
   
Disease Risk:
 
Diseases:
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: 0.00
 
Nationality: MALAGASY
 
Ethnic Groups: Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran 
 
  
Primary Language: French
 
Other Languages: French (official), Malagasy (official)
 
 
Primary Religion: indigenous beliefs
 
Other Religions: indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%
 
  
 MALAGASY MILITARY
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Branches: People's Armed Forces (comprising Intervention Force, Development Force, Aeronaval [Navy and Air] Force), Gendarmerie, Presidential Security Regiment
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 20 years of age years
 
Manpower Available: 3,758,940 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 2,229,304 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 153,856 People per year
 
Expenditures: $48,700,000 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 1.20
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
 MALAGASY RESOURCES
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