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Malaysia Facts

Malaysia Facts | Malaysia Information | Malaysia Statistics | Federation of Malaysia

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 MALAYSIAN POLITICAL
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Background: During the late 18th and 19th centuries, Great Britain established colonies and protectorates in the area of current Malaysia; these were occupied by Japan from 1942 to 1945. In 1948, the British-ruled territories on the Malay Peninsula formed the Federation of Malaya, which became independent in 1957. Malaysia was formed in 1963 when the former British colonies of Singapore and the East Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak on the northern coast of Borneo joined the Federation. The first several years of the country's history were marred by Indonesian efforts to control Malaysia, Philippine claims to Sabah, and Singapore's secession from the Federation in 1965.
 
 
Common Name: Malaysia Local Official Name: Malaysia
Abbreviated Name: Malaysia Official Name: Malaysia
Official Script Name: Malaysia Local Common Name: Malaysia
Former Name: Federation of Malaysia Territory of: NA
 
Head of State: Tuanku SYED SIRAJUDDIN ibni Almarhum Tuanku Syed Putra Jamalullail
 
Government Type: constitutional monarchy note: nominally headed by paramount ruler and a bicameral Parliament consisting of a nonelected upper house and an elected lower house; all Peninsular Malaysian states have hereditary rulers except Melaka and Pulau Pinang (Penang)
 
Independence: 1957 August 31 (from UK)
 
Constitution: 1957 August 31 , amended 1963 September 16
 
National Holiday: Independence Day/Malaysia Day, 31 August
 
International Organization Participation: APEC, APT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, BIS, C, CP, EAS, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM, OIC, ONUB, OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
 
Administrative Divisions: 13 states (negeri-negeri, singular - negeri) Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, and Terengganu; and one federal territory (wilayah persekutuan) with three components, city of Kuala Lumpur, Labuan, and Putrajaya
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court at request of supreme head of the federation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
 
Suffrage: 21 years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: Chief of state: Paramount Ruler Tuanku SYED SIRAJUDDIN ibni Almarhum Tuanku Syed Putra Jamalullail, the Raja of Perlis (since 12 December 2001) head of government: Prime Minister ABDULLAH bin Ahmad Badawi (since 31 October 2003); Deputy Prime Minister Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Razak (since 7 January 2004) Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the members of Parliament with consent of the paramount ruler Elections: paramount ruler elected by and from the hereditary rulers of nine of the states for five-year terms; election last held 12 December 2001 (next to be held in 2006); prime minister designated from among the members of the House of Representatives; following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins a plurality of seats in the House of Representatives becomes prime minister Election results: Tuanku SYED SIRAJUDDIN ibni Almarhum Tuanku Syed Putra Jamalullail elected paramount ruler Legislative Branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlimen consists of the Senate or Dewan Negara (70 seats; 44 appointed by the paramount ruler, 26 appointed by the state legislatures) and the House of Representatives or Dewan Rakyat (219 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) Elections: House of Representatives - last held 21 March 2004 (next must be held by 2009) Election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - BN 91%, DAP 5%, PAS 3%, other 1%; seats by party - BN 199, DAP 12, PAS 6, PKR 1, independent 1 Judicial Branch: Federal Court (judges appointed by the paramount ruler on the advice of the prime minister)
 
Party Leaders: ruling-coalition National Front (Barisan Nasional) or BN, consisting of the following parties: Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia Party or PGRM [LIM Keng Yaik]; Liberal Democratic Party (Parti Liberal Demokratik - Sabah) or LDP [LIEW Vui Keong]; Malaysian Chinese Association (Persatuan China Malaysia) or MCA [ONG Ka Ting]; Malaysian Indian Congress (Kongresi India Malaysia) or MIC [S. Samy VELLU]; Parti Bersatu Pakyat Sabah or PBRS [Joseph KURUP]; Parti Bersatu Sabah or PBS [Joseph PAIRIN Kitingan]; Parti Pesaka Bumiputra Bersatu or PBB [Patinggi Haji Abdul TAIB Mahmud]; Parti Rakyat Sarawak or PRS [James MASING]; Sabah Progressive Party (Parti Progresif Sabah) or SAPP [YONG Teck Lee]; Sarawak United People's Party (Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sarawak) or SUPP [George CHAN Hong Nam]; United Malays National Organization or UMNO [ABDULLAH bin Ahmad Badawi]; United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organization (Pertubuhan Pasko Momogun Kadazan Dusun Bersatu) or UPKO [Bernard DOMPOK]; People's Progressive Party (Parti Progresif Penduduk Malaysia) or PPP [M.Keyveas]; Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party or SPDP [William MAWANI]; opposition parties: Democratic Action Party (Parti Tindakan Demokratik) or DAP [KARPAL Singh]; Islamic Party of Malaysia (Parti Islam se Malaysia) or PAS [Abdul HADI Awang]; People's Justice Party (Parti Keadilan Rakyat) or PKR [WAN AZIZAH Wan Ismael]; Sarawak National Party or SNAP [Edwin DUNDANG]; opposition coalition Alternative Front (Barisan Alternatif) or BA - consists of PAS and PKR
 
International Disputes: Malaysia has asserted sovereignty over the Spratly Islands together with China, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; while the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions over the Spratly Islands, it is not the legally binding "code of conduct" sought by some parties; Malaysia was not party to the March 2005 joint accord among the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam on conducting marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; disputes continue over deliveries of fresh water to Singapore, Singapore's land reclamation, bridge construction, maritime boundaries, and Pedra Branca Island/Pulau Batu Putih - but parties agree to ICJ arbitration on island dispute within three years; ICJ awarded Ligitan and Sipadan islands, also claimed by Indonesia and Philippines, to Malaysia but left maritime boundary in the hydrocarbon-rich Celebes Sea in dispute, culminating in hostile confrontations in March 2005 over concessions to the Ambalat oil block; separatist violence in Thailand's predominantly Muslim southern provinces prompts measures to close and monitor border with Malaysia to stem terrorist activities; Philippines retains a now dormant claim to Malaysia's Sabah State in northern Borneo; in 2003, Brunei and Malaysia ceased gas and oil exploration in their disputed offshore and deepwater seabeds and negotiations have stalemated prompting consideration of international adjudication; Malaysia's land boundary with Brunei around Limbang is in dispute; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait
 
Illicit Drugs: regional transit point for some illicit drugs; drug trafficking prosecuted vigorously and carries severe penalties 
 
 
 MALAYSIAN GEOGRAPHY
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Location of Malaysia: Southeastern Asia, peninsula and northern one-third of the island of Borneo, bordering Indonesia and the South China Sea, south of Vietnam
 
Continent: Asia Land Area Total: 329,750 sq km 
Region: South East Asia Land Area Land: 328,550 sq km
Capitol City: Kuala Lumpur Land Area Water: 1,200 sq km
      
Latitude: 002 30 N Border Boundary Land: 2,669 km
Longitude: 112 30 E Border Boundary Coastline: 4,675 km 
  
Arable Land: 5.46 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 17.54 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 4,100 m Location: Gunung Kinabalu
Lowest Elevation: 0 m Location: Indian Ocean
  
Largest City in Malaysia: Kuala Lumpur Kuala Lumpur Largest City Population: 1,384,000
  
Threatened Species: 828
 
Environmental Issues: air pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation; smoke/haze from Indonesian forest fires
 
Environmental Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
 
Irrigated Land: 3,650
 
Bordering Countries: Brunei 381 km, Indonesia 1,782 km, Thailand 506 km
 
Natural Resources: tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, bauxite
 
Geographical Terrain: coastal plains rising to hills and mountains
 
Comparative Area of Malaysia: slightly larger than New Mexico
 
Malaysia's Geography: strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South China Sea
 

 MALAYSIAN CLIMATE
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General Climate: tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons
 
Natural Hazards: flooding, landslides, forest fires
 
 
 MALAYSIAN ECONOMY
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Economic Overview: Malaysia, a middle-income country, transformed itself from 1971 through the late 1990s from a producer of raw materials into an emerging multi-sector economy. Growth was almost exclusively driven by exports - particularly of electronics. As a result, Malaysia was hard hit by the global economic downturn and the slump in the information technology (IT) sector in 2001 and 2002. GDP in 2001 grew only 0.5% because of an estimated 11% contraction in exports, but a substantial fiscal stimulus package equal to US $1.9 billion mitigated the worst of the recession, and the economy rebounded in 2002 with a 4.1% increase. The economy grew 4.9% in 2003, notwithstanding a difficult first half, when external pressures from Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and the Iraq War led to caution in the business community. Growth topped 7% in 2004 and 5% in 2005. As an oil and gas exporter, Malaysia has profited from higher world energy prices, although the cost of government subsidies for domestic gasoline and diesel fuel has risen and offset some of the benefit. Malaysia "unpegged" the ringgit from the US dollar in 2005, but so far there has been little movement in the exchange rate. Healthy foreign exchange reserves, low inflation, and a small external debt are all strengths that make it unlikely that Malaysia will experience a financial crisis over the near term similar to the one in 1997. The economy remains dependent on continued growth in the US, China, and Japan - top export destinations and key sources of foreign investment.
 
 
GDP: $290,200,000,000 USD Currency: ringgit
GDP per Capita: $12,100 USD Currency Code: MYR
GDP Growth Rate: 5.30 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: ringgits per US dollar - 3.8 (2005), 3.8 (2004), 3.8 (2003), 3.8 (2002), 3.8 (2001)
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 8.40 % GDP of Industry: 48.00 %
GDP of Services: 43.60 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 3.00 % Population in Poverty: 8.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 3.60 % Tourism: 7,931,000.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 1.40 % Budget Revenue in USD: $30,570,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 39.20 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $34,620,000,000 USD
   
Electricity Production: 79,280,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 75,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 73,630,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 100,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 87.96% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 12.04% Other Electricity Production: 0.00%
   
Oil Production: 770,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 53,500,000,000 cu m
Oil Consumption: 510,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 28,530,000,000 cu m
Oil Exports: 230,200 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 22,410,000,000 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 3,100,000,000 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 2,124,000,000,000 cu m
   
External Debt: $52,000,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $0 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
   
Agricultural Products: Peninsular Malaysia - rubber, palm oil, cocoa, rice; Sabah - subsistence crops, rubber, timber, coconuts, rice; Sarawak - rubber, pepper, timber
 
Primary Industries: Peninsular Malaysia - rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, light manufacturing industry, electronics, tin mining and smelting, logging, timber processing; Sabah - logging, petroleum production; Sarawak - agriculture processing, petroleum prod
 
Industrial Growth Rate: 4.10 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $118,700,000,000 USD - electronics, machinery, petroleum products, plastics, vehicles, iron and steel products, chemicals
 
Import Partners: Japan 14.6%, US 13%, Singapore 11.8%, China 11.6%, Taiwan 5.6%, Thailand 5.3%, South Korea 5%, Germany 4.5%
 
Export Amount in USD: $147,100,000,000 USD - electronic equipment, petroleum and liquefied natural gas, wood and wood products, palm oil, rubber, textiles, chemicals
 
Export Partners: US 19.7%, Singapore 15.6%, Japan 9.3%, China 6.6%, Hong Kong 5.8%, Thailand 5.4%
 
    
GINI Index: 49.20%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 10,670,000
 
Labor Force by Occupations: local trade and tourism 28%, manufacturing 27%, agriculture, forestry, and fisheries 16%, services 10%, government 10%, construction 9%
 
  
 MALAYSIAN COMMUNICATIONS
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Radio Broadcast Stations: 441 Number of People with Radios: 10,900,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 88 Number of People with Televisions: 10,800,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 4,446,300 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 14,611,900
 
Internet Service Providers: 151,239 Internet Users: 10,040,000
 
Internet Country Code: .my Newspapers: 158
Two Letter Country Code: MY Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: 60 Electricity Voltage: Volts
  
Telephone Systems: General assessment: modern system; international service excellent Domestic: good intercity service provided on Peninsular Malaysia mainly by microwave radio relay; adequate intercity microwave radio relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; domestic satellite system with 2 earth stations International: country code - 60; submarine cables to India, Hong Kong, and Singapore; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)
 
  
 MALAYSIAN TRANSPORTATION
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Highways: 55,943 km Railways: 1,890 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 7,369 km Waterways: 7,200 km
Airports: 37 Heliports: 2
 
Motor Vehicles: 15 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 130,844,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 6.20 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: total: 312 ships (1000 GRT or over) 5,542,727 GRT/7,544,154 DWT by type: bulk carrier 19, cargo 99, chemical tanker 38, container 48, liquefied gas 27, livestock carrier 1, passenger/cargo 8, petroleum tanker 61, roll on/roll off 5, vehicle carrier 6 foreign-owned: 66 (China 1, Germany 2, Hong Kong 14, Japan 4, South Korea 1, Singapore 44) registered in other countries: 68 (Bahamas 12, Belize 1, Cayman Islands 1, Mongolia 1, Panama 13, Philippines 1, Singapore 35, US 4)
 
Ports and Harbors: Bintulu, Johor, Labuan, Lahad Datu, Lumut, Miri, George Town (Penang), Port Kelang, Tanjung Pelepas
 
  
 MALAYSIAN PEOPLE
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Population: 24,385,858 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 22.86 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 74.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 5.05 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 1.78% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 3.04 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 4,093,859 Population Female 0-14: 3,862,730
Population Male 15-64: 7,660,680 Population Female 15-64: 7,613,537
Population Male 65+: 509,260 Population Female 65+: 645,792
 
Population 0-14: 32.60% Literacy Rate: 88.70%
Population 15-64: 62.60% Literacy rate of Males: 92.00%
Population 65+: 4.30% Literacy rate of Females: 85.40%
 
Population that is Male: 50.50 % Population that is Female: 49.50%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 72.50 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 17.16 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 69.80 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 75.38 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.40% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 52,000
Number of people who died of AIDS: 2,000
   
Disease Risk:
 
Diseases:
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: 0.00
 
Nationality: MALAYSIAN
 
Ethnic Groups: Malay 50.4%, Chinese 23.7%, Indigenous 11%, Indian 7.1%, others 7.8% 
 
  
Primary Language: Bahasa Melayu
 
Other Languages: Bahasa Melayu (official), English, Chinese (Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan, Foochow), Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Panjabi, Thai note: in East Malaysia there are several indigenous languages; most widely spoken are Iban and Kadazan
 
 
Primary Religion: Muslim
 
Other Religions: Muslim, Buddhist, Daoist, Hindu, Christian, Sikh; note - in addition, Shamanism is practiced in East Malaysia
 
  
 MALAYSIAN MILITARY
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Branches: Malaysian Armed Forces (Angkatan Tentera Malaysia, ATM): Malaysian Army (Tentera Darat Malaysia), Royal Malaysian Navy (Tentera Laut Diraja Malaysia, TLDM), Royal Malaysian Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Malaysia, TUDM)
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years
 
Manpower Available: 11,094,576 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 9,188,175 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 476,314 People per year
 
Expenditures: $1,690,000,000 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 2.03
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
 MALAYSIAN RESOURCES
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