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Moldova Facts

Moldova Facts | Republic of Moldova Information | Moldova Statistics | Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova; Moldavi

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 MOLDOVAN POLITICAL
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Background: Formerly part of Romania, Moldova was incorporated into the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although independent from the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Dniester River supporting the Slavic majority population, mostly Ukrainians and Russians, who have proclaimed a "Transnistria" republic. The poorest nation in Europe, Moldova became the first former Soviet state to elect a Communist as its president in 2001.
 
 
Common Name: Moldova Local Official Name: Moldova
Abbreviated Name: Republic of Moldova Official Name: Republica Moldova
Official Script Name: Moldova Local Common Name: Moldova
Former Name: Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova; Moldavi Territory of: NA
 
Head of State: President Vladimir VORONIN
 
Government Type: republic
 
Independence: 1991 August 27 (from Soviet Union)
 
Constitution: 1994 July 28 new constitution adopted; replaces old Soviet constitution of 1979
 
National Holiday: Independence Day, 27 August
 
International Organization Participation: ACCT, BSEC, CE, CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
 
Administrative Divisions: 32 raions (raioane, singular - raionul), 3 municipalities (municipiul), 1 autonomous territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala autonoma), and 1 territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala) raions: Anenii Noi, Basarabeasca, Briceni, Cahul, Cantemir, Calarasi, Causeni, Cimislia, Criuleni, Donduseni, Drochia, Dubasari, Edinet, Falesti, Floresti, Glodeni, Hincesti, Ialoveni, Leova, Nisporeni, Ocnita, Orhei, Rezina, Riscani, Singerei, Soldanesti, Soroca, Stefan-Voda, Straseni, Taraclia, Telenesti, Ungheni municipalities: Balti, Bender, Chisinau autonomous territorial unit: Gagauzia territorial unit: Stinga Nistrului
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: based on civil law system; Constitutional Court reviews legality of legislative acts and governmental decisions of resolution; accepts many UN and Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) documents
 
Suffrage: 18 years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: President Vladimir VORONIN (since 4 April 2001) head of government: Prime Minister Vasile TARLEV (since 15 April 2001), First Deputy Prime Minister Zinaida GRECIANII (since 10 October 2005) cabinet: Cabinet selected by president, subject to approval of Parliament elections: president elected by Parliament for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 4 April 2005 (next to be held in 2009); note - prime minister designated by the president, upon consultation with Parliament; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence from the Parliament regarding his/her work program and entire cabinet; prime minister designated 15 April 2001, cabinet received a vote of confidence 19 April 2001 election results: Vladimir VORONIN reelected president; parliamentary votes - Vladimir VORONIN 75, Gheorghe DUCA 1; Vasile TARLEV designated prime minister; parliamentary votes of confidence - 75 of 101 Legislative Branch: unicameral Parliament or Parlamentul (101 seats; parties and electoral blocs elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 6 March 2005 (next to be held in 2009) election results: percent of vote by party - PCRM 46.1%, Democratic Moldova Bloc 28.4%, PPCD 9.1%, other parties 16.4%; seats by party - PCRM 56, Democratic Moldova Bloc 34, PPCD 11 Judicial Branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court (the sole authority for constitutional judicature)
 
Party Leaders: Braghis Faction [Dumitru BRAGHIS]; Christian Democratic People's Party or PPCD [Iurie ROSCA]; Communist Party of the Republic of Moldova or PCRM [Vladimir VORONIN, first chairman]; Democratic Moldova Bloc (comprised of the AMN, Democratic Party, and PSL); Democratic Party [Dumitru DIACOV]; Our Moldova Alliance or AMN [Serafim URECHEANU]; Social Liberal Party or PSL [Oleg SEREBRIAN]
 
International Disputes: Moldova and Ukraine have established joint customs posts to monitor transit through Moldova's break-away Transnistria region which remains under OSCE supervision
 
Illicit Drugs: limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe, and possibly the US; widespread crime and underground economic activity 
 
 
 MOLDOVAN GEOGRAPHY
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Location of Moldova: Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania
 
Continent: Europe Land Area Total: 33,843 sq km 
Region: Eastern Europe Land Area Land: 33,371 sq km
Capitol City: Chisinau Land Area Water: 472 sq km
      
Latitude: 047 00 N Border Boundary Land: 1,389 km
Longitude: 029 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 0 km 
  
Arable Land: 54.52 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 8.81 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 430 m Location: Dealul Balanesti
Lowest Elevation: 2 m Location: Dniester River
  
Largest City in Moldova: Kishinev Kishinev Largest City Population: 655,000
  
Threatened Species: 26
 
Environmental Issues: heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods
 
Environmental Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
Irrigated Land: 3,000
 
Bordering Countries: Romania 450 km, Ukraine 939 km
 
Natural Resources: lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, arable land, limestone
 
Geographical Terrain: rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea
 
Comparative Area of Moldova: slightly larger than Maryland
 
Moldova's Geography: landlocked; well endowed with various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone
 

 MOLDOVAN CLIMATE
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General Climate: moderate winters, warm summers
 
Natural Hazards: landslides (57 cases in 1998)
 
 
 MOLDOVAN ECONOMY
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Economic Overview: Moldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe despite recent progress from its small economic base. It enjoys a favorable climate and good farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result, the economy depends heavily on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Moldova must import almost all of its energy supplies. Energy shortages contributed to sharp production declines after the breakup of the Soviet Union in December 1991. As part of an ambitious reform effort after independence, Moldova introduced a convertible currency, freed prices, stopped issuing preferential credits to state enterprises, backed steady land privatization, removed export controls, and freed interest rates. The government entered into agreements with the World Bank and the IMF to promote growth and reduce poverty. The economy returned to positive growth in 2000, and has remained at or above 6% every year since. Further reforms will come slowly because of strong political forces backing government controls. The economy remains vulnerable to higher fuel prices, poor agricultural weather, and the skepticism of foreign investors.
 
 
GDP: $8,410,000,000 USD Currency: Moldovan leu
GDP per Capita: $1,900 USD Currency Code: MDL
GDP Growth Rate: 7.10 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: lei per US dollar - 12.6 (2005), 12.33 (2004), 13.945 (2003), 13.571 (2002), 12.865 (200
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 21.30 % GDP of Industry: 23.30 %
GDP of Services: 55.50 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 11.90 % Population in Poverty: 80.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 8.00 % Tourism: 0.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 2.20 % Budget Revenue in USD: $1,069,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 30.70 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $1,065,000,000 USD
   
Electricity Production: 29,420,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 300,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 3,036,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 600,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 90.44% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 9.56% Other Electricity Production: 0.00%
   
Oil Production: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 0 cu m
Oil Consumption: 37,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 2,380,000,000 cu m
Oil Exports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 20,500,000,000 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 0 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 0 cu m
   
External Debt: $1,986,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $100,000,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
   
Agricultural Products: vegetables, fruits, wine, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, tobacco; beef, milk
 
Primary Industries: sugar, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery; foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines; hosiery, shoes, textiles
 
Industrial Growth Rate: 17.00 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $2,230,000,000 USD - mineral products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles
 
Import Partners: Ukraine 20.9%, Russia 11.7%, Romania 11.2%, Germany 8.3%, Italy 6.6%, Turkey 4.1%
 
Export Amount in USD: $1,040,000,000 USD - foodstuffs, textiles, machinery
 
Export Partners: Russia 32.9%, Italy 12.7%, Romania 10.6%, Ukraine 9.5%, Belarus 6.7%, Germany 4.5%
 
    
GINI Index: 36.20%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 1,340,000
 
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture 40%, industry 14%, services 46%
 
  
 MOLDOVAN COMMUNICATIONS
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Radio Broadcast Stations: 60 Number of People with Radios: 3,220,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 1 Number of People with Televisions: 1,260,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 929,400 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 1,090,000
 
Internet Service Providers: 30,861 Internet Users: 406,000
 
Internet Country Code: .md Newspapers: 60
Two Letter Country Code: MD Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: 373 Electricity Voltage: Volts
  
Telephone Systems: general assessment: inadequate, outmoded, poor service outside Chisinau; some modernization is under way domestic: new subscribers face long wait for service; mobile cellular telephone service being introduced international: country code - 373; service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik
 
  
 MOLDOVAN TRANSPORTATION
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Highways: 10,973 km Railways: 1,138 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 606 km Waterways: 424 km
Airports: 6 Heliports: 0
 
Motor Vehicles: 55 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 10,388,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 2.40 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: NA
 
Ports and Harbors: NA
 
  
 MOLDOVAN PEOPLE
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Population: 4 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 15.70 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 127.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 12.64 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 0.28% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 1.85 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 455 Population Female 0-14: 438
Population Male 15-64: 1 Population Female 15-64: 1
Population Male 65+: 170 Population Female 65+: 290
 
Population 0-14: 20.00% Literacy Rate: 99.10%
Population 15-64: 69.70% Literacy rate of Males: 99.60%
Population 65+: 10.30% Literacy rate of Females: 98.70%
 
Population that is Male: 45.50 % Population that is Female: 54.50%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 65.65 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 38.38 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 61.61 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 69.88 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.20% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 5,500
Number of people who died of AIDS: 0
   
Disease Risk:
 
Diseases:
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: -0.23
 
Nationality: MOLDOVAN
 
Ethnic Groups: Moldovan/Romanian 78.2%, Ukrainian 8.4%, Russian 5.8%, Gagauz 4.4%, Bulgarian 1.9%, other 1.3% note: internal disputes with ethnic Slavs in the Transnistrian region 
 
  
Primary Language: Moldovan
 
Other Languages: Moldovan (official, virtually the same as the Romanian language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)
 
 
Primary Religion: Eastern Orthodox
 
Other Religions: Eastern Orthodox 98%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist and other 0.5%
 
  
 MOLDOVAN MILITARY
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Branches: National Army: Ground Forces, Rapid Reaction Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years
 
Manpower Available: 2,183,529 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 1,605,481 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 86,083 People per year
 
Expenditures: $0 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 0.40
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
 MOLDOVAN RESOURCES
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