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Mongolia Facts

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Background: The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAN they conquered a huge Eurasian empire. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and later came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing. A Communist regime was installed in 1924. The ex-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) won elections in 1990 and 1992, but was defeated by the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) in the 1996 parliamentary election. Since then, parliamentary elections returned the MPRP overwhelmingly to power in 2000 and produced a coalition government in 2004.
Common Name: Mongolia Local Official Name: Mongol Uls
Abbreviated Name: Mongolia Official Name: Mongolia
Official Script Name: Mongolia Local Common Name: Mongolia
Former Name: Outer Mongolia Territory of: NA
Head of State: President Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR
Government Type: mixed parliamentary/presidential
Independence: 1921 July 11 (from China)
Constitution: 1992 February 12
National Holiday: Independence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July
International Organization Participation: ARF, AsDB, CP, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OPCW, OSCE (partner), SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIS, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Administrative Divisions: 21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan-Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Govi-Altay, Govisumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs
Dependent Areas: NA
Legal System: blend of Russian, Chinese, Turkish, and Western systems of law that combines aspects of a parliamentary system with some aspects of a presidential system; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ juris
Suffrage: 18 years
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: President Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (since 24 June 2005) head of government: Prime Minister Miegombyn ENKHBOLD (since 25 January 2006); Deputy Prime Minister Mendsaikhan ENKHSAIKHAN (since 28 January 2006) cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister in consultation with the president and confirmed by the State Great Hural (parliament) elections: presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented in State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 22 May 2005 (next to be held in May 2009); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by State Great Hural election results: Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR elected president; percent of vote - Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (MPRP) 53.44%, Mendsaikhanin ENKHSAIKHAN (DP) 20.05%, Bazarsadyn JARGALSAIKHAN (MRP) 13.92%, Badarchyn ERDENEBAT (M-MNSDP) 12.59%; Miegombyn ENKHBOLD elected prime minister by the State Great Hural 56 to 10 Legislative Branch: unicameral State Great Hural 76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms elections: last held 27 June 2004 (next to be held in June 2008) election results: percent of vote by party - MPRP 48.78%, MDC 44.8%, independents 3.5%, Republican Party 1.5%, others 1.42%; seats by party - MPRP 36, MDC 34, others 4; note - following June 2004 election MDC collapsed; as of 1 December 2005 composition of legislature was MPRP 38, DP 25, M-MNSDP 6, CWRP 2, MRP 1, PP 1, independents 3 Judicial Branch: Supreme Court (serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts and approved by the president)
Party Leaders: Definition Field Listing Citizens' Will Republican Party or CWRP (also called Civil Courage Republican Party or CCRP) [Sanjaasurengiin OYUN]; Democratic Party or DP [Tsakhiagiyn ELBEGDORJ]; Motherland-Mongolian New Socialist Democratic Party or M-MNSDP [Badarchyn ERDENEBAT]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Miegombyn ENKHBOLD]; Mongolian Republican Party or MRP [Bazarsadyn JARGALSAIKHAN]; People's Party or PP [Lamjav GUNDALAI] note: DP and M-MNSDP formed Motherland-Democracy Coalition (MDC) in 2003 and with CWRP contested June 2004 elections as single party; MDC's leadership dissolved coalition in December 2004
International Disputes: NA
Illicit Drugs: NA 
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Location of Mongolia: Northern Asia, between China and Russia
Continent: Asia Land Area Total: 1,565,000 sq km 
Region: North East Asia Land Area Land: 1,555,400 sq km
Capitol City: Ulaanbaatar Land Area Water: 9,600 sq km
Latitude: 046 00 N Border Boundary Land: 8,220 km
Longitude: 105 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 0 km 
Arable Land: 0.76 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 0.00 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
Highest Elevation: 4,374 m Location: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil)
Lowest Elevation: 518 m Location: Hoh Nuur
Largest City in Mongolia: Ulaanbaatar Ulaanbaatar Largest City Population: 740,000
Threatened Species: 34
Environmental Issues: limited natural fresh water resources in some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment
Environmental Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Irrigated Land: 840
Bordering Countries: China 4,677 km, Russia 3,543 km
Natural Resources: oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron
Geographical Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central
Comparative Area of Mongolia: slightly smaller than Alaska
Mongolia's Geography: landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia

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General Climate: desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Natural Hazards: dust storms, grassland and forest fires, drought, and "zud," which is harsh winter conditions
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Economic Overview: Economic activity in Mongolia has traditionally been based on herding and agriculture. Mongolia has extensive mineral deposits. Copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990 and 1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. The following decade saw Mongolia endure both deep recession due to political inaction and natural disasters, as well as economic growth because of reform-embracing, free-market economics and extensive privatization of the formerly state-run economy. Severe winters and summer droughts in 2000-2002 resulted in massive livestock die-off and zero or negative GDP growth. This was compounded by falling prices for Mongolia's primary sector exports and widespread opposition to privatization. Growth was 10.6% in 2004 and 5.5% in 2005, largely because of high copper prices and new gold production. Mongolia's economy continues to be heavily influenced by its neighbors. For example, Mongolia purchases 80% of its petroleum products and a substantial amount of electric power from Russia, leaving it vulnerable to price increases. China is Mongolia's chief export partner and a main source of the "shadow" or "grey" economy. The World Bank and other international financial institutions estimate the grey economy to be at least equal to that of the official economy, but the former's actual size is difficult to calculate since the money does not pass through the hands of tax authorities or the banking sector. Remittances from Mongolians working abroad both legally and illegally are sizeable, and money laundering is a growing concern. Mongolia settled its $11 billion debt with Russia at the end of 2003 on favorable terms. Mongolia, which joined the World Trade Organization in 1997, seeks to expand its participation and integration into Asian regional economic and trade regimes.
GDP: $5,242,000,000 USD Currency: togrog/tugrik
GDP per Capita: $1,900 USD Currency Code: MNT
GDP Growth Rate: 1.40 %
Currency Exchange Rate History: togrogs/tugriks per US dollar - 1,187.17 (2005), 1,185.3 (2004), 1,146.5 (2003), 1,110.3 (2002), 1,097.7 (2001)
GDP of Agriculture: 20.60 % GDP of Industry: 21.40 %
GDP of Services: 58.00 %  
Inflation Rate: 9.50 % Population in Poverty: 36.10 %
Unemployment Rate: 6.70 % Tourism: 159,000.00 visitors each year
Consumption by lowest 10%: 2.10 % Budget Revenue in USD: $702,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 37.00 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $651,000,000 USD
Electricity Production: 3,240,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 18,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 3,370,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 130,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 100.00% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 0.00% Other Electricity Production: 0.00%
Oil Production: 5,488 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 0 cu m
Oil Consumption: 11,220 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 0 cu m
Oil Exports: 515 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 11,210 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 0 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 0 cu m
External Debt: $1,360,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $215,000,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
Agricultural Products: wheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses
Primary Industries: construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing
Industrial Growth Rate: 4.10 %
Import Amount in USD: $1,011,000,000 USD - machinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
Import Partners: Russia 35.8%, China 25.7%, Japan 6.3%, South Korea 6%, Germany 4.2%
Export Amount in USD: $852,000,000 USD - copper, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals
Export Partners: China 56.2%, Canada 15.6%, US 14.7%
GINI Index: 44.00%
Labor Force Number of People: 1,488,000
Labor Force by Occupations: herding/agriculture 42%, mining 4%, manufacturing 6%, trade 14%, services 29%, public sector 5%
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Radio Broadcast Stations: 72 Number of People with Radios: 155,900
Television Broadcast Stations: 52 Number of People with Televisions: 168,800
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 142,300 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 404,400
Internet Service Providers: 192 Internet Users: 200,000
Internet Country Code: .mn Newspapers: 27
Two Letter Country Code: MG Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: 976 Electricity Voltage: Volts
Telephone Systems: General assessment: network is improving with international direct dialing available in many areas Domestic: very low density of about 6.5 telephones for each thousand persons; two wireless providers cover all but two provinces International: country code - 976; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region)
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Highways: 1,724 km Railways: 1,810 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 0 km Waterways: 580 km
Airports: 12 Heliports: 2
Motor Vehicles: 0 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 7,706,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 3.00 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
Merchant Marines: total: 61 ships (1000 GRT or over) 319,053 GRT/479,190 DWT by type: bulk carrier 8, cargo 49, passenger/cargo 1, roll on/roll off 3 foreign-owned: 49 (China 4, Japan 1, North Korea 3, Lebanon 1, Malaysia 1, Russia 13, Singapore 10, Syria 1, Thailand 1, UAE 5, Ukraine 1, Vietnam 8)
Ports and Harbors: NA
  Mongolia Facts |  Mongolia Information | Mongolia Statistics  
Population: 2,832,224 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 21.59 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 2.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 6.95 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 1.46% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 2.25 babies born per woman
Population Male 0-14: 402,448 Population Female 0-14: 387,059
Population Male 15-64: 967,546 Population Female 15-64: 969,389
Population Male 65+: 45,859 Population Female 65+: 59,923
Population 0-14: 27.90% Literacy Rate: 97.80%
Population 15-64: 68.40% Literacy rate of Males: 98.00%
Population 65+: 3.70% Literacy rate of Females: 97.50%
Population that is Male: 50.00 % Population that is Female: 50.00%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 64.89 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 52.12 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 62.64 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 67.25 years
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.10% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 0
Number of people who died of AIDS: 0
Disease Risk:
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: 0.00
Nationality: MONGOLIAN
Ethnic Groups: Mongol (mostly Khalkha) 94.9%, Turkic (mostly Kazakh) 5%, other (including Chinese and Russian) 0.1% 
Primary Language: Khalkha Mongol
Other Languages: Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian
Primary Religion: Buddhist Lamaist
Other Religions: Buddhist Lamaist 50%, none 40%, Shamanist and Christian 6%, Muslim 4%
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Branches: Mongolian People's Army (MPA), Mongolian People's Air Force (MPAF); there is no navy
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years
Manpower Available: 1,470,861 People
Manpower Fit to Serve: 1,178,353 People
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 68,925 People per year
Expenditures: $23,100,000 USD per year
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 2.20
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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