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Nicaragua Facts

Nicaragua Facts | Republic of Nicaragua Information | Nicaragua Statistics | Nicaragua

Nicaragua Facts |  Republic of Nicaragua Information | Nicaragua Statistics Nicaragua Facts |  Republic of Nicaragua Information | Nicaragua Statistics
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Nicaragua Facts |  Republic of Nicaragua Information | Nicaragua Statistics Nicaragua Facts |  Republic of Nicaragua Information | Nicaragua Statistics
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  Nicaragua Facts |  Republic of Nicaragua Information | Nicaragua Statistics  
Background: The Pacific coast of Nicaragua was settled as a Spanish colony from Panama in the early 16th century. Independence from Spain was declared in 1821 and the country became an independent republic in 1838. Britain occupied the Caribbean Coast in the first half of the 19th century, but gradually ceded control of the region in subsequent decades. Violent opposition to governmental manipulation and corruption spread to all classes by 1978 and resulted in a short-lived civil war that brought the Marxist Sandinista guerrillas to power in 1979. Nicaraguan aid to leftist rebels in El Salvador caused the US to sponsor anti-Sandinista contra guerrillas through much of the 1980s. Free elections in 1990, 1996, and 2001, saw the Sandinistas defeated, but voting in 2006 announced the return of former Sandinista President Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra. Nicaragua's infrastructure and economy - hard hit by the earlier civil war and by Hurricane Mitch in 1998 - are slowly being rebuilt.
Common Name: Nicaragua Local Official Name: Nicaragua
Abbreviated Name: Republic of Nicaragua Official Name: Republica de Nicaragua
Official Script Name: Nicaragua Local Common Name: Nicaragua
Former Name: Nicaragua Territory of: NA
Head of State: President Enrique BOLANOS Geyer
Government Type: republic
Independence: 1821 September 15 (from Spain)
Constitution: 1987 January 9, with reforms in 1995 and 2000
National Holiday: Independence Day, 15 September
International Organization Participation: BCIE, CACM, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Administrative Divisions: 15 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 2 autonomous regions* (regiones autonomistas, singular - region autonomista); Atlantico Norte*, Atlantico Sur*, Boaco, Carazo, Chinandega, Chontales, Esteli, Granada, Jinotega, Leon, Madriz, Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, Nueva Segovia, Rio San Juan, Rivas
Dependent Areas: NA
Legal System: civil law system; Supreme Court may review administrative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 16 years
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: President Enrique BOLANOS Geyer (since 10 January 2002); Vice President Alfredo GOMEZ Urcuyo (since 10 October 2005); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; Alfredo GOMEZ Urcuyo was elected Vice President by the deputies of the National Assembly after Vice President Jose RIZO Castellon resigned on 27 September 2005 head of government: President Enrique BOLANOS Geyer (since 10 January 2002); Vice President Alfredo GOMEZ Urcuyo (since 10 October 2005) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 5 November 2006 (next to be held by November 2011) election results: Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (FSLN) elected president - 38.07%, Eduardo MONTEALEGRE (ALN) 29%, Jose RIZO (PLC) 26.21%, Edmundo JARQUIN (MRS) 6.44%; note - ORTEGA will take office 10 January 2007 Legislative Branch: unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (92 seats; members are elected by proportional representation and party lists to serve five-year terms; 1 seat for the previous president, 1 seat for the runner-up in previous presidential election) elections: last held 5 November 2006 (next to be held by November 2011) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FSLN 38, PLC 25, ALN 23 (22 plus one for presidential candidate Eduardo MONTEALEGRE, runner-up in the 2006 presidential election), MRS 5, APRE 1 (outgoing President Enrique BOLANOS) Judicial Branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (16 judges elected for five-year terms by the National Assembly)
Party Leaders: Alliance for the Republic or APRE [Miguel LOPEZ Baldizon]; Central American Unionist Party or PUCA [Blanca ROJAS]; Christian Alternative Party or AC [Orlando TARDENCILLA Espinoza]; Conservative Party or PC [Mario Sebastian RAPPACCIOLI]; Independent Liberal Party or PLI [Anibal MARTINEZ Nunez, Pedro REYES Vallejos]; Independent Liberal Party for National Unity or PLIUN [Carlos GUERRA Gallardo]; Liberal Constitutional Party or PLC [Jorge CASTILLO Quant]; Liberal Salvation Movement or MSL [Eliseo NUNEZ Hernandez]; New Liberal Party or PALI [Adolfo GARCIA Esquivel]; Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance or ALN [Eduardo MONTEALEGRE]; Nicaraguan Party of the Christian Path or PCCN [Guillermo OSORNO Molina]; Nicaraguan Resistance Party or PRN [Salvador TALAVERA]; Sandinista National Liberation Front or FSLN [Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra]; Sandinista Renovation Movement or MRS [Dora Maria TELLEZ]; Unity Alliance or AU
International Disputes: Nicaragua filed a claim against Honduras in 1999 and against Colombia in 2001 at the ICJ over disputed maritime boundary involving 50,000 sq km in the Caribbean Sea, including the Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank; the 1992 ICJ ruling for El Salvador and Honduras advised a tripartite resolution to establish a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca, which considers Honduran access to the Pacific; legal dispute over navigational rights of San Juan River on border with Costa Rica
Illicit Drugs: transshipment point for cocaine destined for the US and transshipment point for arms-for-drugs dealing 
  Nicaragua Facts |  Republic of Nicaragua Information | Nicaragua Statistics  
Location of Nicaragua: Central America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Costa Rica and Honduras
Continent: South America Land Area Total: 129,494 sq km 
Region: Central America Land Area Land: 120,254 sq km
Capitol City: Managua Land Area Water: 9,240 sq km
Latitude: 013 00 N Border Boundary Land: 1,231 km
Longitude: 085 00 W Border Boundary Coastline: 910 km 
Arable Land: 14.81 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 1.82 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
Highest Elevation: 2,438 m Location: Mogoton
Lowest Elevation: 0 m Location: Pacific Ocean
Largest City in Nicaragua: Managua Managua Largest City Population: 930,000
Threatened Species: 76
Environmental Issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution
Environmental Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Irrigated Land: 610
Bordering Countries: Costa Rica 309 km, Honduras 922 km
Natural Resources: gold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc, timber, fish
Geographical Terrain: extensive Atlantic coastal plains rising to central interior mountains; narrow Pacific coastal plain interrupted by volcanoes
Comparative Area of Nicaragua: slightly smaller than the state of New York
Nicaragua's Geography: largest country in Central America; contains the largest freshwater body in Central America, Lago de Nicaragua

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General Climate: tropical in lowlands, cooler in highlands
Natural Hazards: destructive earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides; extremely susceptible to hurricanes
  Nicaragua Facts |  Republic of Nicaragua Information | Nicaragua Statistics  
Economic Overview: Nicaragua, one of the Western Hemisphere's poorest countries, has low per capita income, widespread underemployment, and a heavy external debt burden. Distribution of income is one of the most unequal on the globe. While the country has progressed toward macroeconomic stability in the past few years, GDP annual growth has been far too low to meet the country's needs, forcing the country to rely on international economic assistance to meet fiscal and debt financing obligations. Nicaragua qualified in early 2004 for some $4.5 billion in foreign debt reduction under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative because of its earlier successful performances under its International Monetary Fund policy program and other efforts. In October 2005, Nicaragua ratified the US-Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA), which will provide an opportunity for Nicaragua to attract investment, create jobs, and deepen economic development. High oil prices helped drive inflation to 9.6% in 2005, leading to a fall in real GDP growth to 4% from over 5% in 2004.
GDP: $16,100,000,000 USD Currency: gold cordoba
GDP per Capita: $2,900 USD Currency Code: NIO
GDP Growth Rate: 4.00 %
Currency Exchange Rate History: gold cordobas per US dollar - 16.733 (2005), 15.937 (2004), 15.105 (2003), 14.251 (2002), 13.372 (2001)
GDP of Agriculture: 16.50 % GDP of Industry: 27.50 %
GDP of Services: 56.00 %  
Inflation Rate: 9.60 % Population in Poverty: 50.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 5.60 % Tourism: 468,000.00 visitors each year
Consumption by lowest 10%: 1.20 % Budget Revenue in USD: $1,134,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 45.00 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $1,358,000,000 USD
Electricity Production: 2,887,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 21,800,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 1,848,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 23,300,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 81.68% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 9.40% Other Electricity Production: 8.92%
Oil Production: 14,300 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 0 cu m
Oil Consumption: 25,200 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 0 cu m
Oil Exports: 758 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 15,560 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 0 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 0 cu m
External Debt: $3,188,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $419,500,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
Agricultural Products: coffee, bananas, sugarcane, cotton, rice, corn, tobacco, sesame, soya, beans; beef, veal, pork, poultry, dairy products; shrimp, lobsters
Primary Industries: food processing, chemicals, machinery and metal products, textiles, clothing, petroleum refining and distribution, beverages, footwear, wood
Industrial Growth Rate: 2.40 %
Import Amount in USD: $2,865,000,000 USD - consumer goods, machinery and equipment, raw materials, petroleum products
Import Partners: US 19.6%, Mexico 10.3%, Venezuela 9.5%, Costa Rica 8.5%, Guatemala 6.7%, El Salvador 4.5%, South Korea 4.1%
Export Amount in USD: $1,550,000,000 USD - coffee, beef, shrimp and lobster, tobacco, sugar, gold, peanuts
Export Partners: US 60.7%, Mexico 8.6%, El Salvador 6.2%
GINI Index: 55.10%
Labor Force Number of People: 2,010,000
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture: 30.5%, industry: 17.3%, services: 52.2%
  Nicaragua Facts |  Republic of Nicaragua Information | Nicaragua Statistics  
Radio Broadcast Stations: 96 Number of People with Radios: 1,240,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 3 Number of People with Televisions: 320,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 220,900 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 1,119,000
Internet Service Providers: 24,452 Internet Users: 140,000
Internet Country Code: .ni Newspapers: 30
Two Letter Country Code: NU Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: 505 Electricity Voltage: 120 Volts
Telephone Systems: general assessment: inadequate system being upgraded by foreign investment domestic: low-capacity microwave radio relay and wire system being expanded; connected to Central American Microwave System international: country code - 505; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region) and 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
  Nicaragua Facts |  Republic of Nicaragua Information | Nicaragua Statistics  


Highways: 2,299 km Railways: 6 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 54 km Waterways: 2,220 km
Airports: 11 Heliports: 0
Motor Vehicles: 30 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 3,045,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 0.70 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
Merchant Marines: NA
Ports and Harbors: Bluefields, Corinto, El Bluff
  Nicaragua Facts |  Republic of Nicaragua Information | Nicaragua Statistics  
Population: 5,570,129 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 24.51 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 42.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 4.45 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 1.89% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 2.75 babies born per woman
Population Male 0-14: 1,031,897 Population Female 0-14: 994,633
Population Male 15-64: 1,667,633 Population Female 15-64: 1,691,353
Population Male 65+: 76,758 Population Female 65+: 97,855
Population 0-14: 36.40% Literacy Rate: 67.50%
Population 15-64: 60.50% Literacy rate of Males: 67.20%
Population 65+: 3.10% Literacy rate of Females: 67.80%
Population that is Male: 50.00 % Population that is Female: 50.00%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 70.63 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 28.11 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 68.55 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 72.81 years
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.20% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 6,400
Number of people who died of AIDS: 0
Disease Risk:
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: -1.17
Nationality: NICARAGUAN
Ethnic Groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 69%, white 17%, black 9%, Amerindian 5% 
Primary Language: Spanish
Other Languages: Spanish 97.5% (official), Miskito 1.7%, other 0.8% (1995 census) note: English and indigenous languages on Atlantic coast
Primary Religion: Roman Catholic
Other Religions: Roman Catholic 72.9%, Evangelical 15.1%, Moravian 1.5%, Episcopal 0.1%, other 1.9%, none 8.5%
  Nicaragua Facts |  Republic of Nicaragua Information | Nicaragua Statistics  
Branches: Army (includes Navy, Air Force)
Manpower Fit to Serve: 17 years
Manpower Available: 2,625,156 People
Manpower Fit to Serve: 2,181,074 People
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 128,303 People per year
Expenditures: $0 USD per year
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 0.70
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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