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Background: The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they united in 1859 and a few years later adopted the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a Communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former Communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in March of 2004 and completed accession talks with the European Union (EU) in December 2004; it is scheduled to accede to the EU in 2007.
Common Name: Romania Local Official Name: Romania
Abbreviated Name: Romania Official Name: Romania
Official Script Name: Romania Local Common Name: Romania
Former Name: Romania Territory of: NA
Head of State: President Traian BASESCU
Government Type: republic
Independence: 1877 May 9 (independence proclaimed from Turkey; independence recognized 1878 July 13 by the Treaty of Berlin; kingdom proclaimed 1881 March 26; republic proclaimed 1947 December 30)
Constitution: 1991 December 8 ; revision effective 29 October 2003
National Holiday: Unification Day (of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December
International Organization Participation: ACCT, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ESA (cooperating state), EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Administrative Divisions: 41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea
Dependent Areas: NA
Legal System: former mixture of civil law system and communist legal theory; is now based on the constitution of France's Fifth Republic
Suffrage: 18 years
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: President Traian BASESCU (since 20 December 2004) head of government: Prime Minister Calin Popescu-TARICEANU (since 29 December 2004) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 28 November 2004, with runoff between the top two candidates held 12 December 2004 (next to be held November-December 2009); prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the Parliament election results: percent of vote - Traian BASESCU 51.23%, Adrian NASTASE 48.77% Legislative Branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (137 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (332 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms) elections: Senate - last held 28 November 2004 (next expected to be held in November 2008); Chamber of Deputies - last held 28 November 2004 (next expected to be held November 2008) election results: Senate - percent of vote by alliance/party - PSD-PUR 37.1%, PNL-PD 31.8%, PRM 13.6%, UDMR 6.2%; seats by party - PSD 44, PNL 30, PD 20, PRM 20, PC 11, UDMR 10, independents 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by alliance/party - PSD-PUR 36.8%, PNL-PD 31.5%, PRM 13%, UDMR 6.2%; seats by party - PSD 111, PNL 66, PD 45, PRM 34, ex-PRM (Ciontu Group) 12, UDMR 22, PC 20, PIN (GUSA Group) 3, independent 1, ethnic minorities 18 Judicial Branch: Supreme Court of Justice (comprised of 11 judges appointed for three-year terms by the president in consultation with the Superior Council of Magistrates, which is comprised of the minister of justice, the prosecutor general, two civil society representatives appointed by the Senate, and 14 judges and prosecutors elected by their peers); a separate body, the Constitutional Court, validates elections and makes decisions regarding the constitutionality of laws, treaties, ordinances, and internal rules of the Parliament; it is comprised of nine members serving nine-year terms, with three members each appointed by the president, the Senate, and the Chamber of Deputies
Party Leaders: Conservative Party or PC [Dan VOICULESCU], formerly Humanist Party or PUR; Democratic Party or PD [Emil BOC]; Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Bela MARKO]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Calin Popescu-TARICEANU]; Romania Mare Party (Greater Romanian Party) or PRM [Corneliu Vadim TUDOR]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Mircea Dan GEOANA], formerly Party of Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR
International Disputes: Romania and Ukraine have taken their dispute over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary to the ICJ for adjudication; Romania also opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea; Hungary amended the status law extending special social and cultural benefits to ethnic Hungarians in Romania, to which Romania had objected
Illicit Drugs: major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe; although not a significant financial center, role as a narcotics conduit leaves it vulnerable to laundering which occurs via the banking system, currency exchange houses, and casinos 
  Romania Facts |  Romania Information | Romania Statistics  
Location of Romania: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
Continent: Europe Land Area Total: 237,500 sq km 
Region: Eastern Europe Land Area Land: 230,340 sq km
Capitol City: Bucharest Land Area Water: 7,160 sq km
Latitude: 046 00 N Border Boundary Land: 2,508 km
Longitude: 025 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 225 km 
Arable Land: 39.49 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 1.92 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
Highest Elevation: 2,544 m Location: Moldoveanu
Lowest Elevation: 0 m Location: Black Sea
Largest City in Romania: Bucharest Bucharest Largest City Population: 2,054,000
Threatened Species: 60
Environmental Issues: soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
Environmental Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Irrigated Land: 30,770
Bordering Countries: Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Yugoslavia 476 km, Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (east) 169 km
Natural Resources: petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
Geographical Terrain: central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
Comparative Area of Romania: slightly smaller than Oregon
Romania's Geography: controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine

  Romania Facts |  Romania Information | Romania Statistics  
General Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
Natural Hazards: earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
  Romania Facts |  Romania Information | Romania Statistics  
Economic Overview: Romania began the transition from Communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. The country emerged in 2000 from a punishing three-year recession thanks to strong demand in EU export markets. Despite the global slowdown in 2001-02, strong domestic activity in construction, agriculture, and consumption have kept GDP growth above 4%. An IMF standby agreement, signed in 2001, has been accompanied by slow but palpable gains in privatization, deficit reduction, and the curbing of inflation. The IMF Board approved Romania's completion of the standby agreement in October 2003, the first time Romania has successfully concluded an IMF agreement since the 1989 revolution. In July 2004, the executive board of the IMF approved a 24-month standby agreement for $367 million. IMF concerns about Romania's tax policy and budget deficit led to a breakdown of this agreement in 2005. In the past, the IMF has criticized the government's fiscal, wage, and monetary policies. Meanwhile, macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and address Romania's widespread poverty, while corruption and red tape continue to handicap the business environment. Romanian government confidence in continuing disinflation was underscored by its currency revaluation in 2005, making 10,000 "old" lei equal 1 "new"
GDP: $181,800,000,000 USD Currency: leu
GDP per Capita: $8,100 USD Currency Code: ROL
GDP Growth Rate: 4.10 %
Currency Exchange Rate History: lei per US dollar - 3 (2005), 3 (2004), 3 (2003), 3 (2002), 3 (2001)
GDP of Agriculture: 10.10 % GDP of Industry: 35.00 %
GDP of Services: 54.90 %  
Inflation Rate: 9.00 % Population in Poverty: 25.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 5.90 % Tourism: 3,209,000.00 visitors each year
Consumption by lowest 10%: 2.40 % Budget Revenue in USD: $29,970,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 27.60 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $31,370,000,000 USD
Electricity Production: 51,700,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 3,300,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 45,160,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 380,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 52.58% Nuclear Electricity Production: 10.49%
Hydro Electricity Production: 36.92% Other Electricity Production: 0.01%
Oil Production: 119,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 12,300,000,000 cu m
Oil Consumption: 235,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 18,000,000,000 cu m
Oil Exports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 5,400,000,000 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 1,055,000,000 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 100,700,000,000 cu m
External Debt: $35,680,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $0 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
Agricultural Products: wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep
Primary Industries: textiles and footwear, light machinery and auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining
Industrial Growth Rate: 1.90 %
Import Amount in USD: $38,150,000,000 USD - machinery and equipment, fuels and minerals, chemicals, textile and products, basic metals, agricultural products
Import Partners: Italy 15.5%, Germany 14%, Russia 8.3%, France 6.8%, Turkey 4.9%, China 4.1%
Export Amount in USD: $27,720,000,000 USD - textiles and footwear, metals and metal products, machinery and equipment, minerals and fuels, chemicals, agricultural products
Export Partners: Italy 19.4%, Germany 14%, Turkey 7.9%, France 7.4%, UK 5.5%, Hungary 4.1%, US 4.1%
GINI Index: 28.80%
Labor Force Number of People: 9,310,000
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture 31.6%, industry 30.7%, services 37.7%
  Romania Facts |  Romania Information | Romania Statistics  
Radio Broadcast Stations: 245 Number of People with Radios: 7,200,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 48 Number of People with Televisions: 5,250,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 4,391,000 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 13,354,000
Internet Service Providers: 56,188 Internet Users: 4,500,000
Internet Country Code: .ro Newspapers: 300
Two Letter Country Code: RO Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: 40 Electricity Voltage: 230 Volts
Telephone Systems: general assessment: rapidly improving domestic and international service, especially in wireless telephony domestic: 90% of telephone network is automatic; liberalization in 2003 is transforming telecommunications; there has been 20% growth in fixed lines with a penetration rate of 58% of households; nation-wide wireless service is growing even faster with four major providers and a penetration rate of 32% international: country code - 40; satellite earth station - 10 (Intelsat 4); digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest
  Romania Facts |  Romania Information | Romania Statistics  


Highways: 60,043 km Railways: 11,385 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 5,935 km Waterways: 1,731 km
Airports: 26 Heliports: 1
Motor Vehicles: 155 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 125,597,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 4.80 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
Merchant Marines: total: 23 ships (1000 GRT or over) 198,767 GRT/246,732 DWT by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 15, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 1 foreign-owned: 1 (Italy 1) registered in other countries: 48 (Georgia 11, North Korea 11, Malta 9, Panama 9, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Syria 3, unknown 4)
Ports and Harbors: Braila, Constanta, Galati, Tulcea
  Romania Facts |  Romania Information | Romania Statistics  
Population: 22,303,552 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 10.70 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 94.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 11.77 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: -0.12% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 1.37 babies born per woman
Population Male 0-14: 1,799,072 Population Female 0-14: 1,708,030
Population Male 15-64: 7,724,368 Population Female 15-64: 7,797,065
Population Male 65+: 1,347,392 Population Female 65+: 1,927,625
Population 0-14: 15.70% Literacy Rate: 98.40%
Population 15-64: 69.60% Literacy rate of Males: 99.10%
Population 65+: 14.70% Literacy rate of Females: 97.70%
Population that is Male: 47.50 % Population that is Female: 52.50%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 71.63 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 25.50 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 68.14 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 75.34 years
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.00% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 6,500
Number of people who died of AIDS: 350
Disease Risk:
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: -0.13
Nationality: ROMANIAN
Ethnic Groups: Romanian 89.5%, Hungarian 6.6%, Roma 2.5%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, Turkish 0.2%, other 0.4% 
Primary Language: Romanian
Other Languages: Romanian, Hungarian, German
Primary Religion: Romanian Orthodox
Other Religions: Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 86.8%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformate and Pentecostal) 7.5%, Roman Catholic 4.7%, other (mostly Muslim) and unspecified 0.9%, none 0.1%
  Romania Facts |  Romania Information | Romania Statistics  
Branches: Land Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces (AMR), Special Operations
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years
Manpower Available: 10,037,411 People
Manpower Fit to Serve: 8,008,867 People
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 337,640 People per year
Expenditures: $0 USD per year
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 2.47
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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