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 RUSSIAN POLITICAL
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Background: Founded in the 12th century, the Principality of Muscovy, was able to emerge from over 200 years of Mongol domination (13th-15th centuries) and to gradually conquer and absorb surrounding principalities. In the early 17th century, a new Romanov Dynasty continued this policy of expansion across Siberia to the Pacific. Under PETER I (ruled 1682-1725), hegemony was extended to the Baltic Sea and the country was renamed the Russian Empire. During the 19th century, more territorial acquisitions were made in Europe and Asia. Repeated devastating defeats of the Russian army in World War I led to widespread rioting in the major cities of the Russian Empire and to the overthrow in 1917 of the imperial household. The Communists under Vladimir LENIN seized power soon after and formed the USSR. The brutal rule of Iosif STALIN (1928-53) strengthened communist rule and Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the following decades until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize Communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into Russia and 14 other independent republics. Since then, Russia has struggled in its efforts to build a democratic political system and market economy to replace the strict social, political, and economic controls of the Communist period. While some progress has been made on the economic front, recent years have seen a recentralization of power under Vladimir PUTIN and the erosion of nascent democratic institutions. A determined guerrilla conflict still plagues Russia in Chechnya and threatens to destabilize the North Caucasus region.
 
 
Common Name: Russia Local Official Name: Rossiya
Abbreviated Name: Russian Federation Official Name: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya
Official Script Name: Russia Local Common Name: Russia
Former Name: Russian Empire, Russian Soviet Federative Soc Territory of: NA
 
Head of State: President Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN
 
Government Type: federation
 
Independence: 1991 August 24 (from Soviet Union)
 
Constitution: 1993 December 12
 
National Holiday: Russia Day, 12 June
 
International Organization Participation: APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BSEC, CBSS, CE, CERN (observer), CIS, EAPC, EBRD, G- 8, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OIC (observer), ONUB, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOVIC, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer), ZC
 
Administrative Divisions: 48 oblasts (oblastey, singular - oblast), 21 republics (respublik, singular - respublika), 9 autonomous okrugs (avtonomnykh okrugov, singular - avtonomnyy okrug), 7 krays (krayev, singular - kray), 2 federal cities (singular - gorod), and 1 autonomous oblast (avtonomnaya oblast') oblasts: Amur (Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangel'sk, Astrakhan', Belgorod, Bryansk, Chelyabinsk, Chita, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy), Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma, Kurgan, Kursk, Leningrad, Lipetsk, Magadan, Moscow, Murmansk, Nizhniy Novgorod, Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Orel, Penza, Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan', Sakhalin (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Samara, Saratov, Smolensk, Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg), Tambov, Tomsk, Tula, Tver', Tyumen', Ul'yanovsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh, Yaroslavl' republics: Adygeya (Maykop), Altay (Gorno-Altaysk), Bashkortostan (Ufa), Buryatiya (Ulan-Ude), Chechnya (Groznyy), Chuvashiya (Cheboksary), Dagestan (Makhachkala), Ingushetiya (Magas), Kabardino-Balkariya (Nal'chik), Kalmykiya (Elista), Karachayevo-Cherkesiya (Cherkessk), Kareliya (Petrozavodsk), Khakasiya (Abakan), Komi (Syktyvkar), Mariy-El (Yoshkar-Ola), Mordoviya (Saransk), North Ossetia (Vladikavkaz), Sakha [Yakutiya] (Yakutsk), Tatarstan (Kazan'), Tyva (Kyzyl), Udmurtiya (Izhevsk) autonomous okrugs: Aga Buryat (Aginskoye), Chukotka (Anadyr'), Evenk (Tura), Khanty-Mansi, Koryak (Palana), Nenets (Nar'yan-Mar), Taymyr [Dolgano-Nenets] (Dudinka), Ust'-Orda Buryat (Ust'-Ordynskiy), Yamalo-Nenets (Salekhard) krays: Altay (Barnaul), Khabarovsk, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Permskiy, Primorskiy (Vladivostok), Stavropol' federal cities: Moscow (Moskva), Saint Petersburg (Sankt-Peterburg) autonomous oblast: Yevrey [Jewish] (Birobidzhan) note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
 
Suffrage: 18 years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Excutive Branch: chief of state: President Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN (acting president 31 December 1999-6 May 2000, president since 7 May 2000) head of government: Premier Mikhail Yefimovich FRADKOV (since 5 March 2004); First Deputy Premier Dmitriy Anatolyevich MEDVEDEV (since 14 November 2005), Deputy Premiers Aleksandr Dmitriyevich ZHUKOV (since 9 March 2004) and Sergey Borisovich IVANOV (since 14 November 2005) cabinet: Ministries of the Government or "Government" composed of the premier and his deputies, ministers, and selected other individuals; all are appointed by the president note: there is also a Presidential Administration (PA) that provides staff and policy support to the president, drafts presidential decrees, and coordinates policy among government agencies; a Security Council also reports directly to the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 14 March 2004 (next to be held March 2008); note - no vice president; if the president dies in office, cannot exercise his powers because of ill health, is impeached, or resigns, the premier serves as acting president until a new presidential election is held, which must be within three months; premier appointed by the president with the approval of the Duma election results: Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN reelected president; percent of vote - Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN 71.2%, Nikolay KHARITONOV 13.7%, other (no candidate above 5%) 15.1% Legislative Branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or Federalnoye Sobraniye consists of the Federation Council or Sovet Federatsii (178 seats; as of July 2000, members appointed by the top executive and legislative officials in each of the 88 federal administrative units - oblasts, krays, republics, autonomous okrugs and oblasts, and the federal cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg; members serve four-year terms) and the State Duma or Gosudarstvennaya Duma (450 seats; currently elected by proportional representation from party lists winning at least 7% of the vote; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: State Duma - last held 7 December 2003 (next to be held in December 2007) election results: State Duma - percent of vote received by parties clearing the 5% threshold entitling them to a proportional share of the 225 party list seats - United Russia 37.1%, CPRF 12.7%, LDPR 11.6%, Motherland 9.1%; seats by party - United Russia 222, CPRF 53, LDPR 38, Motherland 37, People's Party 19, Yabloko 4, SPS 2, other 7, independents 65, repeat election required 3; composition as of 1 July 2006 - United Russia 309, CPRF 45, LDPR 35, Motherland 29, People's Party 12, independents 18, vacant 2 Judicial Branch: Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Supreme Arbitration Court; judges for all courts are appointed for life by the Federation Council on the recommendation of the president
 
Party Leaders: A Just Russia or JR [Sergei MIRONOV] (formed from the merger of three small political parties: Motherland Party (Rodina), Pensioner's Party, and Party of Life); Communist Party of the Russian Federation or CPRF [Gennadiy Andreyevich ZYUGANOV]; Liberal Democratic Party of Russia or LDPR [Vladimir Volfovich ZHIRINOVSKIY]; People's Party [Gennady RAIKOV]; Union of Right Forces or SPS [Nikita BELYKH]; United Russia or UR [Boris Vyacheslavovich GRYZLOV]; Yabloko Party [Grigoriy Alekseyevich YAVLINSKIY]
 
International Disputes: in 2005, China and Russia ratified the treaty to divide up the islands in the Amur, Ussuri, and Argun Rivers, representing the final portion of their centuries-long border disputes; the sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known in Japan as the "Northern Territories" and in Russia as the "Southern Kurils," occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia, and claimed by Japan, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending World War II hostilities; Russia and Georgia agree on delimiting all but small, strategic segments of the land boundary and the maritime boundary; OSCE observers monitor volatile areas such as the Pankisi Gorge in the Akhmeti region and the Kodori Gorge in Abkhazia; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia signed equidistance boundaries in the Caspian seabed but the littoral states have no consensus on dividing the water column; Russia and Norway dispute their maritime limits in the Barents Sea and Russia's fishing rights beyond Svalbard's territorial limits within the Svalbard Treaty zone; various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia (Kareliya) and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union following the Second World War but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands; in May 2005, Russia recalled its signatures to the 1996 border agreements with Estonia (1996) and Latvia (1997), when the two Baltic states announced issuance of unilateral declarations referencing Soviet occupation and ensuing territorial losses; Russia demands better treatment of ethnic Russians in Estonia and Latvia; Estonian citizen groups continue to press for realignment of the boundary based on the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty that would bring the now divided ethnic Setu people and parts of the Narva region within Estonia; Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, to strict Schengen border rules; delimitation of land boundary with Ukraine is complete, but states have renewed discussions on demarcation; the dispute over the maritime boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov remains unresolved despite a December 2003 framework agreement and on-going expert-level discussions; discussions toward economic and political union with Belarus advance slowly; Kazakhstan and Russia boundary delimitation ratified November 2005 and demarcation is underway; Russian Duma has not yet ratified 1990 Maritime Boundary Agreement with the US in the Bering Sea
 
Illicit Drugs: limited cultivation of illicit cannabis and opium poppy and producer of methamphetamine, mostly for domestic consumption; government has active illicit crop eradication program; used as transshipment point for Asian opiates, cannabis, and Latin American cocaine bound for growing domestic markets, to a lesser extent Western and Central Europe, and occasionally to the US; major source of heroin precursor chemicals; corruption and organized crime are key concerns; heroin increasingly popular in domestic market 
 
 
 RUSSIAN GEOGRAPHY
  Russia Facts |  Russian Federation Information | Russia Statistics  
 
Location of Russia: Northern Asia (that part west of the Urals is sometimes included with Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean
 
Continent: Asia Land Area Total: 17,075,200 sq km 
Region: North Asia Land Area Land: 16,995,800 sq km
Capitol City: Moscow Land Area Water: 79,400 sq km
      
Latitude: 060 00 N Border Boundary Land: 20,096 km
Longitude: 100 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 37,653 km 
  
Arable Land: 7.17 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 0.11 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 5,633 m Location: Gora El'brus
Lowest Elevation: -28 m Location: Caspian Sea
  
Largest City in Russia: Moscow Moscow Largest City Population: 9,314,000
  
Threatened Species: 144
 
Environmental Issues: air pollution from heavy industry, emissions of coal-fired electric plants, and transportation in major cities; industrial, municipal, and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and seacoasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper application of agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive contamination; groundwater contamination from toxic waste; urban solid waste management; abandoned stocks of obsolete pesticides
 
Environmental Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
 
Irrigated Land: 46,000
 
Bordering Countries: Azerbaijan 284 km, Belarus 959 km, China (southeast) 3,605 km, China (south) 40 km, Estonia 294 km, Finland 1,340 km, Georgia 723 km, Kazakhstan 6,846 km, North Korea 19 km, Latvia 217 km, Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 280.5 km, Mongolia 3,485 km, Norway
 
Natural Resources: wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, timber note: formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder exploitation of natural resources
 
Geographical Terrain: broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions
 
Comparative Area of Russia: slightly less than 1.8 times the size of the US
 
Russia's Geography: largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) for agriculture; Mount El'brus is Europe'
 

 RUSSIAN CLIMATE
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General Climate: ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast
 
Natural Hazards: permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development; volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula; spring floods and summer/autumn forest fires throughout Siberia and parts of European Russia
 
 
 RUSSIAN ECONOMY
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Economic Overview: Russia ended 2005 with its seventh straight year of growth, averaging 6.4% annually since the financial crisis of 1998. Although high oil prices and a relatively cheap ruble are important drivers of this economic rebound, since 2000 investment and consumer-driven demand have played a noticeably increasing role. Real fixed capital investments have averaged gains greater than 10% over the last five years, and real personal incomes have realized average increases over 12%. During this time, poverty has declined steadily and the middle class has continued to expand. Russia has also improved its international financial position since the 1998 financial crisis, with its foreign debt declining from 90% of GDP to around 31%. Strong oil export earnings have allowed Russia to increase its foreign reserves from only $12 billion to some $180 billion at yearend 2005. These achievements, along with a renewed government effort to advance structural reforms, have raised business and investor confidence in Russia's economic prospects. Nevertheless, serious problems persist. Economic growth slowed to 5.9% for 2005 while inflation remains high. Oil, natural gas, metals, and timber account for more than 80% of exports, leaving the country vulnerable to swings in world prices. Russia's manufacturing base is dilapidated and must be replaced or modernized if the country is to achieve broad-based economic growth. Other problems include a weak banking system, a poor business climate that discourages both domestic and foreign investors, corruption, and widespread lack of trust in institutions. In addition, a string of investigations launched against a major Russian oil company, culminating with the arrest of its CEO in the fall of 2003 and the acquisition of the company by a state owned firm, have raised concerns by some observers that President PUTIN is granting more influence to forces within his government that desire to reassert state control over the economy. State control has increased in the past year with a number of large acquisitions. Most fundamentally, Russia has made little progress in building the rule of law, the bedrock of a modern market economy.
 
 
GDP: $1,584,000,000,000 USD Currency: Russian ruble
GDP per Capita: $11,000 USD Currency Code: RUR
GDP Growth Rate: 6.40 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: Russian rubles per US dollar - 28.284 (2005), 28.814 (2004), 30.692 (2003), 31.349 (2002), 29.169 (2001)
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 5.40 % GDP of Industry: 37.10 %
GDP of Services: 57.50 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 12.70 % Population in Poverty: 17.80 %
Unemployment Rate: 7.60 % Tourism: 18,496,000.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 1.70 % Budget Revenue in USD: $176,700,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 38.70 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $125,600,000,000 USD
   
Electricity Production: 931,000,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 24,000,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 811,500,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 14,000,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 66.14% Nuclear Electricity Production: 14.66%
Hydro Electricity Production: 18.89% Other Electricity Production: 0.31%
   
Oil Production: 9,150,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 587,000,000,000 cu m
Oil Consumption: 2,800,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 402,100,000,000 cu m
Oil Exports: 5,150,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 157,200,000,000 cu m
Oil Imports: 75,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 12,000,000,000 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 69,000,000,000 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 47,570,000,000,000 cu m
   
External Debt: $215,300,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $1,179,000,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
   
Agricultural Products: grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, vegetables, fruits; beef, milk
 
Primary Industries: complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; defense industries including radar, missile production, a
 
Industrial Growth Rate: 4.00 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $125,000,000,000 USD - machinery and equipment, consumer goods, medicines, meat, sugar, semifinished metal products
 
Import Partners: Germany 13.6%, Ukraine 8%, China 7.4%, Japan 6%, Belarus 4.7%, US 4.7%, Italy 4.6%, South Korea 4.1%
 
Export Amount in USD: $245,000,000,000 USD - petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, wood and wood products, metals, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military manufactures
 
Export Partners: Netherlands 10.3%, Germany 8.3%, Italy 7.9%, China 5.5%, Ukraine 5.2%, Turkey 4.5%, Switzerland 4.4%
 
    
GINI Index: 40.00%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 74,220,000
 
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture 10.3%, industry 21.4%, services 61.4%
 
  
 RUSSIAN COMMUNICATIONS
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Radio Broadcast Stations: 1,885 Number of People with Radios: 61,500,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 7,306 Number of People with Televisions: 60,500,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 40,100,000 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 120,000,000
 
Internet Service Providers: 1,306,427 Internet Users: 23,700,000
 
Internet Country Code: .ru Newspapers: 105
Two Letter Country Code: RS Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: 7 Electricity Voltage: 220 Volts
  
Telephone Systems: general assessment: the telephone system underwent significant changes in the 1990s; there are more than 1,000 companies licensed to offer communication services; access to digital lines has improved, particularly in urban centers; Internet and e-mail services are improving; Russia has made progress toward building the telecommunications infrastructure necessary for a market economy; however, a large demand for main line service remains unsatisfied domestic: cross-country digital trunk lines run from Saint Petersburg to Khabarovsk, and from Moscow to Novorossiysk; the telephone systems in 60 regional capitals have modern digital infrastructures; cellular services, both analog and digital, are available in many areas; in rural areas, the telephone services are still outdated, inadequate, and low density international: country code - 7; Russia is connected internationally by three undersea fiber-optic cables; digital switches in several cities provide more than 50,000 lines for international calls; satellite earth stations provide access to Intelsat, Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Orbita systems
 
  
 RUSSIAN TRANSPORTATION
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Highways: 738,000 km Railways: 87,157 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 239,439 km Waterways: 102,000 km
Airports: 1,007 Heliports: 52
 
Motor Vehicles: 156 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 1,495,920,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 9.70 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: total: 1,178 ships (1000 GRT or over) 5,080,341 GRT/6,287,784 DWT by type: barge carrier 1, bulk carrier 46, cargo 743, chemical tanker 25, combination ore/oil 38, container 13, passenger 12, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 219, refrigerated cargo 54, roll on/roll off 15, specialized tanker 5 foreign-owned: 100 (Belgium 4, Canada 1, Cyprus 2, Estonia 1, Germany 2, Greece 1, Latvia 2, Malta 4, Norway 1, Switzerland 7, Turkey 63, Ukraine 11, US 1) registered in other countries: 465 (Antigua and Barbuda 6, Bahamas 6, Belize 36, Bulgaria 1, Cambodia 105, Comoros 4, Cyprus 53, Dominica 2, Finland 1, Georgia 28, North Korea 1, Liberia 77, Malta 70, Marshall Islands 1, Mongolia 13, Panama 7, Saint Kitts and Nevis 5, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 29, Sierra Leone 1, Tuvalu 2, Ukraine 1, Vanuatu 1, Venezuela 1, unknown 14)
 
Ports and Harbors: Anapa, Kaliningrad, Murmansk, Nakhodka, Novorossiysk, Rostov-na-Donu, Saint Petersburg, Taganrog, Vanino, Vostochnyy
 
  
 RUSSIAN PEOPLE
  Russia Facts |  Russian Federation Information | Russia Statistics  
 
Population: 142,893,540 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 9.95 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 8.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 14.65 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: -0.37% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 1.28 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 10,441,151 Population Female 0-14: 9,921,102
Population Male 15-64: 49,271,698 Population Female 15-64: 52,679,463
Population Male 65+: 6,500,814 Population Female 65+: 14,079,312
 
Population 0-14: 14.20% Literacy Rate: 99.60%
Population 15-64: 71.30% Literacy rate of Males: 99.70%
Population 65+: 14.40% Literacy rate of Females: 99.50%
 
Population that is Male: 44.00 % Population that is Female: 56.00%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 67.08 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 15.13 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 60.45 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 74.10 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 1.10% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 860,000
Number of people who died of AIDS: 9,000
   
Disease Risk:
 
Diseases:
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: 1.03
 
Nationality: RUSSIAN
 
Ethnic Groups: Russian 79.8%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 2%, Bashkir 1.2%, Chuvash 1.1%, other or unspecified 12.1% 
 
  
Primary Language: Russian
 
Other Languages: Russian, many minority languages
 
 
Primary Religion: Russian Orthodox
 
Other Religions: Russian Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-15%, other Christian 2%
 
  
 RUSSIAN MILITARY
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Branches: Ground Forces (SV), Navy (VMF), Air Forces (VVS); Airborne Troops (VDV), Strategic Rocket Troops (RVSN), and Space Troops (KV) are independent "combat arms," not subordinate to any of the three branches
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 17 years
 
Manpower Available: 71,233,475 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 50,105,672 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 2,530,333 People per year
 
Expenditures: $0 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 0.00
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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