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Rwanda Facts

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Background: In 1959, three years before independence from Belgium, the majority ethnic group, the Hutus, overthrew the ruling Tutsi king. Over the next several years thousands of Tutsis were killed, and some 150,000 driven into exile in neighboring countries. The children of these exiles later formed a rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front and began a civil war in 1990. The war, along with several political and economic upheavals, exacerbated ethnic tensions culminating in April 1994 in the genocide of roughly 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus. The Tutsi rebels defeated the Hutu regime and ended the killing in July 1994, but approximately 2 million Hutu refugees - many fearing Tutsi retribution - fled to neighboring Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zaire. Since then most of the refugees have returned to Rwanda. Despite substantial international assistance and political reforms - including Rwanda's first local elections in March 1999 - the country continues to struggle to boost investment and agricultural output and to foster reconciliation. A series of massive population displacements, a nagging Hutu extremist insurgency, and Rwandan involvement in two wars over the past four years in the neighboring DROC continue to hinder Rwanda's efforts.
Common Name: Rwanda Local Official Name: Rwanda
Abbreviated Name: Rwandese Republic Official Name: Republika y'u Rwanda
Official Script Name: Rwanda Local Common Name: Rwanda
Former Name: Ruanda Territory of: NA
Head of State: President Maj. Gen. Paul KAGAME
Government Type: republic; presidential, multiparty system
Independence: 1962 July 1 (from Belgium-administered UN trusteeship)
Constitution: on 1995 May 5, the Transitional National Assembly adopt
National Holiday: Independence Day, 1 July
International Organization Participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Administrative Divisions: 12 prefectures (in French - prefectures, singular - prefecture; in Kinyarwanda - plural - NA, singular - prefegitura); Butare, Byumba, Cyangugu, Gikongoro, Gisenyi, Gitarama, Kibungo, Kibuye, Kigali Rurale, Kigali-ville, Umutara, Ruhengeri
Dependent Areas: NA
Legal System: based on German and Belgian civil law systems and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age years
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: President Maj. Gen. Paul KAGAME (FPR) (since 22 April 2000) head of government: Prime Minister Bernard MAKUZA (since 8 March 2000) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: normally the president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term; special election for new president by deputies of the National Assembly and governmental ministers held 17 April 2000 (next national election to be held NA 2003); prime minister is appointed by the president election results: Paul KAGAME (FPR) elected president in a special parliamentary/ministerial ballot receiving 81 of a possible 86 votes Legislative Branch: unicameral Transitional National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale de Transition (a power-sharing body with 70 seats established on 12 December 1994 following a multiparty protocol of understanding; members were named by their parties, number of seats per party predetermined by the Arusha peace accord) note: four additional seats, two for women and two for youth, added in 2001 election results: seats by party under the Arusha peace accord - FPR 13, MDR 13, PSD 13, PL 13, PDC 6, RPA 6, PSR 2, PDI 2, UDPR 2; note - the distribution of seats was predetermined, four additional seats (two for women and two for youth) added in 2001 elections: the last national legislative elections were held 16 December 1988 for the National Development Council (the legislature prior to the advent of the Transitional National Assembly); no elections have been held for the Transitional National Assembly as the distribution of seats was predetermined by the Arusha peace accord Judicial Branch: Supreme Court; communal courts; appeals courts
Party Leaders: Centrist Democratic Party or PDC [Jean-Nipomuscene NAYINZIRA]; Democratic Socialist Party or PSD [leader NA]; Democratic Popular Union of Rwanda or UDPR [leader NA]; Democratic Republican Movement or MDR [Celestin KABANDA]; Islamic Democratic Party or PDI [Andre BUMAYA]; Liberal Party or PL [Pie MUGABO]; Party for Democratic Renewal (officially banned) [Pasteur BIZIMURGI and Charilg NTAKIROTINKA]; Rwanda Patriotic Army or RPA [Maj. Gen. Paul KAGAME, commander]; Rwanda Patriotic Front or FPR [Maj. Gen. Paul KAGAME]; Rwandan Socialist Party or PSR [leader NA]
International Disputes: Tutsi, Hutu and other ethnic groups, political rebels, and various government forces continue fighting in Great Lakes region, transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda
Illicit Drugs: NA 
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Location of Rwanda: Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo
Continent: Africa Land Area Total: 26,338 sq km 
Region: Central African Land Area Land: 24,948 sq km
Capitol City: Kigali Land Area Water: 1,390 sq km
Latitude: 002 00 S Border Boundary Land: 893 km
Longitude: 030 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 0 km 
Arable Land: 32.00 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 10.00 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
Highest Elevation: 4,519 m Location: Volcan Karisimbi
Lowest Elevation: 950 m Location: Rusizi River
Largest City in Rwanda: Kigali Kigali Largest City Population: 369,000
Threatened Species: 0
Environmental Issues: deforestation results from uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion; widespread poaching
Environmental Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Irrigated Land: 40
Bordering Countries: Burundi 290 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 217 km, Tanzania 217 km, Uganda 169 km
Natural Resources: gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten ore), methane, hydropower, arable land
Geographical Terrain: mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with altitude declining from west to east
Comparative Area of Rwanda: slightly smaller than Maryland
Rwanda's Geography: landlocked; most of the country is savanna grassland with the population predominantly rural

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General Climate: temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible
Natural Hazards: periodic droughts; the volcanic Virunga mountains are in the northwest along the border with Democratic Republic of the Congo
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Economic Overview: Rwanda is a rural country with about 90% of the population engaged in (mainly subsistence) agriculture. It is the most densely populated country in Africa; landlocked with few natural resources and minimal industry. Primary exports are coffee and tea. The 1994 genocide decimated Rwanda's fragile economic base, severely impoverished the population, particularly women, and eroded the country's ability to attract private and external investment. However, Rwanda has made significant progress in stabilizing and rehabilitating its economy. GDP has rebounded, and inflation has been curbed. Rwanda received approval for debt relief from the IMF in late 2000 and continued to make progress on inflation, privatization, and GDP growth in 2001. However, export earnings were hindered by low global coffee prices, depriving the country of much needed hard currency. President KAGAME is encouraging investors to take advantage of export opportunities in Rwanda based on its membership in the COMESA free trade area and its access to the US and the EU markets through preferential trade agreements.
GDP: $7,200,000,000 USD Currency: Rwandan franc
GDP per Capita: $1,000 USD Currency Code: RWF
GDP Growth Rate: 5.00 %
Currency Exchange Rate History: Rwandan francs per US dollar - 456.81 (January 2002), 442.99 (2001), 389.70 (2000), 333.94 (1999) 312.31 (1998), 301.53 (1997)
GDP of Agriculture: 46.00 % GDP of Industry: 20.00 %
GDP of Services: 34.00 %  
Inflation Rate: 5.00 % Population in Poverty: 70.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 0.00 % Tourism: 2,000.00 visitors each year
Consumption by lowest 10%: 4.20 % Budget Revenue in USD: $199,300,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 24.20 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $445,000,000 USD
Electricity Production: 113,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 1,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 174,090,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 70,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 2.65% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 97.35% Other Electricity Production: 0.00%
Oil Production: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 0 cu m
Oil Consumption: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 0 cu m
Oil Exports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 0 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 0 cu m
External Debt: $1,300,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $372,900,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
Agricultural Products: coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; livestock
Primary Industries: cement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes
Industrial Growth Rate: 7.00 %
Import Amount in USD: $248,000,000 USD - foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction material
Import Partners: Kenya 29.4%, EU 28%, US 10%, India 4.4%, Tanzania 2.2%
Export Amount in USD: $61,000,000 USD - coffee, tea, hides, tin ore
Export Partners: EU 56.9%, Pakistan 12.3%, US 9.2%, China 4.4% Malaysia 4.4%
GINI Index: 28.90%
Labor Force Number of People: 3,600,000
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture 90%
  Rwanda Facts |  Rwandese Republic Information | Rwanda Statistics  
Radio Broadcast Stations: 4 Number of People with Radios: 601,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 0 Number of People with Televisions: 0
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 11,000 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 11,000
Internet Service Providers: 1 Internet Users: 5,000
Internet Country Code: .rw Newspapers: 0
Two Letter Country Code: RW Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: +250 Electricity Voltage: Volts
Telephone Systems: general assessment: telephone system primarily serves business and government domestic: the capital, Kigali, is connected to the centers of the prefectures by microwave radio relay and, recently, by cellular telephone service; much of the network depends on wire and HF radiotelephone international: international connections employ microwave radio relay to neighboring countries and satellite communications to more distant countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) in Kigali (includes telex and telefax service)
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Highways: 1,000 km Railways: 0 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 0 km Waterways: 0 km
Airports: 4 Heliports: 0
Motor Vehicles: 3 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 0 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 0.00 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
Merchant Marines: NA
Ports and Harbors: Cyangugu, Gisenyi, Kibuye
  Rwanda Facts |  Rwandese Republic Information | Rwanda Statistics  
Population: 7,398,074 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 33.28 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 275.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 21.39 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 1.16% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 4.72 babies born per woman
Population Male 0-14: 1,550,141 Population Female 0-14: 1,539,375
Population Male 15-64: 2,039,573 Population Female 15-64: 2,057,059
Population Male 65+: 84,030 Population Female 65+: 127,896
Population 0-14: 41.70% Literacy Rate: 48.00%
Population 15-64: 55.40% Literacy rate of Males: 52.00%
Population 65+: 2.90% Literacy rate of Females: 45.00%
Population that is Male: 49.50 % Population that is Female: 50.50%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 38.66 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 117.79 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 38.14 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 39.20 years
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 11.21% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 400,000
Number of people who died of AIDS: 40,000
Disease Risk:
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: -0.32
Nationality: RWANDAN
Ethnic Groups: Hutu 84%, Tutsi 15%, Twa (Pygmoid) 1% 
Primary Language: Kinyarwanda
Other Languages: Kinyarwanda (official) universal Bantu vernacular, French (official), English (official), Kiswahili (Swahili) used in commercial centers
Primary Religion: Roman Catholic
Other Religions: Roman Catholic 56.5%, Protestant 26%, Adventist 11.1%, Muslim 4.6%, indigenous beliefs 0.1%, none 1.7%
  Rwanda Facts |  Rwandese Republic Information | Rwanda Statistics  
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie
Manpower Fit to Serve: NA years
Manpower Available: 1,858,443 People
Manpower Fit to Serve: 946,990 People
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 0 People per year
Expenditures: $58,000,000 USD per year
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 3.10
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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