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Somalia Facts

Somalia Facts | Somalia Information | Somalia Statistics | Somali Republic, Somali Democratic Republic

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Background: The SIAD BARRE regime was ousted in January 1991; turmoil, factional fighting, and anarchy have followed for eleven years. In May of 1991, northern clans declared an independent Republic of Somaliland that now includes the administrative regions of Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Sanaag, and Sool. Although not recognized by any government, this entity has maintained a stable existence, aided by the overwhelming dominance of a ruling clan and economic infrastructure left behind by British, Russian, and American military assistance programs. The regions of Bari and Nugaal comprise a neighboring self-declared autonomous state of Puntland, which has been self-governing since 1998, but does not aim at independence; it has also made strides towards reconstructing legitimate, representative government. Puntland also claims Sool and eastern Sanaag. Beginning in 1993, a two-year UN humanitarian effort (primarily in the south) was able to alleviate famine conditions, but when the UN withdrew in 1995, having suffered significant casualties, order still had not been restored. A Transitional National Government (TNG) was created in August 2000 in Arta, Djibouti which was attended by a broad representation of Somali clans. The TNG has a three-year mandate to create a permanent national Somali government. The TNG does not recognize Somaliland as an independent republic but so far has been unable to reunite either Somaliland or Puntland with the unstable regions in the south. Numerous warlords and factions are still fighting for control of Mogadishu and the other southern regions. Suspicion of Somali links with global terrorism complicate the picture.
Common Name: Somalia Local Official Name: Somalia
Abbreviated Name: Somalia Official Name: Somalia
Official Script Name: Somalia Local Common Name: Somalia
Former Name: Somali Republic, Somali Democratic Republic Territory of: NA
Head of State: ABDIKASSIM Salad Hassan
Government Type: no permanent national government; transitional, parliamentary national government
Independence: 1960 July 1 (from a merger of British Somaliland, which
Constitution: 1979 August 25 (presidential approval 1979 September 23
National Holiday: Foundation of the Somali Republic, 1 July
International Organization Participation: ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Administrative Divisions: 18 regions (plural - NA, singular - gobolka); Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe, Jubbada Hoose, Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe, Shabeellaha Hoose, Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed
Dependent Areas: NA
Legal System: no national system; Shari'a and secular courts are in some localities
Suffrage: 18 years of age years
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: ABDIKASSIM Salad Hassan (since 26 August 2000); note - Interim President ABDIKASSIM was chosen for a three-year term by a 245-member National Assembly serving as a transitional government; the present political situation is still unstable, particularly in the south, with interclan fighting and random banditry election results: ABDIKASSIM Salad Hassan was elected president of an interim government at the Djibouti-sponsored Arta Peace Conference on 26 August 2000 by a broad representation of Somali clans that comprised a transitional National Assembly head of government: Prime Minister HASSAN Abshir Farah (since 12 November 2001) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister and sworn in on 20 October 2000; as of 1 January 2002, the Cabinet was in caretaker status following a no-confidence vote in October 2001 that ousted HASSAN's predecessor Legislative Branch: unicameral People's Assembly or Golaha Shacbiga note: fledgling parliament; a transitional 245-member National Assembly began to meet on 13 August 2000 in the town of Arta, Djibouti and is now based in Mogadishu Judicial Branch: following the breakdown of national government, most regions have reverted to Islamic (Shari'a) law with a provision for appeal of all sentences
Party Leaders: NA
International Disputes: most of the southern half of the boundary with Ethiopia is a provisional administrative line; in the Ogaden, regional states have established a variety of conflicting relationships with the Transitional National Government in Mogadishu, feuding factions in Puntland region, and the economically stabile break-away "Somaliland" region; Djibouti maintains economic ties and border accords with "Somaliland" leadership while politically supporting Somali Transitional National Government in Mogadishu; arms smuggling and Oromo rebel activities prompt strict border regime with Kenya
Illicit Drugs: NA 
  Somalia Facts |  Somalia Information | Somalia Statistics  
Location of Somalia: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east of Ethiopia
Continent: Africa Land Area Total: 637,657 sq km 
Region: Eastern African Land Area Land: 627,337 sq km
Capitol City: Mogadishu Land Area Water: 10,320 sq km
Latitude: 010 00 N Border Boundary Land: 2,340 km
Longitude: 049 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 3,025 km 
Arable Land: 2.00 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 0.00 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
Highest Elevation: 2,416 m Location: Shimbiris
Lowest Elevation: 0 m Location: Indian Ocean
Largest City in Somalia: Mogadishu Mogadishu Largest City Population: 1,162,000
Threatened Species: 0
Environmental Issues: famine; use of contaminated water contributes to human health problems; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Environmental Agreements: party to: Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban
Irrigated Land: 2,000
Bordering Countries: Djibouti 58 km, Ethiopia 1,600 km, Kenya 682 km
Natural Resources: uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt, natural gas, likely oil reserves
Geographical Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north
Comparative Area of Somalia: slightly smaller than Texas
Somalia's Geography: strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal

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General Climate: principally desert; December to February - northeast monsoon, moderate temperatures in north and very hot in south; May to October - southwest monsoon, torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons
Natural Hazards: recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer; floods during rainy season
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Economic Overview: One of the world's poorest and least developed countries, Somalia has few resources and is prone to drought. Moreover, much of the economy has been devastated by civil war since 1991. Agriculture is the most important sector, with livestock accounting for about 40% of GDP and about 65% of export earnings. Nomads and semi-nomads, who are dependent upon livestock for their livelihood, make up a large portion of the population. Livestock, hides, charcoal, and bananas are Somalia's principal exports, while sugar, sorghum, corn, fish, qat, and machined goods are the principal imports. Somalia's small industrial sector, based on the processing of agricultural products, has largely been looted and sold as scrap metal. Despite the seeming anarchy, Somalia's service sector has managed to survive and grow. Telecommunication firms provide wireless services in most major cities and offer the lowest international call rates on the continent. In the absence of a formal banking sector, money exchange services have sprouted throughout the country, handling between $200 million and $500 million in remittances annually. Mogadishu's main market offers a variety of goods from food to the newest electronic gadgets. Hotels continue to operate, and security is provided by militias. Ongoing civil disturbances and clan rivalries, however, have interfered with any broad-based economic development and international aid arrangements. The failure of spring rains caused major food shortages in the south in 2001. Economic data is scare and prone to a wide margin of error.
GDP: $4,100,000,000 USD Currency: Somali shilling
GDP per Capita: $550 USD Currency Code: SOS
GDP Growth Rate: 3.00 %
Currency Exchange Rate History: Somali shillings per US dollar - 11,000 (November 2000), 2,620 (January 1999), 7,500 (November 1997 est.), 7,000 (January 1996 est.), 5,000 (1 January 1995) note: the Republic of Somaliland, a self-declared independent country not recognized by any fore
GDP of Agriculture: 65.00 % GDP of Industry: 10.00 %
GDP of Services: 25.00 %  
Inflation Rate: 100.00 % Population in Poverty: 0.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 0.00 % Tourism: 10,000.00 visitors each year
Consumption by lowest 10%: 0.00 % Budget Revenue in USD: $0 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 0.00 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $0 USD
Electricity Production: 250,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 0 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 232,500,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 0 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 100.00% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 0.00% Other Electricity Production: 0.00%
Oil Production: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 0 cu m
Oil Consumption: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 0 cu m
Oil Exports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 0 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 0 cu m
External Debt: $2,600,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $60,000,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
Agricultural Products: cattle, sheep, goats; bananas, sorghum, corn, coconuts, rice, sugarcane, mangoes, sesame seeds, beans; fish
Primary Industries: a few light industries, including sugar refining, textiles, petroleum refining (mostly shut down), wireless communication
Industrial Growth Rate: 0.00 %
Import Amount in USD: $314,000,000 USD - manufactures, petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials, qat
Import Partners: Djibouti 27%, Kenya 12%, India 9%
Export Amount in USD: $186,000,000 USD - livestock, bananas, hides, fish, charcoal, scrap metal
Export Partners: Saudi Arabia 29%, UAE 29%, Yemen 28% (calculated through partners)
GINI Index: 0.00%
Labor Force Number of People: 3,700,000
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture (mostly pastoral nomadism) 71%, industry and services 29%
  Somalia Facts |  Somalia Information | Somalia Statistics  
Radio Broadcast Stations: 6 Number of People with Radios: 470,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 3 Number of People with Televisions: 135,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 0 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 0
Internet Service Providers: 3 Internet Users: 200
Internet Country Code: .so Newspapers: 1
Two Letter Country Code: SO Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: +252 Electricity Voltage: Volts
Telephone Systems: general assessment: the public telecommunications system was almost completely destroyed or dismantled by the civil war factions; private wireless companies offer service in most major cities and charge the lowest international rates on the continent domestic: local cellular telephone systems have been established in Mogadishu and in several other population centers international: international connections are available from Mogadishu by satellite
  Somalia Facts |  Somalia Information | Somalia Statistics  


Highways: 2,608 km Railways: 0 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 15 km Waterways: 0 km
Airports: 6 Heliports: 0
Motor Vehicles: 3 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 0 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 0.00 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
Merchant Marines: NA
Ports and Harbors: Boosaaso, Berbera, Chisimayu (Kismaayo), Merca, Mogadishu
  Somalia Facts |  Somalia Information | Somalia Statistics  
Population: 7,753,310 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 46.83 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 15.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 17.99 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 3.46% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 7.05 babies born per woman
Population Male 0-14: 1,737,491 Population Female 0-14: 1,730,237
Population Male 15-64: 2,054,243 Population Female 15-64: 2,019,980
Population Male 65+: 92,617 Population Female 65+: 118,742
Population 0-14: 44.70% Literacy Rate: 37.80%
Population 15-64: 52.60% Literacy rate of Males: 49.70%
Population 65+: 2.70% Literacy rate of Females: 25.80%
Population that is Male: 50.00 % Population that is Female: 50.00%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 46.96 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 122.15 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 45.33 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 48.65 years
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.00% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 0
Number of people who died of AIDS: 0
Disease Risk:
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: 5.75
Nationality: SOMALI
Ethnic Groups: Somali 85%, Bantu and other non-Somali 15% (including Arabs 30,000) 
Primary Language: Somali
Other Languages: Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, English
Primary Religion: Sunni Muslim
Other Religions: Sunni Muslim
  Somalia Facts |  Somalia Information | Somalia Statistics  
Branches: A Somali National Army is being reformed under the interim government; numerous factions and clans maintain independent militias, and the Somaliland and Puntland regional governments maintain their own security and police forces
Manpower Fit to Serve: NA years
Manpower Available: 1,881,634 People
Manpower Fit to Serve: 1,040,662 People
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 0 People per year
Expenditures: $15,300,000 USD per year
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 0.90
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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